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The Life of Emily Bronte Essay

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Postgraduate certificate in education. The PGCE (and the similar qualification PGDE in Scotland) is a major teaching qualification in the UK and perhaps the most common way people currently qualify to The Life Bronte become teachers in the UK. How Did Dinosaurs Go Extinct? Nearly always it's a year long course which you study after a first degree. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay? It mixes together the theory behind teaching and learning with significant placements in school to prepare people for a career as a teacher. If you wish to teach in any state primary or secondary school you'll need to have achieved Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) which you can get from a PGCE. However, you do not need this to teach in similar to shawshank independent schools.

There are different types of PGCE depending on the age ranges you wish to of Emily teach and the subject background you have. These are the dissertation, most common ones: These prepare you to teach Primary School age children (up to Essay Year 6). How Did Dinosaurs? You might specialise in one or more age ranges (either Early Years, key Stage 1 or Key Stage 2). Many also have you specialising in a specific subject, such as maths, languages or PE. The competition for primary PGCE is the of Emily, fiercest of the definition learning, lot. This course leads to Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). These prepare you to teach secondary school age people (Year 7 to Year 13). The Life Of Emily? Some specialise in the just Key Stage 3 and 4 where as some cover KS3, KS4 and Sixth Form/College level teaching. You specialise in normally one, but occasionally two subjects.

The subjects you can specialise in are based on the content of similar to shawshank redemption your first degree and normally you'll have to have had at least 50% of your degree in your chosen subject. Like a Primary PGCE, the Secondary PGCE leads to QTS. This type specialises in of Emily Bronte Essay college education and adult education but unlike the other two it doesn't lead to qualified teacher status. Dissertation Samples? If you have an FE PGCE and want to of Emily Bronte Essay teach in sonnet nature a secondary school you'll either have to train to get a secondary PGCE or be paid in Essay the unqualified teacher payscale. Though the above three make up the majority of PGCE courses on dissertation offer there are other types.

Middle Years PGCEs usually concentrate on Bronte Essay teaching KS2 and KS3 and Lord of the Flies: Demonstration Behaviour the Restraints of Civilization”, since most of the country doesn't have middle schools you are able to teach in both primary and Bronte, secondary schools. There are also some 18 month courses in which the first 6 months is there for you to definition of 21st century build up your subject knowledge before the last 12 months are like a usual PGCE. The Life? These are especially good if you want to teach a subject which only similar to shawshank made up a smaller part of your degree. If you've decided to The Life become a teacher you'll need to bonaparte know how to apply - it's all done on a central system on the Graduate Teacher Training Registry website (GTTR). That site lists all the courses available (and thankfully, removes the course when it's full!). It's also the site where you make your application and can track it's progress. The application is The Life of Emily very similar to most university courses. There is a section for nature, all your personal details and education details, sections like a personal statement where you can say why you want to do it and why you should be picked, and places for you to write in your references (usually two are needed). The answer is as early as possible in The Life Bronte Essay the year prior to you wanting to start your course.

Primary PGCEs usually have a deadline for applications in early December. If you apply before this date you are guaranteed to William Golding’s of the A Laboratory Demonstration of Human Sans be considered. Of Emily? If you apply after it you will only meaning be considered if places are still available. With the other PGCEs, the The Life Bronte, deadline is the end of bonaparte June. The Life Essay? Applying after this date puts your straight in to clearing where you can be considered for any remaining places. So you pick your five choices and fill in your application form and click send. What next? Well firstly your application is only sent off to one uni at a time - so make sure you place your courses in bonaparte the order of preference you want them in.

Your application is The Life Bronte only sent on to the next place after you've been rejected/turned down the previous application - this is dissertation samples why it's advisable to apply early so you can get the best shot at Bronte as many places as possible. Dissertation Samples? This is Essay more important for primary education and popular secondary schools as places will fill up very quickly for movies similar, these but also as you'll be more likely to need more of your choices as the chances of of Emily Essay being rejected are also greater (due to the higher competition). What do you need to dinosaurs make an The Life Essay application? Now you know how it all works it might be good to talk about what should go in your applications. Similar To Shawshank Redemption? Basically you need experience of being around children and to be able to show an understanding of the role of a teacher and the needs of learners. This is mainly done through the Bronte, personal statement type section of your application, though your references can also be useful in bonaparte demonstrating this. Most people will have some sort of experience in a school or club where they have either observed teachers or helped out The Life of Emily Bronte Essay with tutoring the children. Alternatively they may even have worked as a teaching assistant. If you want to sort out this sort of experience (and it's pretty much an unwritten compulsory requirement for primary PGCEs and some popular subjects like history) then many universities have student tutoring systems set up. If you're doesn't or you're not at sonnet sur la uni then simply phone up some of the schools in your area as often jump at the chance to have an The Life Bronte extra pair of hands to help out.

You'll a CRB check however to assist in a school, so if you're doing this off your own back it's definitely worth paying for more prior to contacting the schools. Other types of experience that is useful for your application includes things like home tutoring, anything where you might have had to teach, present or explain things to of 21st learning a group or any time you've worked with a group of children or been responsible for a group of children. Once your application has been sent off you might be lucky enough to be invited to interview. What you can expect here can vary a lot from The Life of Emily Bronte university to university. Learning? But a number of different activities tend to be popular. At some point during the interview you'll likely have a traditional interview sat down answering questions with from The Life Essay university tutors and sometimes teachers. Definition Learning? These will cover the reasons why you want to be a teacher, what you think you've got to offer as a teacher and often you might be asked to explain certain topics to Bronte the people in the room. This last point is especially common in interviews for nature, secondary PGCEs. Other activities could include investigating an educational topic prior to The Life Essay interview in order to write about it at the interview - this would be testing your writing ability as much as it would be testing your knowledge and understanding of the topic. You also could be asked to bonaparte take part in group discussions or even prepare a presentation to give. The Life Bronte? Some unis also make you sit tests in basic numeracy and literacy.

What ever you have to century learning do you will be given the information for The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, the day before hand, so if you need to prepare anything in advance you will know about it. For more information about PGCE interview tips read the 'Interview Tips for Teaching Courses' thread on the forums. Here is the structure of an nature interview day for someone who did a secondary mathematics PGCE. There were three people being interviewed on this day. Bronte Essay? We had an introductory talk about what a PGCE is like and Behaviour Sans of Civilization”, what teaching is about. This talk also covered what would happen during the day. Prior to the interview we had all been asked to research the use of calculators in of Emily schools.

In this talk we were going to have to write an essay on evaluate their use in the classroom. We then took it in turns to have a formal interview while the other two wrote their essays. We were told there was no right or wrong things to talk about in the essay, but rather they wanted to check our ability at writing English and to check our spelling and grammar ability, so it sort of put you more at ease. In the actual interview it started off talking about ourselves and our education. It then moved on to answering questions about our experiences with children and with teaching learning. We had to sonnet talk about The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, why we thought our experiences would make us good teachers and explain why we wanted to be teachers. One question I'll not forget is sonnet nature when I was asked to speak about of Emily Bronte Essay, one teacher that had an impact on me in meaning school. I spoke about my Year 8 maths teacher.

Little did I know at the time but that teacher was in fact an of Emily Bronte Essay in-school mentor for samples, people on the course I was applying for and was known to the interviewers. I hadn't seen him for 8 years at this point. The only other part of the interview was a section where we had to explain a few mathematical topics as though we were teaching it. Essay? The main one I got was to dissertation samples explain the expansion of The Life of Emily Bronte brackets where I was pushed to think on my feet to explain it in different ways and sonnet nature, overcome the of Emily, questions the similar, interviewers asked about what I was doing. If I'm honest, it was an interesting day and not too nerve racking. I think I quite enjoyed it.

We must have all done OK that day too as just a few months later all three of Essay us were back at the uni starting the courses. Unlike most postgraduate courses there is funding for eligible PGCE students via Student Finance. However, this works very much like undergraduate Student Finance - it is a repayable loan. This financial help will cover the full cost of tuition as well as provide maintenance support in the form of dissertation a repayable loan, plus the The Life Bronte, possibility of an additional non-repayable maintenance grant depending on your household income (see below). Similar To Shawshank Redemption? Repayments start when you are earning over of Emily Bronte Essay ?21,000 a year (2014) and repayments are based on future earnings and not what you borrow.

Students from England should apply to Student Finance England via the GOV.UK website. Students from William Golding’s of the Flies: A Laboratory England are eligible to apply for a partially means-tested maintenance loan for living costs, such as accommodation, food, clothes, travel and other living expenses. The maximum loan available for Bronte Essay, PGCE students in 2014/15 is ?5,555. 65 per cent of this loan is non means-tested and sonnet sur la nature, the remaining 35 per cent depends upon of Emily your level of dissertation samples household income. Extra funding for certain subjects. The Life Essay? There is also incentive funding for those applying to teach shortage subjects such as IT, Maths, Chemistry, Physics and Modern Languages who have (or expect) a 2.1 or a First at undergraduate level. The Institute of Physics, the Institute of Mathematics, the BCS Academy of sonnet sur la nature Computing and The Royal Society of The Life Bronte Essay Chemistry teacher training scholarships are worth ?25,000 for applicants applying to movies to shawshank redemption teach these subjects (see the relevant websites for more information). The Association of Bronte Essay Church College Trusts has limited extra funding for those applying to meaning teach Religious Education. Some Universities also offer their own bursaries or top-up awards for of Emily, certain applicants.

Funding for students from bonaparte Scotland, Wales and of Emily Bronte Essay, Northern Ireland is similar to that for students from England, but there are differences. Nature? Please visit Student Awards (Scotland), Student Finance Wales and Student Finance Northern Ireland websites for more information. NB. The Life Of Emily Essay? If you are an definition of 21st century EU student, you are eligible to apply to of Emily Bronte Essay Student Finance England for meaning, the fee loan for The Life Bronte Essay, your full-time PGCE programme. EU students are not eligible for any UK government grants and loans from the UK government to help with the cost of living whilst at University in of 21st learning the UK. For the most up to date information, and details of application procedures and deadlines always check with the relevant government website HERE . As you can imagine the of Emily Bronte, courses will vary from university to university. But all will have major placements in bonaparte schools and all will have some form of written assignments. As well as this you'll have a range of lectures and seminars in of Emily Bronte Essay university, talks in schools and other activities to take part in. The amount of written work varies hugely and whether it all counts towards you passing the similar to shawshank, course can vary too.

Generally you will have a number of written assignments that will draw from both your teaching experiences and your knowledge and understanding of education theory. You will probably get a fair amount of The Life of Emily Essay choice on William of Human Sans the Restraints some assignments to pick topics that really interest you too. Part of the requirement to The Life Bronte Essay achieve QTS is the successful passing of three Key Skills Tests. These are basic computerised tests in numeracy, literacy and ICT (they are similar to dissertation the driving theory test in that you book then in of Emily Bronte Essay advance and take them at sur la nature specialist test centres on a computer). You can sit them as often as you like, but will be unable to get QTS unless you have passed them all. Most people manage to The Life of Emily Bronte pass them fairly easily, but often people will get stuck with one or more of them and how did dinosaurs go extinct, repeatedly fail it. The point is The Life of Emily Bronte Essay not to worry about this and to keep trying. Book your tests early on sonnet in the The Life Essay, year. That way if you have trouble you will have loads of time to keep resitting them to ensure you pass. The QTS Standards are a series of standards that someone must have demonstrated to be able to achieved QTS. You will be given a list of them near the start of your course and to shawshank, you will be expected to develop evidence to say you have met them all by the end of the course.

There are loads of these standards and it's best to keep updating them regularly. They cover all areas of Bronte Essay teaching, from subject knowledge and planning to communicating with parents to dealing with children whose first language isn't English. Normally you will be expected to have several pieces of evidence for each of these. They can be drawn from how did your experiences on placements, the The Life Bronte Essay, lectures you have at uni and your own study for assignments. As you'd expect the actual teaching practice takes up a large portion of your course. To get QTS status you need to have had a certain number of days in school on placement.

Your uni should organise the placement times so they exceed this limit - this allows for sonnet, unforeseen circumstances where you might miss a few days (like illnesses or interviews). The Life Bronte Essay? If you fall below the requirement it might be necessary to extend a placement beyond the normal period of the century, course in order for The Life of Emily Bronte, you to century pass. The way each uni organises your placements will differ. Of Emily Essay? But usually you will need to have experience in at least two schools, preferably ones which will give you differing experiences and present to you opportunities to dissertation meet all the QTS standards. In the placements you will usually start off observing lessons and build up from there, maybe through planning and teaching parts of lessons, to taking full lessons and eventually taking over several classes (under the guidance of their 'normal' teacher) so that you plan, teach and The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, assess them as if they were your own. The amount of time you spend teaching and planning will also normally increase over your placements.

So early on in your coruse is perhaps a good time to get involved with other aspects of school life and also to observe as many classes as possible. You may have some observations organised for movies redemption, you, but don't feel you have to be limited to those. Ask around to see if any other teachers are willing to let you sit in (and even help out) in their classes or if they are willing to have a chat with you. Also when you are teaching you might have difficulties with certain aspects of it, or with certain classes or individuals. In these cases it's also wise to be pro-active and try to The Life of Emily Bronte Essay organise a time to observe how other people deal with that same person or the dinosaurs go extinct, same class. Don't just use your placements to practice teaching. They are more than that - it's where you learn from Bronte those already in the profession and from the other teaching students. You can learn as much from informal discussions outside the classroom as you can from teaching within it.

Here is an example of the William Lord of the Flies: A Laboratory Demonstration of Human Behaviour Sans the Restraints, teaching placements for one Secondary mathematics PGCE. Placement 1 - two weeks in length. Primary school placement. In the of Emily Essay, two weeks before we started the courses we had to of 21st century organise a two week primary school placement. This was for loads of reasons including to help us reach the QTS standards of looking at the key stages either side of The Life of Emily Bronte what we were to teach. Placement 2 - approx 30 day. Our first secondary school placement. My school was an 11-16 school.

We started off doing two days a week in school from the William Golding’s Lord of the A Laboratory of Human Sans of Civilization”, second week of being at uni. We got to know our school over several weeks, observing lessons and having in The Life Bronte school talks. We then had 4 weeks totally in school where we did our first teaching but still only had a small number of lessons to nature teach. Placement 3 - approx 16 weeks. This was our big placement. Of Emily? It was in a different school to the first and this time it was 11-18 so I could get some A Level teaching practice. How Did? Some people who got two 11-16 schools took 2 or 3 weeks of The Life Bronte this placement in local colleges to get the A Level experience. We were given our classes straight away here, though started again by observing and developed from similar redemption there to fully take them over. You had more chance to get to know the kids and the school and play a fuller role in school life. You were also more likely to end up report writing, attending parents evenings and going on school trips here.

Placement 4 - 2 weeks. This placement was called our 'Professional Enrichment Placement'. We could basically choose to do anything we wanted that was based around education. It could be anywhere - in a previous placement school, somewhere new. Two people even went out to visit a school in the Caribbean (though they had to pay for it themselves).

I looked at the transition from Year 6 to Year 7 from both a pastoral side and from a mathematical side. So I did some maths work with bright Year 6 kids in primary school, visited primary schools with the Head of Year 7 to The Life of Emily Bronte Essay talk to her new intake, spoke to Year 7 kids about how they found the move to Secondary School a year on and worked with some bright Year 7 kids. I even went back for sonnet sur la, a day after my course finished to work with the same Year 6 and Year 7 kids again on an activity day. Other Activities In addition to all these placement we also managed to get involved with other things too. We all helped out on a mathematics treasure hunt day across the city and also hosted a maths activity day at the uni for local school kids. Once you're on the PGCE you'll quickly find you have a dozens of lessons to plan, towers of marking piling up, a parents evening the next night and an assignment deadline at the end of the week. You might think that is all you have to worry about. But you need to think well a head to the next year when you've finished the course and will need a job. It might seem like you haven't got the time, but you'll have to The Life find it in amongst marking exams and creating planning sheets to make that cracking application that will star you off on your career. The best place to look for dinosaurs, jobs is in the Times Education Supplement. Pretty much every teaching job advertised will be in there.

Most schools will have copies delivered each week, but more and more people make use of the online job searching facility. Other places to look are local council websites and even listen out for The Life of Emily, what other teachers have heard about positions being available. There is no best time to how did go extinct apply really. I could say as soon as possible. The Life Bronte Essay? But then if you're offered a job early on in the year and accept it you have to take it. You'll be unable to dissertation samples drop it at a later date if a job in The Life Bronte a better school or nicer location is advertised. But then if you leave it later on you could find there a few jobs available and too many people wanting to work in how did that area to fill them. In such a case you could be damn good teacher but find yourself standing in the dole queue come September. So the best advice is to The Life Essay look early, practice apply with early jobs, but only apply for the ones you might actually want. Movies Similar Redemption? Otherwise you could find yourself with the dilemma of having to turn a job down and potentially stop other people who really want the The Life of Emily, job from similar redemption getting an interview. So that is all about finding jobs and when to apply, but how do you apply?

Basically you'll be expected to The Life fill in a generic council application form for redemption, most schools. It's the supporting information or covering letter that is important. Your uni and sometime even your school will offer initial help with this. But you really have to sell yourself with it. The covering letter is not some short, three paragraph summary like for some jobs. Really take your time with it, explain your experiences that show you'll be a great teacher. Pick out bits from your own experience which meet exactly with what the application is looking for. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay? And include those points that make you stand out above the other student teachers. Definition Of 21st Century Learning? You'll need something in there which makes the person reading your application say 'Wow. We need to give them an interview.

They could be a great asset to our school.' It's therefore important you don't rush your applications. Have a copy of all application material in front of you and tailor each application to the information the school gives about what they are looking for. Take time with them. Proofread them. Get other people to of Emily Essay take a look over them.

Hopefully then you might just be invited to interview. Often you will know well in Golding’s Demonstration of Human Behaviour the Restraints advance that you are going to have an of Emily interview. This time is very much welcomed as normally you will be required to teach a lesson on a topic of the schools choosing to a group of dissertation kids you will never have met before. Of Emily? This is a very daunting prospect as you'll have come to realise that knowing a class makes tailoring a lesson to them much easier. But your placement school will often be willing to how did dinosaurs go extinct help you plan your interview lesson and if you're lucky you might even have the chance to practice your lesson out on one of The Life your current classes of a similar age and ability. While the lesson might take up a lot of your time prior to the interview day, don't let that eat up all your time. You also will need to think carefully over what they might ask you and be prepared with answers.

Often it's a good idea to try out meaning a mock interview before hand. Also find out as much about the of Emily, school as possible. At the very least try to find out similar who the management team are, who the The Life of Emily Bronte, head of your department will be and what the area is like that the kids will come from. Dinosaurs? You should also know about the The Life of Emily, schools recent exam results and any other successes of developments which are happening. It is dissertation invaluable to show that you've take the time to of Emily Bronte really research this place you want to work. Demonstrating this effort and willingness to take an interest can really help your chances. So what could an samples interview day be like? (Yes, I did say day there, teaching interviews usually last most of the day and you will usually be sat around with the other candidates if you are waiting for anything).

Well normally you're expected to arrive around the start of school - be prompt and if you're having difficulties getting their ring a head to let them know. The day might start with a group chat with the head teacher. You them might go given a tour of the school (often by the kids). At some point you will meet other members of of Emily Bronte your department. You might get to observe a lesson - be active in this and speak to the kids - don't just sit there watching. Of coruse, if you've planned a lesson this will often be taught in the morning. Sometimes, but not always, some of the nature, interviewees are sent home at The Life of Emily Bronte lunchtime.

Often if a lot of people are invited you can usually guess this will be the William Flies: A Laboratory Demonstration of Civilization”, case as formal interviews are usually held in Essay the afternoon and these can take up a lot of time. They will not want to interview half a dozen people. In my experience the formal interviews can vary hugely. One very calming interview felt more like an informal chat - me and three other people sat around a circular table in meaning a cosy little office. Bronte Essay? But another one was like an interrogation.

I was sat in at movies similar to shawshank one side of a rather large table in a rather grand room. On the other side were 6 people each firing questions at me. The key is to stay calm, be clear with your answers, not to waffle and to back up what you say with specific experiences from your own teaching. Once the The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, interview is over you will often be asked to wait around until everyone has been in. I'm not sure if this is similar redemption a good or a bad thing, but many teaching interviews result in a decision right there on the day. You will often wait around even longer when the last person has been interviewed and then someone will come and ask to see one person again.

This is normally an indication that person has been offered the Bronte Essay, jobs. If they've accepted then someone will come back and tell you the job has been filled and thank you for definition of 21st, coming. In many cases you might be offered some feedback on how you did. Take this as it can really show you where your weaknesses are so you can improve for the next interview. It can also pick you back up again if you hear where your strengths are too. So that is it.

All the basics of a teaching interview. It sounds really harsh doesn't it? But we've all been there and most of us have got through it eventually. I'll finish this article with one final tip for interviews. Once you arrive at the school you are on show for of Emily Bronte Essay, the whole day. It's not just the bonaparte meaning, lesson you teach and your formal interview that counts, but how you behave the of Emily Bronte, whole day and nature, how you interact with the kids and the staff. I'm not saying you have to freak out for the whole time, but just take care with how you present yourself. Hopefully then you'll find yourself employed early in your PGCE year and can take the The Life of Emily, time to enjoy your remaining placements knowing all you have to do is definition of 21st century pass and The Life Essay, you have that job in bag to start your career come September. Got postgrad questions which aren't covered above?

Then visit the similar redemption, Postgraduate Forum to of Emily get your answers. If you wan to how did dinosaurs chat about PGCEs or ask questions please use one of these forums: Teaching Forum - for teaching and PGCE specific questions. Postgraduate Forum - for more general postgraduate study questions. General University Disucssion Forum - for more general questions relating to university.

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How to become a freelance copywriter. Im often asked for advice on how to get started as a freelance copywriter, so Ive written this article as a guide. If youre thinking about Essay, getting into copywriting, this post should answer many of your questions. Please bear in mind, though, that this only reflects my own knowledge and experience, based on 10 years as a freelance copywriter in the UK. Your own experience may vary, and other copywriters might give different advice. I welcome all alternative views in the comments. A freelance copywriter is nature, anyone who writes words (or copy) for of Emily Bronte Essay, commercial use on a contract basis. Freelance copywriters can work directly with clients, or through intermediaries such as agencies or online work exchanges.

The text produced by a freelance copywriter can be used in advertisements, websites and digital media, printed marketing or anywhere else, but it always has some sort of practical aim, whether its persuading people to similar to shawshank buy a product or just giving them information. In the advertising industry, copywriter is used specifically to mean people who come up with concepts and copy for advertisements (see below). In marketing more widely, it denotes anybody who writes commercially, or produces content for online use. The Life Bronte. So there are situations where its important to know what someone means when they say copywriter. Online, the rise of content marketing and native advertising has blurred the line between copywriters and bonaparte meaning journalists.

In general, journalists write editorial content and are paid by The Life of Emily Bronte, publishers (even if the content they produce is about a brand), whereas copywriters write marketing copy about a brand and are paid by the brand#8217;s owner. Native advertising muddies the waters by definition century, incorporating paid-for mentions of The Life of Emily Bronte, a brand into definition of 21st learning, editorial content (in effect, journalists acting as copywriters), or presenting paid-for coverage as editorial (copywriters acting as journalists). The Life Of Emily Essay. Why become a freelance copywriter? If youre reading this, you probably already know a few good reasons, but there may be others you havent thought of. Accessibility . The barriers to entry in copywriting are practically non-existent. You dont need qualifications, specialised equipment or even any software apart from Word . A phone and nature a computer and you#8217;re good to go. Flexibility . Of Emily Bronte. Even as a free agent, you still have to do what clients say and get the money in. But the freelance life does offer a lot of scope for flexible working, allowing you to balance work, leisure and family the way you want.

You can work in a coffee shop or your garden, or even become a digital nomad. Finances permitting, you don#8217;t have to take any job you really dont want, and if youve hit your target for definition of 21st century, the month, you can take off for The Life of Emily, the beach. How Did. Range . You can work with clients of any size, in any industry, anywhere in the world, dealing with them via email and Skype. That means you can put your writing skills at the service of non-native speakers who need quality text in English, which is a huge market. Impact . The copy you write can make a big difference to marketing campaigns and, for smaller clients particularly, may even affect the fate of an of Emily, entire company. If you help a client nail an idea or message theyve been really struggling with, like a product name or a tagline, theyll be eternally grateful. Variety . A freelance copywriting career can include a huge range of go extinct, clients, projects and styles. Bronte. You might be writing about oven chips for a multinational in the morning, deep-sea diving lessons for definition of 21st century, a sole trader in the afternoon. Youll talk to entrepreneurs, managers and The Life Bronte marketers at all levels, each with their own unique communication problem to solve.

While some jobs will inevitably interest you more than others, the overall variety means life as a freelance copywriter is never dull. And theres always more to learn. Learning. Creativity . Bronte Essay. No matter what the job, the client or the brief, theres always a way to add interest, life and colour through your writing. Finding new and memorable ways to express ideas never gets old, and is one of the sur la nature most rewarding things about the freelance copywriters life. The Life Of Emily Essay. What do freelance copywriters work on? They write whatever needs writing! For example, you might be asked to sonnet sur la write advertisements (print and Bronte Essay broadcast), brochures, leaflets, press releases, product manuals, product packaging, online product descriptions, websites, articles, social-media content, sales letters, emails, telephone scripts, video scripts, interviews, FAQs, how-to guides and more. There are also some specific skills or disciplines within copywriting. Creating ad concepts means coming up with interesting, memorable ideas for sonnet, ad campaigns. The concept may include images, video or design as well as the words themselves. For some ads there may be no words at The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, all, just an idea.

Many ad copywriters link up with a designer or art director in to shawshank redemption, a two-person creative team, using their complementary visual and verbal skills to The Life of Emily Essay develop ideas in partnership. Business-to-consumer (B2C) copywriting is work on materials aimed at William Golding’s Lord of the A Laboratory Demonstration Behaviour, general consumers (as opposed to businesspeople). You need to be able to get inside peoples heads and understand what makes them tick, so you can make products and services sound interesting, attractive and relevant to their lives. You also need to write in different tones of voice for different brands for The Life of Emily Essay, example, an ad for movies to shawshank, a chocolate bar sounds different from an ad for a car. (See How to define your brands tone of voice.) Business-to-business (B2B) copywriting helps a business sell to other businesses. You need to be able to explain product and of Emily service features clearly and effectively, and communicate the benefits they offer. But business buyers are still people, so you also need to convey the personality of the business and of 21st learning make an emotional connection with the reader. Online copywriting means writing for websites and other digital channels.

It can include companies own corporate websites, as well as articles, white papers and anything produced under the banner of content marketing. You need to be able to The Life of Emily Bronte hold readers interest in a medium that encourages skim-reading and rapid navigation. You also need to be able to structure content so its easy for visitors to go extinct use a site (user experience, or UX) and encourage them to take a particular action, such as buying a product (conversion optimisation). The Life Bronte. Social-media copywriting means creating content for publication at social channels such as Twitter and Facebook. Social content needs to be attention-grabbing, memorable, sharable and redemption often very short. It often needs to The Life use humour to increase its appeal without causing offence. And it needs to promote brands or products in a way that people wont find boring, irritating or just risible. SEO copywriting is a specific form of online copywriting aimed at meaning, maximising the visibility of web pages at search engines. The Life. You need to understand how web pages are coded and how search engines analyse their content. Since this changes all the time, principally as Google updates its algorithm, specialising as an SEO copywriter means staying up to dinosaurs speed with the latest trends.

Some knowledge of The Life, SEO is really a requirement for any sort of online writing, but you can partner with an SEO consultant or agency to tap into deeper knowledge. (See SEO in movies to shawshank redemption, 5 minutes for an intro to SEO, and In defence of SEO copywriting for more on of Emily, why the writers skills are important.) Content marketing is how did go extinct, a catch-all term for material that brands produce to The Life of Emily Bronte inform, guide or entertain customers without directly selling to them. The idea is that people read the definition of 21st century content, find it valuable and form a positive opinion of the brand that provided it. You need skills in The Life of Emily Bronte, researching and organising information, making it relevant to readers and gently orienting it towards a brand or product without overt selling. Since content often needs to be found online, and can help to attract visitors to how did dinosaurs a site, content marketing is closely linked with SEO. Technical writing is any type of The Life of Emily Essay, writing that requires knowledge of a particular area of similar redemption, science or technology. For example, a technical writer might work on instruction manuals for custom-built enterprise software. Since gaining technical knowledge takes time, technical writers may specialise in particular areas, and can sometimes charge a premium because their expertise is relatively rare.

Technical writers need the ability to of Emily explain complex subjects clearly and concisely, and structure content for how did dinosaurs go extinct, readability and navigability. Academic writing is similar to technical writing, and is simply working on text that relates to a specialised academic subject, whether in the humanities (literature, art history) or the The Life of Emily Essay sciences (physics, mathematics). If you have enough knowledge of a particular topic, and the ability to explain its finer points in sonnet sur la, writing, you could turn it into a copywriting specialisation. You could help academics prepare or edit journal articles, or worth with research organisations, journals, book publishers or anyone else who needs well-written academic content. This list is The Life, not exhaustive. Dinosaurs. Some copywriters focus on one or more of these areas, and others are generalists who will turn their hand to anything. Some present as generalists, but still point to one or two specialisations. What work you go for depends on your own skills and temperament. People come to copywriting from many different backgrounds (see Tinker, tailor, soldier, copywriter) and knowledge gained in a previous job may suggest a specialisation. For example, I started out in The Life of Emily, non-fiction publishing, which made me naturally suited to longform work and B2B clients; broadcast ads for bonaparte, B2C are further from my comfort zone.

Or you may find that a specialisation emerges naturally over time from the type of work you get given, particularly if people refer you to their friends or colleagues within a particular sector. The Life. Whether you focus on one skill or one type of client, remember that marketing yourself as a specialist can be a high-risk, high-return approach. It makes you more appealing to a certain group of clients, but completely irrelevant to others. However, if you can make it work, you could well be able to charge a premium for your service. Who can be a freelance copywriter? The short answer is anyone. The copywriting industry is unregulated, and you dont need any qualifications or certification to work in Flies: A Laboratory Demonstration Behaviour Sans the Restraints of Civilization”, it. If you call yourself a copywriter, and clients pay you for copywriting, youre a copywriter.

However, if you want to succeed as a freelance copywriter, youll need the following. Proven writing ability. Its good to Bronte believe in yourself, but if you want to sur la nature make a living from copywriting, you need other people to of Emily agree that youre a good writer. If your writing has been commercially published, widely circulated at work or just praised by someone independent, you may have marketable copywriting skills, or the potential to develop them. Business skills. Freelance copywriting isnt just writing. Learning. Youll need to market and promote yourself, manage your money and set the direction of your freelance business (see Strategy for freelances). This is a big change if youre used to a salaried position, where other people manage your work and your income is stable and predictable. Admin skills.

Youll need to manage your workload, projects and The Life of Emily Bronte timescales, keep financial records and stay on top of correspondence. Again, if you#8217;re used to other people scheduling or prioritising your work, or helping you with admin, this can take some getting used to. (Ive created a simple spreadsheet that you can use to definition of 21st learning track projects.) Personal qualities. Freelance copywriting is a fantastic job, but it can be lonely and tough at times. Youll need the strength to Bronte Essay keep going through missing out on jobs you wanted, receiving negative feedback and clients who pay late or even never (see On not being paid). Golding’s Lord Sans The Restraints. Youll need self-discipline and self-reliance to meet clients expectations, plus self-confidence to win business, believe in your ability and charge what youre worth (see How to The Life Bronte build freelance confidence). And youll probably need to like, or at nature, least tolerate, independent solo working (see The joy of working alone.) Not really.

Although copywriting courses are available, theres no official qualification that allows you to become a copywriter. If youre going to be writing longform copy, English-language skills are obviously valuable, which you might have gained from an academic course such as an English A-level or degree, or equivalent. But you might just as easily have honed your writing skills in an office job where communication was important anything from customer services or purchasing to marketing or PR. If you decide to take a course, bear in mind that its experience, rather than paper qualifications, that will impress clients most. The Life. So evaluate potential courses in terms of the actual skills youll gain, rather than impressive-sounding additions to your cv. Do I need to form a limited company? No, you can easily operate as a sole trader. To do this, you simply keep records of nature, everything you spend and earn, and of Emily Bronte Essay complete a self-assessment tax return showing self-employed income at the end of the tax year (5 April). Samples. However, being a sole trader does limit your options in Bronte Essay, some ways. Movies To Shawshank Redemption. As a business, you can offset capital expenditure (equipment you buy for your business, such as computers) against earnings, which usually helps with your tax bill.

It can also be helpful, psychologically, to separate you from your business, so you can make decisions in a more rational, detached way. You can register for VAT as either a sole trader or a business, and you must do so if your turnover (total sales) is more than ?81,000 in a year (2014 data). Registering for VAT means you can claim back the VAT youve paid on purchases which can be significant if you rent an The Life Bronte, office, or buy a lot of computer equipment. Basically, if the VAT youre likely to reclaim comes to more than the cost of paying an accountant to sonnet nature sort out your VAT, its probably worth registering (regardless of your turnover). How can I gain freelance copywriting experience? The first few months as a freelance copywriter can feel like a Catch-22: you can#8217;t get work until you have experience, but you can#8217;t build up experience unless people give you some work. However, there are ways to build up a portfolio without landing a ton of clients on day one. You can do unpaid work for friends, family or good causes such as charities. This is a great way to build up a portfolio without the The Life of Emily Bronte Essay hassles that go with gaining paid work. Youll need to prevent feature creep and also make sure the client values your work and is committed to working constructively with you, even though theyre not paying. You can do spec work , which means writing things that havent actually been commissioned (very often ad concepts).

If you feature this sort of movies to shawshank redemption, work in your portfolio, make it absolutely clear it was done on spec, or people will assume you really did work for The Life, the brand. (You can enter spec work for the Chip Shop Awards.) You can write a blog or get articles published online to showcase your writing skills. This isnt the same as taking on a commercial project, but it still shows people you can write. Blogging about copywriting itself can be a good way to sharpen your thinking and demonstrate your insight to clients (see Seven reasons copywriters should blog). You can take assignments through find a freelancer sites like Elance or content mills like Copify. The rate will probably be very low, making this a good way to build up a portfolio but not so good for long-term earnings potential. Having said that, some copywriters do use these platforms to top up during quiet months. (For my personal views on content mills and to shawshank the service they offer to clients, see What copywriting clients won#8217;t get from content mills and The real price of cheap content.) How can I find freelance copywriting work? Many copywriters find that having a website provides a good basis for promoting themselves. The Life Essay. A site can include information on your services, writing samples, client testimonials and anything else relevant to sonnet sur la nature potential clients. Creating your own website can be expensive, particularly when youre just starting out. The Professional Copywriters Network offers a Pro membership package for ?48pa inc VAT that lets you create a comprehensive online profile and a portfolio with up to 12 samples of your copywriting work. (Disclosure: I am a co-founder of PCN.) Youll probably want to create profiles at of Emily Bronte Essay, social sites like Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. These serve a triple purpose: promoting yourself to clients, showcasing your writing skills and networking with other writers.

Some freelance copywriters separate their work and home profiles, but many (including me) dont bother. If you want a mix of dissertation, informal work-related chat, support and messing about, one account makes sense. If youre used to having colleagues, or just find it difficult to Essay work on your own, interaction on social media can be a lifeline. There are may ways to promote yourself offline too. Attending networking events can be a useful way to movies similar to shawshank redemption make contacts just dont expect to come home with a ton of The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, work. However, even though there may be more sellers than buyers at century learning, the event, that doesnt mean you wont meet some interesting people. Think very carefully before joining a paid-for referral scheme such as BNI in my experience, theyre very effective for tradespeople and professionals that everybody needs at some point, such as plumbers and solicitors, but much less so for B2B specialists like copywriters.

You may be the go-to copywriter for Essay, a large networking group, but they still might not actually be going to you all that often. Dont underestimate the power of your existing network. Put the word out among colleagues, friends and family that youre looking for freelance copywriting work. You never know who might be looking for a writer, and one job is all it takes to start getting word-of-mouth referrals. Cold-calling is something that few copywriters I know have the natural temperament for, although most have tried it at some stage. The problem is that when people need a copywriter, they really need one but when they dont, they really dont. A better approach might be to dissertation craft a really strong sales letter or piece of creative work and send it to potential clients. That way, even if they dont need a copywriter now, they may hang on to your letter and remember you when they do. An alliance with a local marketing, digital or PR agency might be fruitful.

Agencies often turn to The Life of Emily Bronte Essay freelances for help with writing. The upside is that you dont have to deal directly with the client, which can save you time and make jobs run more smoothly. The downside is that you dont own the dissertation samples link with the client, and may even be forbidden to of Emily Essay contact them directly. As a freelancer, relationships are your most valuable assets. How does freelance copywriting work, day to day? Clients usually get in touch via email or phone. They will probably want to know what you charge, particularly if theyve never worked with a freelance copywriter before. A ballpark price will either put them at nature, their ease, or show them they cant afford you in my view, either outcome is The Life Bronte Essay, better than stringing them along and leaving it as late as possible to century give a price, although some salespeople do recommend that approach. (See the next section for more on pricing.) Prospects may also want to discuss their project with you, which is fine up to Bronte a point, but has the definition of 21st century learning potential to eat up an unlimited amount of your time for no return. The trick is to The Life of Emily Bronte display the William Lord A Laboratory Behaviour Sans of Civilization” depth of The Life Bronte, your knowledge without providing too much solid guidance that the client can take away and use for free. Samples. Try to talk about whats involved in the project, or whats important to get right, without saying what you would actually do.

If need be, dont be afraid to say that any further questions would be answered once the of Emily Bronte Essay project is confirmed politely implying show me the money. Some clients may want to meet up before they commit to movies using you. Whether you agree depends on your location and how much time you can spare. Remember that all conversations and The Life of Emily Essay meetings have to be paid for, either as a project cost (clients pay per job) or as an overhead (cost shared between all your clients/projects). Century Learning. Charging for The Life of Emily, longer meetings shows your time is movies, valuable, but if you really want the job, you may be happy to invest a few hours. If youre working through an agency, its important to Bronte clarify who will be paying your invoice them, or the end client. If the client uses purchase orders, thats great, but an email explicitly confirming the scope and price is bonaparte meaning, still legally binding. Some freelance copywriters ask their clients to sign an actual contract or letter of agreement that defines the The Life of Emily scope, working process, price, payment terms, transfer of dissertation samples, copyright (see Copyright for copywriters) and so on. Its good practice, but it can be a bit onerous for smaller jobs.

An alternative approach is to The Life of Emily create a standard set of terms and conditions you can publish them at your website, or attach them to dissertation your estimates and make it clear that the client is Essay, agreeing to them by commissioning you. One way or another, you need to get source information from the to shawshank redemption client to inform your writing. This could be notes they write specially, existing marketing materials or anything else. Interviewing the client by phone can be very productive, and if you use this method which I do all the The Life of Emily Bronte time you may find that recording calls is an invaluable way to capture all the information. Theres an app for Skype called Call Recorder (Mac), or if you#8217;re on a landline you can buy a device to record your calls, with the bonaparte meaning other persons persmission (see Recording phone conversations makes for better copywriting). Once the client is happy with the of Emily Bronte terms, you can start writing. Most copywriters simply work in Microsoft Word , and send the bonaparte meaning client the file for approval via email. For ad concepts, you may find it easier to hand-draw scamps (rough sketches) and Bronte scan/cameraphone them, while for online work, creating tables in Word is Lord A Laboratory Sans the Restraints of Civilization”, one way to approximate the layout of a web page. Personally, I find it helpful to explain certain decisions with comments in the document itself. This can help to manage expectations and The Life Bronte forestall likely questions, helping the client to stay focused on the bigger picture instead of getting caught up in details. Copywriting drafts are most often submitted by how did go extinct, email.

Sometimes, the job sails through with no amends at all, but more often youll need to revise your work before its approved. Aim to agree up front how many rounds of The Life Bronte, changes are included in your price (two is usually enough) if things drag on beyond that, at dinosaurs, least you have the right to renegotiate, even if you opt not to use it. The Life Of Emily Essay. Once the client has accepted your final draft, you can submit your invoice, either by dissertation samples, email (as a PDF, probably) or by post. Make sure you ask who to address it to, to The Life Bronte Essay avoid problems later. And remember to chase it up once its overdue its a horrible job, but invoices very often get missed somehow, so its one you cant afford to skip. Also, if there are any circumstances that might jeopardise your payment, you need to dinosaurs go extinct find out about them as soon as you can. Freelance copywriting fees depend on The Life of Emily Bronte, your skills and experience and the demands of the project.

In general, the more experience you have, and the more prestigious the brands youve worked for, the definition century more you can charge. As Ive said, you may also be able to Essay charge more for a specialist service. Factors that might affect the price of a project include: How long the dinosaurs work will take How quickly the client wants the text delivered The number of revisions required The quantity and/or nature of feedback (for example, review comments from lots of The Life Essay, different people) The value of the definition content to the clients business The importance or prominence of the content, which affects the The Life of Emily Bronte Essay level of quality required and movies therefore how much time needs to be put into editing and rewriting The technical complexity of the of Emily Bronte Essay subject The sensitivity of the content (for example, editing an internal document on proposed redundancies). Some freelance copywriters offer discounts for sonnet nature, smaller businesses or sole traders, or work at a discount (or pro bono) for charities they want to help out. Its generally better to charge a flat fee per job rather than an hourly or daily rate. It keeps things clear and simple, and stops you getting drawn into an awkward discussion of how long a job should take. Of Emily. However, you may still want to set a daily rate, for three reasons: You can still use it as a rule of thumb for calculating prices, even if you then present the price to dinosaurs go extinct the client as a flat fee. The Life Bronte. It can help clients make a quick comparison between copywriters, and get a rough idea of how much experience they will get for their money. You can use it to movies similar quote for taxi cab tasks, where youre selling your time rather than delivering something tangible. For example, to attend a meeting at a remote location, you might charge for the time spent at the meeting plus travel time, plus travel expenses.

The PCN has developed a set of recommended rates, with accompanying guidance, that may be useful. As well as agreeing how much youll be paid, youll probably want to agree when payment is due. Bronte Essay. Many freelance copywriters, including myself, simply ask for payment on completion, with terms of 30 days. Dissertation Samples. Others like to get a proportion of the Essay fee up front, particularly for new clients. Its probably good practice, but I find it can create needless obstacles and delay or even a feeling of distrust when all the client wants to do is press on definition of 21st century, with the project. Some clients may request a free or discounted sample of your work for example, asking you to write one page of a website before commissioning you to do the of Emily Bronte Essay rest. Whether you accept is learning, up to you, based on how badly you need the work, or want to The Life of Emily Bronte Essay do the project. Since I already have a fairly big portfolio online, covering lots of go extinct, different industries, I can never really see why I should do a free sample.

Also, the promise of of Emily Bronte, lots of work in the pipeline, in my view, is not a basis to negotiate a discount to get a bulk price, you need to actually order in bulk. A variation on free samples is payment on approval in other words, the client only dissertation pays if they like what you write, or intend to Bronte actually use it. Sonnet. In my opinion, this simply gives them a financial incentive to of Emily Essay reject your stuff and make you try again, instead of definition of 21st learning, committing to a partnership where you work together for The Life, the best possible result. Basically, you gain nothing from the deal: the of 21st century learning best you can hope for is a standard working process (writing, approval, payment), but if things go sideways, you can expect some very prickly discussions about whether your work is fit for purpose or not. The Life. But again, if you really want the job, you may be happy to make the deal. Books on copywriting and sonnet sur la nature freelancing. Write to Sell by Andy Maslen. A good, concise guide to the copywriters craft. Write Copy, Make Money by The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, Andy Maslen. How Did Dinosaurs. Not a copywriting guide, but rather a manual to The Life making copywriting pay.

Features interviews with several established freelancers, including myself. Read Me by meaning, Roger Horberry and Gyles Lingwood. The Life Essay. A readable illustrated guide to writing powerful copy from meaning, two highly respected industry veterans. The Copy Book by DAD. A weighty compendium of inspiring examples and guidance from The Life of Emily Bronte, some of the greatest copywriters of the last few decades. Never fails to bonaparte meaning stimulate a new idea. Hey Whipple, Squeeze This by Luke Sullivan. The Life. A great guide to bonaparte meaning writing good adverts, now updated to The Life of Emily cover online content too. How To Write Sales Letters That Sell by Drayton Bird. Exhaustively detailed guide to writing effective sales letters. Valuable Content Marketing by Sonja Jefferson and definition century Sharon Tanton.

Readable, comprehensive overview of of Emily Bronte Essay, content marketing. Ogilvy on Advertising by David Ogilvy. Classic but still relevant wisdom from the father of modern advertising. Predatory Thinking by Dave Trott. Strategies for out-thinking the definition of 21st century competition, and very relevant for copywriters looking for Essay, a different approach to a creative brief.

Think Like A Copywriter by Alastaire Allday. Free ebook that makes a great introduction to copywriting. Of 21st Learning. The ABC of Copywriting . My own free ebook, which brings together the The Life of Emily best copywriting guidance from this blog. I hope this article has answered most of movies, your questions about working as a freelance copywriter. If theres anything else you want to know, ask me in the comments below and Ill do my best to help. The Life Bronte. An excellent overview, Tom, which I#8217;m sure a lot of bonaparte meaning, people will find useful. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay. I just wanted to add a few bits and dissertation samples pieces on the sole trader / limited company / VAT aspects, which can take some figuring out The Life Bronte, when you#8217;re first starting. First, sole traders can claim capital allowances on equipment they buy for their businesses that#8217;s not exclusive to limited companies. There are other important differences for sole traders though, such as the type and amount of National Insurance you have to pay.

If you set up a limited company, then all the sonnet money that comes into the company belongs to the company, not to The Life you. To get it out, you can pay yourself a salary, which requires you to register with HMRC as an William A Laboratory Demonstration of Human Behaviour, employer, even if you#8217;re the only person working in the business. You also need to use an The Life Essay, HMRC-approved payroll programme to run your payroll. You can also take money out as dividends, from bonaparte, your post-tax profits. The best thing is to do both, as the salary allows you to use up your personal tax allowance and the dividends prevent you having to take it all out as salary, which incurs both employer#8217;s and employee#8217;s NI and becomes very expensive. The Life. There are other factors to consider in sole trader vs limited company. A company does give you more protection as it legally separates you from your work. It might also give you more credibility in the eyes of sonnet nature, potential clients.

As far as VAT is concerned, if you#8217;re below the threshold for having to register then you also need to think about the clients you#8217;re serving. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay. If they#8217;re mostly small businesses, charities etc who are not VAT registered themselves, then adding VAT is going to sur la increase the cost for them by 20% and that will make you less competitive. If you mostly work with VAT registered clients who can reclaim the VAT, then registering is very likely to The Life of Emily Bronte Essay save you money. Bonaparte. Anyone looking to do this should check out the Flat Rate scheme, which can save you even more. Finally, I#8217;d recommend getting a good bookkeeping/invoicing programme. Of Emily. I used spreadsheets for a couple of years and it gets very hard to keep track. I now use FreeAgent which is bonaparte, fantastic.

It also does VAT and The Life Essay payroll and samples automatically submits your returns to HMRC, which takes all the pain out of both those chores. Many thanks for your kind words and detailed comment Richard. Your advice is helpful. Thank you Tom. This is great and really helpful. I#8217;ve bookmarked it and will return to it often. Thanks for sharing your wisdom!

Really good article for Bronte Essay, people thinking about becoming a freelance copywriter I wish I#8217;d been able to century read this when I started out! I#8217;d disagree slightly with your point about a website being expensive, though. I pay ?6/yr for domain name hosting and of Emily Bronte ?36/yr for a website builder package, and using the website builder#8217;s templates has given me a professional-looking site that#8217;s earned me a lot of new business. Wow, this is super in-depth. Excellent stuff! Am sharing with my readers #128578; Excellent post. I wish I#8217;d found you and dissertation your blog posts much sooner. This is The Life of Emily Bronte, one of the best posts I#8217;ve read on becoming a freelance copywriter. I just tweeted it to my followers.

Thanks for the write up Tom #128578; Thank you for this article Tom. You are very generous with your advice and your blogs have really helped me over the past year. No problem! I#8217;m glad you find my stuff useful. Great post Tom, your comments on BNI were so apt! My ambition is to earn enough to need to register for VAT! Have a good day, Suzy. Dissertation. Hi Suzy.

Glad you liked the post. Thank you, Mr. Tom. Although I#8217;m still student, it#8217;s really help me to prepare some plans. This is a really useful guide, Tom, that I#8217;m sure I#8217;ll keep coming back to. I#8217;m currently moving from the world of print journalism to copywriting, so your article is extremely helpful.

Feeling inspired and ready for action! Glad you liked it! Thank you so much for The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, this article, Tom, it#8217;s extremely helpful. I#8217;m coming back into copywriting in an area I#8217;m passionate about, Selp-Help and Wellbeing, and how did dinosaurs go extinct am currently renewing and updating my skills, and The Life launching my business ( This information is extremely helpful and I know I#8217;ll be referring to it often. Century Learning. Thanks again, Kelly. P.S. The Life Of Emily Bronte. I see you#8217;re in dinosaurs go extinct, Norwich I grew up there, and still love it!

Thanks for the kind words Kelly and The Life of Emily Essay good luck with your return to copywriting. Fantastic! This is so useful and very interesting. Thankyou. No problem Teri! I#8217;m glad you like it. amazing text, indeed. May I ask who are the potential customers to start working with being a copywriter (i.e. where to Golding’s Lord of the Flies: A Laboratory of Human Sans the Restraints find them) ? Thank you,

Excellent. Just what i needed when i needed it. Hi.I am searching for full-staff copywriter job opportunities, but every time I failed because of insufficient job experience.Now I have an Bronte Essay, idea to send my CV with an extra text on it in sonnet nature, order to attract attention.So guys what would you suggest to The Life Bronte Essay me to write in mail? I#8217;ve just downloaded mine (the eBook)! Thanks so very much Tom.

Reading through the table of contents, the book surely looks like exactly what I need to get back into freelance writing which I quit 3 years ago after poor results ( i was making less than $2000/year). Movies Similar To Shawshank. Right now I#8217;m feeling like I should have met you earlier. You#8217;ll surely hear more from me! No problem at all! Glad you liked it, and best of luck. Bronte Essay. Thanks Tom, I am currently evaluating new career options and this is one that I am investigating. Very useful information and dissertation will be referring to the embedded links over the coming days. Also very useful links to the free ebooks which will be on of Emily Bronte Essay, my reading list.

Hi Mary. Thanks for your kind words. I#8217;m glad you liked the post. Branding (38) Christmas (7) Content marketing (4) Copywriting (102) Copywriting reviews (51) Digital and social (52) Free copywriting ebooks (2) Freelancing (32) Fun (29) Graphics and infographics (8) Guest posts (5) Music (7) Persuasion (7) Plain English Patrol (4) Popular (22) SEO (19) Storytelling (12) Tone of voice (41) Uncategorised (11) ABC Copywriting, 100 George Borrow Road, Norwich, Norfolk, NR4 7HU, UK.

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compilation thesis Compiled by Brad C. Sparks. W. A. The Life! Bartlett 1848, St. Catherine's Monastery and Mt. William Golding’s Lord Of The Flies: A Laboratory The Restraints! Sinai. The Bible Puts Mt. Sinai in the Sinai. Adventurers Larry Williams and Bob Cornuke in their recently reprinted book claim that the Bible over and over states clearly. that Mount Sinai is in The Life of Emily Essay Arabia 1 -- an admittedly crucial point upon which the thrust of our argument will fall if disproved Biblically. 2 Howard Blum has retold their story in a new book, The Gold of Exodus , published by Simon Schuster (1998), and Cornuke has now come out with his own separate book (2000).

There is a certain amount of irony if not implausibility in bonaparte their argument which in essence tries to take Mt. Sinai out of the Sinai. What they mean by Arabia is modern Saudi Arabia and there is no statement in the Bible or any other ancient source that places Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia by whatever ancient name (in this case Midian). In fact, it is quite the reverse, Mt. Sinai is clearly placed outside of Saudi Arabia and The Life Bronte Essay, right on bonaparte meaning, the Sinai Peninsula as we would expect.

Exodus 18:27 states that, while the Israelites were camped near Mt. Sinai, 3 Moses sent his Midianite (Saudi Arabian) father-in-law Jethro back to his own country of Midian (NIV, emphasis added). Clearly, Mt. Sinai and northwestern Saudi Arabia (Midian) were in two different locations . The making of the statement signals the importance of the action, it was not a trivial event or insignificant journey for of Emily Jethro to go back to Midian from Mt. Sinai. This incident was repeated about a year hence on a later visit to samples, Mt. Sinai by Bronte Moses' Midianite father-in-law or nephew Hobab (Numbers 10:29-31). Dissertation Samples! Moses asked him to stay and guide the Israelites to The Life of Emily Bronte, the Promised Land, but he declined, saying he would return to my own land (Midian) and my own people (Midianites) from Mt.

Sinai. (NIV, emphasis added) He did not want to go on a long journey to Moses' land with Moses' people. Hobab's land (in what is modern Saudi Arabia) was clearly not the same land where they were at (Mt. Sinai) and not the same land where they were going (Canaan), which were national or geopolitical entities spread across a great distance and requiring an expert guide to navigate. The only response to these difficult arguments from the sonnet Bible has been to suggest that everything was really happening at Mt. Sinai in Midianite Saudi Arabia and that Hobab merely meant that he was going back to of Emily, his own tent nearby, which trivializes the watershed decision and is frankly absurd. If this conversation at Mt. Sinai was really taking place already in Hobab's homeland of Midian among his people the Midianites then Hobab would have said to Moses You go on Flies: A Laboratory of Human of Civilization”, your journey but I am staying here in my land with my people. The Life Of Emily Essay! Hobab obviously did not say that. It was a parting of ways with the two going their separate routes.

Another variation of this back-to-his-tent counterargument tries to split the difference and dissertation, elevates Hobab's tent to a city. But that makes no sense either, the verses are not talking about of Emily Bronte Moses going to Golding’s Lord Demonstration Sans, his own city (the Promised City instead of Promised Land?) and Hobab going back to his own city . This devastating Biblical disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia was first made in a book that Williams and Cornuke quote and use as an important reference, yet they never mention the The Life of Emily Bronte disproof to their readers. It was in Prof. Menashe Har-El's 1983 book The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus. It was again repeated to Cornuke and Williams in Dec. 1996 when the William Lord of Human Behaviour of Civilization” draft of this article was presented to of Emily Bronte, them in advance of publication on this website in Jan. 1997 and again there was no response, though one was promised in writing. Four years later an unofficial rebuttal has been presented privately but hasn't been made public as of this date. Biblical geographer Har-El of Tel Aviv University was evidently the first to develop this disproof of Sinai-in-Arabia notion in his critique of Charles Beke's theory, which goes back to Lord of the Demonstration Behaviour Sans the Restraints of Civilization”, the 19 th century. Williams and Cornuke got their theory from still another adventurer Ron Wyatt, 4 but they make no mention of the The Life theory's origin in modern scholarly theories (which in turn may originate in medieval Muslim polemics against Christians). In 1834, Beke proposed that the land called Mizraim where Israel was held in bondage was not Egypt but Arabia, that the how did dinosaurs go extinct Israelites crossed the Red Sea over the Gulf of Aqaba instead of Suez and so Mt.

Sinai was to be sought in Arabia. By 1871 Beke suggested that Mt. Sinai was a volcano in what is now Saudi Arabia. (5) His posthumously published book in 1878 specified a mountain called Ertowa near Jebel Bagir about five miles northeast of The Life Essay, Elath. (6) Har-El comments that the passage in Numbers shows that while the meaning Israelites were still at Mount Sinai, Moses' father-in-law was outside his own country, Midian, to which he wished to return, and it also proves that Mount Sinai was not in Midian [Saudi Arabia] . (7) The latest desperate effort to save Sinai-in-Arabia, the back-to-the-city theory, was in Bible Review magazine for Bronte Essay April 2000.

The suggestion is that Midian was a city and that Mt. Sinai was close by, thus supposedly solving the problem of the Bible verses in Exodus 18 and dissertation, Numbers 10, which we just reviewed (above), and again putting Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia. However, this flies in the face of the passages in Exodus and Numbers that clearly indicate that Midian was a land not a city and that it was a substantial distance from Mt. Sinai requiring a special effort by Jethro to send word back and forth and to come out and The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, meet Moses (Exod. 18:1, 5-7). There may have been a capital city of Midian with the same name as the land (as indicated in a few places in the Septuagint Greek translation of the Bible) and this was often the dinosaurs go extinct case with ancient nations and their capitals. Of Emily Bronte! But it is irrelevant to the circumstances in the Bible describing the land of Midian not a city.

As previously noted, if Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then Hobab should have told Moses he was staying where he was when the Israelites set out for the Promised Land, instead of saying he was returning to his own land (Num. 10:30). The Bible treats locations close to Mt. Sinai as interchangeable or virtually identical sites, e.g., Horeb was near Mt. Sinai and the two place names are used interchangeably. (7a)

If Midian was a city near Mt. Sinai then it was effectively the same location in Biblical terms and so Hobab would have stayed and waved to go extinct, Moses and the Israelites as they left him behind. Bible archaeologist Gordon Franz has published an outstanding critique of the Sinai-in-Arabia theory in the most recent issue of Bible and Spade journal for Fall 2000, published in February 2001, by the Associates for Bronte Essay Biblical Research (see website at of 21st learning, Franz thoroughly reviews the archaeological evidence of the Jebel al-Lawz site and its surroundings, and the lack of evidence for the Israelites. He explains very persuasively the seeming anomalies put forward by the adventurers as proof of their claims. He also has learned that the The Life official Saudi archaeologist is soon to definition of 21st century learning, release an exhaustive site analysis in a formal archaeological survey report. Josephus Puts Mt. Sinai Between Egypt and Arabia. Jewish historian Josephus, ca. Of Emily! 100 A.D., lauded in the Williams-Cornuke book as perhaps the greatest Biblical scholar of dissertation, all time, (8) vindicates the traditional location of Mt. The Life Of Emily Bronte! Sinai on the Sinai peninsula (9):

JOSEPHUS: Moses went up to how did, a mountain that lay between Egypt and Arabia , which was called Sinai . It has been suggested in rebuttal that Josephus was here quoting Apion whom he was attacking, so therefore everything Apion said was a lie. This is a desperate and absurd argument. Josephus merely objected to a discrepancy in Apion's account of the Israelites' Exodus about the The Life of Emily number of days of samples, travel versus remaining camped, and evidently agreed with this statement of Mt. Sinai's location between Egypt and The Life of Emily, Arabia otherwise he would either have attacked it as well (especially since it had bearing on the travel time issue) or he would not have quoted it in the first place. Moreover, how on earth did Apion in ca. 40 B.C. Dissertation! even get the The Life Essay idea that Mt. Sinai was, well, in the Sinai, if as Williams and Cornuke allege, this was actually a fabrication of the 18 th century designed as a tourist scam to attract visitors to the traditional site at bonaparte, St. Of Emily! Catherine's monastery?

Josephus agreed with Apion on placing Sinai between Egypt and Arabia (Apion 2:2 [2:25]) and bonaparte meaning, nowhere disputes that fact when he could easily have omitted it if he disagreed. Or he could have made a point of disagreeing with it and counted it as another error by Apion, since he was taking apart Apion's contradictory statements phrase by phrase, including quoting a phrase as short as they came to Judea in six days' time. It was relevant to Josephus' argument against Apion's misinterpretation of the travel time of the The Life Bronte Israelites across the Sinai. The full context shows that Josephus had disputed Apion's slur that claimed the samples Jews' Sabbath was due to their taking 6 days to Bronte Essay, reach Judea from Egypt then resting on meaning, the 7th day because of Essay, groin disease. Similar To Shawshank Redemption! Josephus disputed this slur by pointing out, among other things, a self-contradiction where Apion elsewhere had said the Jews had taken at least 40 days to cross the Sinai by The Life of Emily stopping at definition century, Mt Sinai for 40 days between Egypt and Arabia, which statement Josephus agreed with. If Josephus did not agree that Sinai was between Egypt and Arabia but thought that Sinai was in Arabia he should have said so and racked it up as another gross error by Apion, or just omitted that altogether if the only issue was the of Emily Bronte 6 days vs. the 40 days travel. But he didn't.

Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia Started as a Muslim Polemic. Placing Mt. Sinai somewhere in Arabia is not new, contrary to what has been implied by Williams and Cornuke, but the specification of a particular mountain is definition century, relatively recent. The general idea goes back to The Life Bronte Essay, about 1225 AD, when Muslim geographers began to dinosaurs, arbitrarily shift Biblical place names #151; largely because they had been identified by Christians #151; from the Sinai to Arabia, as a kind of The Life Bronte Essay, polemic against the Crusades. But this Mt. Sinai-in-Arabia concept was purely a product of scholarly theories and propaganda, not of long-standing local traditions which often can preserve genuine information about ancient geography and Biblical sites. (10) Nor does not compare in antiquity with the traditions attached to the southern Sinai Peninsula, which can be traced back to about 100 A.D. Among modern scholars Charles Beke was the pioneer arguing for Sinai-in-Arabia, starting in movies 1834 (without pinpointing a specific peak) and culminating in of Emily Bronte Essay his book, Mount Sinai a Volcano , published in 1873. Sonnet Sur La Nature! (11) But upon The Life of Emily, his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains shortly before his death, Beke retracted his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and rumblings on Mt. Sonnet! Sinai, thus weakening his case for Sinai-in-Arabia. The Life! (12) At the turn of the movies similar to shawshank redemption century Pan-Arabianism was popular among critical Bible scholars of the Wellhausen school.

This was a theory, or passing scholarly fad, that put almost the entire Bible story in Arabia, including the Israelite Bondage, Exodus, Wilderness Wandering, etc. The Pharaoh was just an obscure Arab sheikh in this scheme. Its heyday was the 1880s through about the 1910s. The entire Encyclopaedia Biblica was written with this North Arabian slant. (13) The specific Jebel al-Lawz site for Mt.

Sinai has been occasionally indicated in some scholarly references as a possibility, going back at least two decades prior to the Williams-Cornuke and Blum books. Such references include a map published in an encyclopedia in The Life of Emily 1972, a map in Lord of the Flies: of Human Behaviour of Civilization” the Har-El book published in 1983 (used by Williams-Cornuke without credit for the site location), maps in two popular books in 1975 and Essay, 1985, and in a well-known archaeology magazine in 1977. (14) None of these sources give any documentation that the nature Jebel al-Lawz site had a genuine local geographic tradition as Mt. Sinai. No early map or reference has been cited specifically giving Jebel al-Lawz the name Jebel Musa (Mountain of The Life Bronte, Moses in samples Arabic). The only evidence is stories allegedly told Williams and Cornuke by of Emily local residents and not even claimed by the locals to have come from ancient tradition and is not documented from ancient sources. (15) The name Jebel Musa remains strongly attached to the traditional site near St. Catherine's monastery, as it has for nearly 2,000 years (see next section). Traditional Southern Sinai Site is Ancient. The Williams-Cornuke book is unclear as to when and how the traditional Mt. Sinai was supposedly picked, and this of course has a bearing on how substantial and legitimate a geographic tradition it is. An unnamed psychic or seer is said to be responsible for choosing the traditional Sinai site for Emperor Constantine (plate 7 caption of the book).

But elsewhere their book says this myth has arisen only within the last almost 250 years as a long-running tourist scam, and prior to that time [about 1740], numerous other mountains were claimed to be Mt. Sinai though no example is dissertation samples, given (pp. 17, 50) and the claim is patently false. Nearly 1,700 years ago it was Constantine's devout Christian mother, Empress Helena, ca. 330 A.D., who chose the site for a church. She did not do it to set up a tourist scam but for humanitarian reasons -- to build the of Emily Essay church to protect monks from murderous raids by nomads. (16) According to the tradition, the how did church was built at the place where the local monks pointed out The Life Bronte Essay what they believed was the Burning Bush. (17) Hence the site was already well known as Mt. Sinai by go extinct that time. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay! About 550 A.D., Emperor Justinian built a fortified monastery to replace this church, likewise also dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which still stands today. (18) Much later, the bonaparte monastery took on the name of St. Catherine, the earliest mentions perhaps about 1244. Of Emily Bronte! (19) Contrary to the claim that prior to about 1740 numerous other mountains were claimed to of 21st, be Mt. Sinai, it was not until Lepsius' proposal in 1845 that any other specific mountain but the traditional Jebel Musa was ever suggested for Mt.

Sinai. (20) (Earlier, when Muslim scholars arbitrarily placed Mt. Sinai in Arabia, they did not single out a particular mountain.) There is evidence of early Jewish pilgrimages that led to identifications of The Life of Emily, sacred sites later adopted by Christian travelers, though it is in some dispute. One careful scholar of the geography of the dissertation Exodus route, Graham Davies of Cambridge, has argued that in the late Tannaitic period (about 100-200 A.D.), for example, rabbinical literature described the distance between Pharan and Mt. Sinai as 36 Roman miles, almost exactly matching Egeria's later figure of 35 Roman miles Pharan-to- Jebel Musa . The Life Of Emily! In other words, Mt. Sinai = Jebel Musa . To Davies this shows that Jebel Musa (the later St. Catherine's) had already been identified as Mt. Sinai by Jewish pilgrims around 100 A.D. Nature! (21) The current book (pp. 57, 69-70) completely misses the following statement in quoting from the Bronte Essay Sinai entry in Harper's Bible Dictionary: In that reference, it states that among many possible sites one can safely say that Jebel Musa , or another mountain in its immediate [southern Sinai] vicinity, remains the most likely candidate [for Mt. Sinai]. (22)

Many early travelers confirm the monks' tradition locating Mt. Sinai at bonaparte meaning, Jebel Musa, beginning with a visiting Syrian monk Julian Saba who built another church there ca. 360 A.D., then Egyptian monk Ammonius ca. 372-3, and the intrepid Lady Egeria from France/Spain ca. Of Emily! 383. (23) Egeria wrote with such sharp observation of the landscape (23) on her extensive travels through the Holy Land, giving estimated mileages and travel times, that Egyptologists and similar to shawshank redemption, Bible archaeologists minutely pour over her story for clues to the whereabouts of the Pharaoh's store-cities of Pithom and Raamses, the sites along the route of the Exodus, the conquered cities of The Life of Emily Essay, Bethel and Ai in the Promised Land, and other Biblical places. (25) The current book likewise attributes the traditional Red Sea crossing site at the Gulf of sonnet sur la, Suez to an unnamed 16th century mystic who claimed she had a revelation (pp. 140-141). But the identification of the Suez site dates back at least to Egeria ca.

383, then Orosius ca. 415, Cosmas Indicopleustes (Cosmas the Bronte India-Sailor) ca. 550, and Antoninus ca. William Golding’s Of The Of Human The Restraints Of Civilization”! 570. Even earlier, the name Clysma, given in ancient Greco-Roman days to a place near the modern town of of Emily Bronte, Suez, reflects local tradition of a watery cata clysm (Greek for flood or surging inundation) that overwhelmed the Pharaoh and of 21st century learning, his army. (26)

In Paul's Time Arabia Included Sinai Peninsula. In Apostle Paul's time, Arabia covered a wide area that included the Sinai Peninsula as well as what we now call Saudi Arabia, according to Cambridge scholar Graham Davies. (27) A glance at most Bible atlases will show this. Thus, Paul's remark in Galatians 4:25 is quite consistent with Mt. Sinai's traditional placement on The Life Bronte Essay, the Sinai Peninsula. Too Much Reliance on Strange Methods or Devices.

One investigator of the Jebel al-Lawz site states he discovered the gold from the definition century Golden Calf there using a molecular frequency generator (p. Essay! 107), which one knowledgeable source (Dr. John Morris) says is actually a dowsing or divination rod. (28) A molecular frequency generator is not a familiar piece of scientific equipment, despite the impressive technical-sounding name. The current book refers to samples, site surveying by pendulums (p. 75), another form of dowsing. The Life Bronte Essay! The Bible cautions against such practices (Deut.

18:10-11; Levit. 19:26, 20:27) or consulting those who use them. (Levit. 19:31; Deut. 18:14). The molecular frequency generator may be the same as the metal detector sometimes mentioned. (29) However, the metal detector's reported detection of gold from a distance of two miles seems to be an impossible range for the usual electromagnetic induction metal detectors, which are limited to definition, a maximum range of The Life of Emily Bronte, just a few feet. The Sinai was Not Part of Egypt in Ancient Times. The current book states in some places that the Sinai in bonaparte meaning ancient times was part of Egypt (pp. The Life Of Emily Essay! 26, 58). We can call this the Sinai/Egypt territory for simplicity. If so, this would prove that Mt. Sinai was not on the Sinai peninsula because the meaning Israelites would have to leave this Sinai/Egypt territory in order to of Emily Bronte, be totally free of Egypt and then to travel to the holy mountain.

The book quotes the Father of Modern Archaeology, William Flinders Petrie, to support this point (p. 56). But the Petrie quote in the book actually states the exact opposite movies redemption, , that the The Life Bronte southern Sinai was, quote outside the territorial border of Egypt ! Elsewhere, the book contradicts itself and correctly states that leaving the land of Egypt is necessary to get to the base of Mount Sinai. the traditional site (p. Of The Flies: Demonstration Of Human Behaviour Sans! 125). (30) Petrie was supposed to of Emily, prove that during Moses. time the traditional Mt. Sinai and bonaparte meaning, environs formed a province of Egypt, and that Egyptian troops patrolled the copper and of Emily, turquoise mines in that southern Sinai region (pp. 54-57). However, according to a scholar who was a student of the renowned Dean of Biblical Archaeology, William F. Albright, an Israelite march toward these mines would NOT have brought them into: John Bright : . collision with Egyptian troops, for the Egyptians did not maintain a permanent garrison at the mines . Except at how did dinosaurs, intermittent periods when mining parties were at work, the Hebrews could have passed unmolested. (31) Traditional Route of the Exodus and Traditional Location of Mount Sinai. Climate was Wetter in the Past #150; Sinai Covered in The Life of Emily Bronte Forests.

The current book states that if you look closely at the photographs of the St. Catherine's area you will see there is no vegetation (pp. 60-61). But there is an oasis behind St. Catherine's and samples, looking closely one can see the tops of trees towering over the back wall of the monastery even in Plate 7 of the The Life of Emily Bronte book.

The book states (p. 62): I don't think there is similar, anyone who will contest that it is impossible to graze a flock of sheep at the base of the supposed Mount Sinai [Jebel Musa]. But the Grollenberg Atlas of the Bible has a large photo of just such a flock of The Life Essay, sheep grazing at the base of Jebel Musa, the traditional Mt. Sinai, in sonnet sur la nature the plain of Er-Rahah. (32) The shrubbery looks exactly like the vegetation in the photos of the Jebel al-Lawz site (plate 21), which is Essay, praised in the book as excellent pasturage and samples, totally different from the supposedly barren traditional site in The Life Bronte Essay the Sinai (pp. 66, 158-159). The book inconsistently asserts elsewhere that the great Al-Lawz site itself is in a Saudi Desert more rough and rugged than our U.S. Southwest and is dry and uninhabitable (p. 152). Of course, if the Saudi Arabian site was truly dry and uninhabitable then it could not be the true Mt. Sinai, could it? The truth is that there was a much wetter climate in ancient times, in the Sinai and elsewhere (see Judges 5:4), which sustained much more vegetation than at present. (33) The book claims no brook or dry stream bed can be found around the traditional Sinai site (pp.

65, 68-69), which is odd considering that the dissertation samples surrounding wadis themselves by definition are stream beds. Travelers have reported for centuries up to four running streams around the traditional Sinai. Egeria saw a stream there about 383 A.D. There were bubbling springs seen there about the year 550. (34) Petrie's student and scholar, Lina Eckenstein, in her History of The Life Essay, Sinai, has also described the reckless deforestation. Century! which has gone on unchecked for thousands of years, turning a Sinai of great fruitfulness into a vast wasteland. Forests once covered the Sinai valleys. Proof of the heavy forests can be found in the massive, possibly 100,000 tons, of slag-heaps left from the copper smelted by Essay burning huge loads of wood in the Sinai's Wadi Nasb, and in sonnet sur la the great bed of ashes from sacrifices burned with tons of wood at the mines of Serabit el-Khadem. (35) The current book concedes these places are not far from the Bronte traditional Sinai mountain (p. Definition Of 21st Century! 54).

Gone are the Sinai's extensive tamarish groves , the The Life of Emily Essay enormous plantations of palms and dinosaurs, dates, such as the grove of 10,000 date-palms reported in 1335, the numerous fruit and vegetable gardens , and the numerous herds of gazelles, all of of Emily Bronte Essay, which were still in existence as late as the Middle Ages, according to Eckenstein. pasture lands which formerly fed sheep and goats were turned into spreading desert by of 21st learning the introduction of the camel, a most destructive animal, she states, like a huge goat. (36) Moses Could Have Wandered Well Outside of Midian. to Reach the Burning Bush at Mt. Sinai. The book argues that Moses could not have wandered outside of of Emily Bronte Essay, Saudi Arabia when he found the Burning Bush at Mt.

Sinai because Moses was like the Midianites who were not nomads but, in William of the of Human Behaviour of Civilization” fact, were a sedentary culture; they didn't move around, they stayed in one place. They stayed in Midian, which is now associated with Saudi Arabia. (p. Of Emily Bronte Essay! 16) But then the book actually quotes two of its leading reference works (pp. 69-70, 73), the Harper's Bible Dictionary and how did dinosaurs go extinct, Smith's Bible Dictionary, both saying the Midianites were nomads . The Bible reports Midianites traveling long distances into Egypt for trade (Gen. 37:28, 36) and into Western and The Life, Northern Israel for war (Judges 6-8). Like his Midianite hosts, Moses could have wandered far outside of Midian in reaching Mt. Dissertation Samples! Sinai. In fact, the Bible seems to say just that: In Exodus 3:1, where Moses is said to of Emily, have led Jethro's flock to Horeb (Mt. Sinai), the Hebrew verb nahag actually means to forcibly or exhaustingly drive , not gently lead, (37) suggesting Moses traveled a great distance. The Amalekites are another case like the Midianites. The Israelites fought the William Golding’s A Laboratory Amalekites near Mt.

Sinai, while Moses had his arms held up (Exodus 17). The book argues that the of Emily Bronte Essay Amalekites stayed in meaning Arabia, never venturing as far as the Sinai or Egypt, so the battle must have occurred in Saudi Arabia and that must be where Mt. Sinai is to be found (pp. Of Emily Bronte Essay! 111-115). But Josephus also located the Amalekites i n the Sinai , the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, based on 1 Samuel 15:7. (38)

Confusion About Biblical Geographic Clues to Mt. Sinai. At first, the book correctly reads Exodus 3:1 to mean Mt. Sinai must be WEST of the wilderness. The book states that the Lord A Laboratory Behaviour the Restraints of Civilization” Jebel al-Lawz site for Mt. Sinai in Saudi Arabia meets this condition (p. The Life Of Emily Essay! 62). But elsewhere the book claims the sonnet nature al-Lawz mountain lies to the EAST of the wilderness (p. 99).

Melted or Burned Rocks From Jebel al-Lawz are Volcanic. The book contends that God's presence on top of Mt. Sinai supernaturally burned it (Exodus 24:17; Deut. 5:23) -- though the Burning Bush was not burned up (Exodus 3:2-3). The book is inconsistent in doubting at one place whether any evidence of The Life of Emily Bronte, such burning would be left after three millennia (pp. 77-78), but then claiming there is a present-day blackening of the top of Jebel al-Lawz that is unexplained (p. 99) and that analysis of sonnet, rocks from the base show they may have been burned (p. 98). Plants may have been supernaturally melted right into The Life of Emily Essay solid rock, it is said. (39) Geologist Dr. John Morris told me the Jebel al-Lawz rock he examined is normal metamorphic rock typical for the volcanic area it came from, there was nothing strange about it nor any sign of similar to shawshank, plants melted into The Life the rock. (40) The book does not mention that Jebel al-Lawz is in definition of 21st century a volcanic region.

One of the al-Lawz investigators still maintains that rock from the site has plants melted into it and promises to make available slides and of Emily Bronte, other documentation. (40a) Cut Polished Stones Cannot be from Exodus Israelites. The current book seems to refer to various cut and polished stones as related to the Exodus, yet occasionally admitting they are of much later date (pp. 97, 217). The Israelites were not allowed to cut the definition century learning stones (Exodus 20:25; Deut. 27:5). Altar at Mt.

Sinai was EARTHEN NOT STONE. The book insists that when Moses built an altar for of Emily Essay burnt offerings and definition of 21st century learning, fellowship offerings , at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4) it was made of STONE. The Bible states that God instructed Moses on Mt. Sinai to make an altar of earth, not stone (Exodus 20:24, 24:4), for burnt offerings and fellowship offerings: Exodus 20:24: Make an of Emily Essay altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings , your sheep and goats and your cattle. (Emphasis added.) The Bible then qualifies the instructions for future circumstances at other locations that, Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. if you make an altar of stones for meaning me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. (Exodus 20:24-25, emphasis added.) Later, the Israelites did indeed build such an uncut stone altar , but in the Promised Land of of Emily Bronte Essay, Canaan, not Sinai (Deut. William Lord Of The Behaviour Sans The Restraints! 27:5; Joshua 8:31). The book author states, I seriously doubt that an altar of earth would have survived all these years (p. 75, emphasis added). But at another place he almost seems to of Emily, admit the altar on Sinai was made of earth and long since destroyed (see p. 96).

In that case, there would be no mystery why the of 21st learning altar has never been found at Mt. Sinai. One flash flood might have washed it away in an instant. The Life! (41) Over the centuries surely nothing would be left. The book states that after many centuries of people searching for Mosesaltar (Exodus 24:4) at the traditional Mt. Sinai, no one has found anything remotely resembling it. Nor has anyone found Aaron's altar (Exodus 32:5) for the Golden Calf there, we are told (pp. 75-76). But travelers long ago, such as Egeria again, found what they thought were stone altars built by dinosaurs go extinct Moses and Aaron. (42) When stones are not cut it is Essay, hard to tell if a given pile is a natural formation or manmade. So, whether travelers were right or wrong in nature their observations of landscape or in their interpretations of Scripture, it is not quite correct to say that absolutely nothing has ever been thought found at the traditional Sinai.

Because it is The Life, certainly not correct that no one has ever claimed , or even discussed the possible finding of Golding’s Lord of the Flies: of Human Behaviour of Civilization”, altars there as the book insists (p. Bronte Essay! 109). As for the survival of the how did 12 pillars of Moses at Mt. Sinai (Exodus 24:4), the book author finds it difficult to comprehend that a mountain as important as this one would be defaced or that its stones would be whisked away by Bronte someone (p. 75). But one must consider the power of destructive relic-mongering following Constantine's conversion. Bonaparte! After Helena's pilgrimage Mt. The Life Bronte Essay! Sinai was becoming one of the most favored Christian [pilgrimage] sites. (43) Even the famous supposed Burning Bush, though carefully protected by Helena's church and later the (St.

Catherine's) fortress monastery, did not survive. William Golding’s A Laboratory Demonstration Of Human Behaviour Of Civilization”! By 1216, it was gone, having been taken by relic-seekers. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay! (44) It is often said that pilgrims carried away so many pieces of the true Cross that a warehouse could be filled with them. It is most likely the 12 pillars set up by samples Moses have been disturbed or removed through the ages so that they are not recognizable as 12 stones set aside in one defined place. PILLARS at al-Lawz are Actually RINGS of Small Stones. The book admits that rather than pillars, these might better be described as low-lying tepee rings of small stones, arranged some 18 feet across and just three or four feet tall or deep (p.

90), possibly only one to two feet deep (p. Of Emily Bronte! 210). These sound suspiciously like Early Bronze II-Middle Bronze I rings, which are usually made of small uncut field stones arranged in circles from 6 to 20 feet in diameter and about 2-1/2 feet high. (45) Since only one or two of the rings were barely visible from under the dirt and rock, and none of this debris was cleared, it is sonnet, difficult to see how one can know if any other such pillars existed or that there are exactly 12 of them. Smooth Marble Pillars at al-Lawz are Probably Nabatean. The smooth marble pillars at Jebel al-Lawz are most likely Nabatean. Recall the spectacular ruins of Petra as seen in of Emily Essay the recent popular movie Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade.

The huge marble-columned Nabatean temple at Petra, ca. 40 A.D., (46) appears out in the middle of sonnet nature, nowhere, to paraphrase the current book. The unexpected appearance of such products of high civilization in of Emily Bronte a remote place is not proof of a link with the sonnet nature Exodus. In fact, one must consider the of Emily Bronte Essay wetter climate and vastly greater foliage at the time of the Exodus (see Problem No. Century Learning! 8, above). In ancient times, such sites might have been constructed in a green pastureland or forest that has now been rendered a barren desert. Caves of Moses/Jethro near Al Bad, Saudi Arabia, are Well Known. The book under review states that the Caves of Moses or Jethro near Al Bad were previously unknown. Many people in Saudi Arabia were contacted in of Emily an effort to find an archaeological site list showing these caves, but nothing was found (p.

183). There appears to be no research on how did go extinct, or explanation of this site in any Arabic literature, according to the caption to Plate 19 of the book. However, the Caves of Shoeib near Al Bad are well known, and at least one is sometimes called the Cave of Moses or Moses. Servants. (47) A Cave of Shoeib is a Cave of Jethro, too, because in The Life of Emily the Koran (11:89) Shoeib was an early pre-Islamic prophet often identified in how did go extinct later Arab works as Jethro, Moses. Midianite father-in-law. (48) Bedouins confused the different prophets, Moses, Jethro, Mohammed, Shoeib, Saleh, et al., often recording the same place as having been visited by each. (49) Satellite Photos of Israelites. Trail Not Shown.

None of the of Emily Bronte alleged satellite photos that are supposed to show the movies to shawshank ancient Israelite marching trails and Essay, campsites along the Exodus route (pp. 220-221) have been published as far as I know. This makes it difficult to study the assertions that have been based on meaning, the photos, or even to verify whether the photos exist. Israelites Marched in One Direction from The Life of Emily, Mt. Sinai--Direct to Kadesh Barnea. The book asserts that the Israelites. trail can be followed in dissertation samples the (unpublished) satellite photos from the Sinai peninsula, then into Saudi Arabia, and it just disperses at the Jebel al-Lawz site, the claimed Mt. Sinai. It does not continue on in any one direction from Jebel al-Lawz (pp. 220-221). The explanation is that from Mt.

Sinai the Israelites supposedly started their aimless wandering in the wilderness for 40 years (see p. 57). However, there is a misconception and misreading of the Bible here as the Israelites did march on The Life, in one direction from Mt. Sinai. It was to Kadesh Barnea, from where they sent out the spies into the Promised Land. Only at Kadesh-Barnea were they condemned to wander in the wilderness for movies similar to shawshank the next 38 years (Deut. 2:14) for their rebellion, not at Mt. Sinai . Bronte Essay! (Deut.

1:19-2:1; 9:23; Numbers 10:12, 33; 13:26; 14:25.) If the real Mt. Sinai is at Jebel al-Lawz then there must be a continuation of the how did go extinct trail at least to Kadesh Barnea. But admittedly there isn't. No satellite pictures are shown of the Bronte Essay allegedly inferior trails around the similar to shawshank redemption traditional Mt. Sinai. No scientific explanation is given, or technical reference cited, for the high-tech space photography method of precisely dating these traditional-site trails at only 300 or 400 years old, at most (p.

221). Seven Days. Travel to Red Sea Most Likely. The book states that Bible scholars and archaeologists have poor math in The Life misplacing Mt. Sinai in the Sinai (p. 71). A glaring math error has been committed for thousands of years in figuring that the Israelites reached the Red Sea from Goshen in how did dinosaurs only three days. Bronte! march (p. 118). Similar! This mistake is said to The Life Bronte Essay, be due to the widespread assumption that Moses. request of Pharaoh for dinosaurs three days. journey into the wilderness to worship God (Exodus 5:3; 8:27) also represents the The Life Bronte travel time to the Red Sea upon the Israelites. escape. However, the real reason scholars have thought (mistakenly) that it took three days to get to the Red Sea is that the Bible lists three stops (Succoth, Etham, and Pi-ha-Khiroth) and it is assumed each stop represented one overnight rest. (5) But it cannot be simplistically assumed that the Israelites always camped at night since the how did go extinct pillar of cloud that led them by day was a pillar of Bronte Essay, fire by night so that they could travel by day or night according to sur la nature, Exodus 13:21 (emphasis added). Ancient Jewish tradition identifies the eating of unleavened bread in haste for seven days in the Passover (Exodus 12:11-19, 37-39; 13:6-7) as the time occupied in hasty travel to the Red Sea.

For seven days eat unleavened bread, the bread of affliction, because you left Egypt in haste , states Deuteronomy 16:3. If so, the Israelites took seven days to get to the Red Sea. (51) The current book concedes the possibility that the Israelites reached the Red Sea in of Emily Essay as little as only five to seven days . (p. 125). Midian Partly Overlapped into the Sinai Peninsula. The book states (p. 70, emphasis added): There is NO mention in bonaparte meaning any work we have been able to uncover that the land of The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, Midian was ever reputed to be in Golding’s of the A Laboratory of Human the Restraints the Sinai Peninsula. It was always to the east of the The Life Bronte Essay Sinai Peninsula across the Flies: A Laboratory Behaviour Sans of Civilization” Gulf of Aqaba, where the The Life Bronte Essay Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is now found. The argument is learning, that if Mt. Sinai is in Midian, and Midian is only in Saudi Arabia, then Mt. Sinai had to be in Saudi Arabia, too.

But as we have seen, Mt. Sinai and Midian were in two different places according to the Bible (Exodus 18; Numbers 10). The book's highly praised ancient author Josephus wrote that the land of Midian was located in the Sinai , in the whole district extending from Pelusium in Egypt to the Red Sea, where kinsmen of Bronte Essay, Moses. Bonaparte! Midianite father-in-law had settled. (52) (Notice that Josephus does not make Sinai part of Egypt.) Midian was placed at least partly in the Sinai by of Emily later authors (Antoninus of meaning, Placentia, Italy, ca. 570 A.D., Arab historian Makrizi, d. 1441). The Life Of Emily Essay! (53) So have some of the Flies: of Human of Civilization” leading Bible archaeologists and scholars of modern times-William F. Albright, H. H. Rowley, G. Ernest Wright, Roland de Vaux, Avraham Negev, and others-who overlap Midian part way into the Sinai. (54) Yet the The Life Bronte current book says one would be e xtremely hard put to find an archaeologist or Biblical scholar who would locate Midian in the Sinai (pp. 16, 70, emphasis added). The book author challenges the reader to check one's own Bible atlases and see if he is right (p. 69). But he is not.

See for example the Grollenberg Atlas of the how did Bible, Westminster Historical Atlas of the Bronte Bible, the map section of the revised Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible, and the Jewish History Atlas, all showing Midian partly in the Sinai. (55) The Harper's Bible Dictionary is not correctly quoted in the book to support the idea that Midian was limited to Saudi Arabia (pp. 69-70). The correct quote only refers to the center of Midian as located in Saudi Arabia, as it includes the following capitalized portion omitted from the book under review here: The Land of how did, Midian (Exodus 2:15) probably refers to the center of the Midianite territory , that part of northwestern Arabia bordering the Gulf of Aqabas eastern shore. (56) This distinction between a center of Midian and an outlying territory of Midian does not preclude the outlying Midian region from overlapping into the Sinai peninsula, contrary to what the book would lead one to believe with its selective quotation. The map in The Life of Emily Bronte Essay another key source for the current book, the Harper's Bible Commentary, puts Mt. Dissertation Samples! Sinai (Gebel Musa) at The Life Bronte, the traditional spot without the question mark that the of the Flies: of Human the Restraints of Civilization” book claims is used in almost every Bible atlas (p. 49) -- and without showing any alternative site in Saudi Arabia. The book mentions neither of The Life, these facts.

Jebel al-Lawz is unquestionably an dissertation samples interesting archaeological site worthy of further investigation, if Saudi authorities will allow it. The Life Of Emily Essay! The identification of this site as the true Mt. Sinai needs to overcome a host of problem areas outlined above. I remain interested in reviewing the evidence for this site and am in the process of gathering further data. Copyright 1990-2001 by bonaparte meaning Brad C. Sparks All rights reserved. (1) Larry Williams, The Mountain of Moses: The Discovery of Mount Sinai (Wynwood Press, New York, 1990; reprinted as The Discovery of Mount Sinai , 1997) p. 182. (2) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 70. It will be assumed here that the place where Moses fled after killing the Egyptian (Exodus 2), the of Emily Essay land of Midian, roughly corresponds to Saudi Arabia's northwest quarter (see PROBLEM NO. 20 regarding some overlap into the Sinai).

(3) Near the mountain of God (Exodus 18:5). The Israelite camp at Rephidim was literally within a short walking distance of Horeb (Mt. Similar Redemption! Sinai), where Moses struck the rock to get water (cp. Exodus 17:1, 5-6). Mt. Horeb = Sinai approximately (cp. Exodus 33:6, 34:29-30).

See the main text for discussion of the similar incident located directly at Mt. Sinai (Numbers 10). (4) Har-El's book is quoted in Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (5) Charles T. Beke, Origines Biblicae (London, 1834) vol. 1, cited in Thomas K. Cheyne, Exodus sec. 5, in Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black (eds.), Encyclopaedia Biblica (Macmillan, New York, 1901) vol. 2, col. 1434. See also Beke, Egypt not the Mizraim, nor the Gulf of Suez the Red Sea, of Scripture, Asiatic Journal, new series, vol. 13 (1834) p. 258; On the localities of Horeb, Mount Sinai, and Midian, connexion with the hypothesis of the The Life of Emily Essay distinction between Mizraim and Egypt, letter in The British Magazine (1835), cited in Ibrahim-Hilmy, The Literature of Egypt and the Soudan (Routledge Kegan Paul, London, 1886 [Kraus Reprint, Nendeln, Liechtenstein, 1966]) vol.

1, p. 58. Beke, The Idol in Horeb: evidence that the movies redemption Golden Image at Mount Sinai was a cone, and Bronte Essay, not a calf (London, 1871); Mount Sinai a Volcano (Tinsley, London, 1873). (6) Charles T. Beke (ed. Emily Beke), The Late Dr. Of The Demonstration Of Human Sans Of Civilization”! C. B.'s Discoveries of Sinai in Arabia, and of Midian (London, 1878) p. 404, cited in Menashe Har-El, The Sinai Journeys: The Route of the Exodus (Ridgefield Publ.

Co., San Diego, Calif., 1983 rev. Eng. transl.) = [ Mase Sinai (Am-Oved Publ. Ltd., Tel Aviv, 1968)] pp. 252, 294 n. 441. Upon his firsthand exploration of the Arabian mountains in 1873-4, Beke seemed to retract his novel thesis of a volcanic origin for the smoke, fire and The Life of Emily Bronte Essay, rumblings on Mt. Sinai, but without repudiating the general Arabian locale. Beke, Sinai in Arabia (1878) p. 436, as partly cited in Ian Wilson, Exodus: The True Story (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1985) [= The Exodus Enigma (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985)] pp.

128, 195. (7) Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) p. 250. (7a) See note 3 (above). (8) Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 62, 84. (9) Josephus, Against Apion 2:2 [2:25]: William Whiston (transl.), Josephus: Complete Works (London, 1734 [Kregel Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., 1960 reprint]) p. Bonaparte! 623b; Henry St. J. Thackeray (transl.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1926) vol.

1, pp. 301-303. (10) Graham I. Davies, The Way of the Wilderness (Cambridge Univ. Press, London, 1979) pp. The Life Of Emily Bronte! 51-55. (11) Exodus entry, Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1901) vol. 2, col. 1434. (12) Beke, The Late Dr. C. B.'s Discoveries (1878) p. 436 as cited in Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 128, 195, and in Ibrahim-Hilmy, Literature of Egypt/Soudan (1886) vol.

1, pp. 58-59. (13) Cheyne-Black, Encyclopaedia Biblica (1899-1903). (14) Oded Bustanay, Exodus, Encyclopaedia Judaica (Keter Publ. House, Jerusalem, 1972) vol. Dissertation! 6, p. 1043; Har-El, Sinai Journeys (1983) pp. 357, endpapers; David Daiches, Moses: The Man and The Life of Emily, his Vision (Praeger, New York, 1975) pp. 84, cf. 90, 98; Wilson, Exodus (1985) pp. 154, 196; Siegfried H. Sonnet Nature! Horn, What We Dont Know About Moses and the Exodus, Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 3, no.

2 (June 1977) pp. 22a-31b at 30, cf. The Life Bronte Essay! 29a. Har-El's book is quoted in how did dinosaurs Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 61, 223. (15) Williams, Mountain of Essay, Moses (1990) pp. Similar Redemption! 13, 56. (16) Nectarius, Bishop of The Life Essay, Sinai at St. Catherine's Monastery ca. 1658, drew on dissertation samples, the monastery's vast manuscript collection (which included the now famous Codex Sinaiticus) to The Life of Emily, write the monastery's official history and he is the authority for Helena's role in building the original church ca. 330.

Lina Eckenstein, A History of Sinai (London New York, 1921 [AMS Press, New York, 1980 reprint]) pp. 99 fn. 1, 178-179; James Bentley, Secrets of Mount Sinai (Doubleday, New York, 1986 [Orbis, London, 1985]) p. Dissertation Samples! 58; Edith Deen, Great Women of the Christian Faith (Harper Row, New York, 1959 [Barbour Co., Westwood, N.J., reprint]) pp. 7-10. (17) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. The Life Bronte! 58; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. Sonnet! 99. (18) Contrary to the arbitrary dating of Justinian's accession in 527 that is sometimes cited, the monastery must have been built after Empress Theodora died in The Life Essay 548 as a roof inscription still extant is dedicated to her posthumously (Bentley, Secrets/Sinai, pp. 64-67). Justinian's building activity began ca. Meaning! 535 and a decree of Justinian dated to 551 guarantees political independence of the monastery (Eckenstein, Hist. The Life Essay! Sinai, pp.

121-122, 177). Though the how did go extinct decree is probably an ancient forgery, it nevertheless may reflect early information on the construction date of the monastery. (19) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 147. A SHRINE for St. Catherine on an elevated portion of Mt. Sinai (Jebel Musa) had been mentioned as early as ca. 1096 ( ibid., p. 140) but the name evidently was not yet applied to the MONASTERY itself, located in the wadi next to Mt. Sinai. (20) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 63, 109.

Karl Richard Lepsius in Bronte Essay a letter of definition century learning, April 6, 1845, suggested for the first time that the Onomasticon of Eusebius, ca. 330 A.D., revised by Jerome ca. 390 A.D., had identified a mountain AT a place called Paran (not a Mt. Paran), three days. journey from Eilat (Elath), as Mt. Sinai. But his theory was based on of Emily Bronte Essay, a misreading of the text, which clearly distinguished Paran and Mt.

Sinai as separate locales. Lepsius also believed this Mt. Sinai-at-Paran meant Jebel Serbal near Pharan or Feiran, about 20 miles northwest of Golding’s of the Flies: Demonstration Sans, Jebel Musa, but this is much farther than three days. travel from Elath. Lepsius (transl. Charles H. Cottrell), A Tour from Thebes to the Peninsula of Sinai (London, 1846 Eng. transl.) pp.

65, 74; Briefe aus Aegypten, Aethiopien und der Halbinsel des Sinai (Berlin, 1852) pp. 345-354, 416, 447-451; as cited in the critiques below: Henry Hayman, Sinai, in William Smith (ed.), A Dictionary of the of Emily Bronte Bible (Murray, London, 1863) vol. Bonaparte Meaning! 3, pp. 1325a-1328a at 1326b-1327a; James G. Murphy, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Exodus (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1866 [Klock Klock, Minneapolis, Minn., 1979 reprint]) pp.

204-205; C. F. Keil and Friedrich Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on of Emily, the Old Testament (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1878) vol. 2, p. 90 fn. 1 [on Exodus 19:1, 2]; J. Rendel Harris, Sinai, Mount, in dinosaurs go extinct James Hastings (ed.), A Dictionary of the Bible (T. T. Clark, Edinburgh; Scribner's, New York, 1898 [Hendrickson Publ., Peabody, Mass., 1988 reprint]) vol. Of Emily Essay! 4, pp. 536b-538a at 537b; Eckenstein, Hist.

Sinai, p. 4; Davies, Wilderness, pp. 43-44, 63, 109 nn. 5, 6. Davies refutes the mistaken notion of Hare-El, and a J. Baker Greene writing in 1883, that Burckhardt also had advocated Serbal as Sinai prior to Lepsius. Davies, p. 109 n. Redemption! 6. (The same mistake was made still earlier in the Smith Bible Dict., 1863; see Hayman, ibid. Essay! ) (21) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 14-28, esp. To Shawshank Redemption! 23-24. (22) Paul J. Achtemeier (ed.), Harper's Bible Dictionary (Harper Row, New York, 1985) p. The Life Of Emily Bronte! 957, emphasis added. (23) Eckenstein, Hist.

Sinai (1921) pp. Go Extinct! 98-101, 104, 119; Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. Bronte! 100-101 n. 23; John Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels to bonaparte, the Holy Land (Aris Phillips, Warminster, Eng. Ariel Publ. The Life Of Emily Bronte! House, Jerusalem, 1981 rev.) pp. 29, 237-239; see A. Thomas Kraabel review in BAR, vol. 9, no. 2 (March/April 1983) pp. Sur La Nature! 20-23.

Egeria is Essay, also known in the literature as Etheria or Silvia, but the name and spelling as Egeria has been fairly well established. George E. Gingras, Egeria: Diary of a Pilgrimage (Newman Press/Paulist Press, New York, 1970) pp. 6-7; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels, pp. 235-236. (24) Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. Golding’s Lord Demonstration The Restraints Of Civilization”! 42. (25) Alan H. Gardiner, William F. Albright, Edouard Naville, and others, cited in: John Van Seters, The Hyksos (Yale Univ. Of Emily! Press, New Haven, Conn., 1966) pp. 148-149; Gingras, Egeria, pp.

21-23, 149-150 nn. 96-102, 183 n. 103; Wilson, Exodus, p. 47; John Bimson, Exodus and Conquest-Myth or Reality? Journal of the Ancient Chronology Forum, vol. Samples! 2 (London, 1988) pp. 37, 39; Itzhaq Beit-Arieh, Fifteen Years in The Life Bronte Sinai, BAR, vol. 10, no. 4 (July/August 1984) p. Bonaparte Meaning! 28; Aviram Perevolotsky and Israel Finkelstein, The Southern Sinai Exodus Route in Ecological Perspective, BAR, vol. 11, no. 4 (July/August 1985) pp. The Life Of Emily Essay! 28-32.

(26) Davies, ibid., pp. 40, 43, 46; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 93-94, 115; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp 28-29, 100-101, 205-207. Etymology of Clysma: J. Rendel Harris and Arthur T. Chapman, Exodus and Journey to Canaan, in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible (1898) vol. 1, p. 803b; Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publs., Grand Rapids, Mich., reprint 1889 rev.) pp. 332a, 350b. (27) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp. 30, 99 n. 1, emphasis added. In Herodotus ca. 450 B.C., not only was the Sinai Peninsula considered PART OF ARABIA but, surprisingly, so was all of the William Golding’s of the A Laboratory Demonstration of Human Behaviour Sans of Civilization” eastern desert half of what WE now call EGYPT on the continent of AFRICA.

In Greek and of Emily, Roman Empire days, the bulk of the Sinai Peninsula was left to William of the Flies: Sans, the Nabateans as Arabia Petrea, until their conquest by the Romans in 106 A.D. The southern and central Sinai were then merged into Bronte Essay the new Province of Arabia. Even in modern times, Wilhelm Gesenius listed both MT. Movies Similar! SINAI and Bronte Essay, the Sinai Peninsula as PART OF ARABIA, in his famous 1834 Hebrew Lexicon. (Herodotus II:8, 11, 158; Michael Avi-Yonah, Sinai, Encycl. Judaica, vol. 14, p. 1595; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai, p. 91; Davies, Wilderness, p. 30; Avraham Negev (ed.), The Archaeological Encyclopedia of the definition Holy Land [AEHL] (Thomas Nelson, Nashville, Tenn., 1986 rev.) pp. 65, 221-223, 276, 292, 351; Samuel P. Tregelles (transl.), Gesenius' Hebrew and of Emily Bronte, Chaldee Lexicon (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1979 reprint [London, 1847, 1857]) p. 584 (Strong's no. 5514).) (28) Telephone interview with John D. Morris, ICR, Oct.

26, 1990; Morris, The Search for Noah's Ark: Status 1992, Impact, no. 231 [ Acts Facts, vol. 21, no. 9] (Sept. 1992) p. iii. (29) Bob Cornuke slide presentation, Calvary Chapel-Costa Mesa, Santa Ana, Calif., Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript). See also Cornuke, Trinity Broadcasting Network television program, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape available from TBN, Tustin, Calif.). (30) Also Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) p. 123 (to go out of Goshen is to go OUTSIDE OF EGYPT), emphasis added. (31) John Bright, A History of samples, Israel (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1959) pp.

114-115. (32) Louis Grollenberg, Atlas (Thomas Nelson, London, 1956, 1965) p. 51. (33) Alessandra Nibbi, Ancient Egypt and The Life of Emily Essay, Some Eastern Neighbours (Noyes Press, Park Ridge, N.J., 1981) pp. 1-5, 9, 11; William H. Stiebing, Out of the definition of 21st Desert? (Prometheus Books, Buffalo, N.Y., 1989) pp. 184-186. (34) Frederick W. Holland in Charles W. Wilson, et al., The Recovery of Jerusalem (R. Bentley, London, 1871) p. 524, quoted in Claude R. The Life Bronte Essay! Conder, Sinai, in James Orr (gen. ed.), International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1929 rev. [1986 reprint]), vol. 4, p. 2804; Samuel C. Dissertation Samples! Bartlett, From Egypt to Palestine (Harper Row, New York, 1879) pp.

270-272, as cited in Wilbur Fields, Exploring Exodus (College Press, Joplin, Missouri, 1976) p. 394; Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 118, 122-123. (35) Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 6-7, 39-40. (37) R. Essay! Laird Harris (ed.), Theological Wordbook of the samples Old Testament (Moody Press, Chicago, 1980) vol.

2, pp. 558-559 (no. 1309); Gesenius Lexicon, p. 536 (Strong's no. 5090). (38) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 [140]; edition of Henry St. J. Thackeray and of Emily Essay, Ralph Marcus (transls.), Josephus (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1934) p. 237. See also Eckenstein, Hist. Nature! Sinai, p. 45. (39) Cornuke presentation, Oct. 25, 1990 (tape transcript).

Cf. Williams, Mountain of Moses (1990) pp. 77-79. See also Cornuke, TBN television, Dec. 18, 1991 (audio tape). (40) Telephone interview with John D. Of Emily Essay! Morris, ICR, Oct. 26, 1990; Morris, Search for Noah's Ark, Impact [ Acts Facts ] (Sept. 1992) p. iii.

(40a) Bob Cornuke telephone interview, Dec. 30, 1996. (41) Flash floods at St. Catherine's or southern Sinai generally: Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp.

5-6; George H. Forsyth and Kurt Weitzmann, Saving the how did dinosaurs go extinct Mt. The Life Of Emily Bronte Essay! Sinai Mosaics, BAR , vol. 4, no. 4 (Nov/Dec 1978) p. Of 21st Learning! 20. (42) Egeria 2:2, 4:4; Eckenstein, ibid., pp. 117-118; Gingras, Egeria (1970) pp.

50, 54-55; Wilkinson, Egeria's Travels (1981) pp. The Life Bronte! 91, 95-96. (43) Bentley, Secrets/Sinai (1986) p. 58, emphasis added. (44) Eckenstein, Hist. Redemption! Sinai (1921) p. The Life Essay! 151; Bentley, ibid., p. 67. (45) Negev, AEHL (1986) p. How Did Go Extinct! 351. Eckenstein, ibid., p. 118. Interestingly, Egeria (5:5) saw low-lying circular stone foundations near the traditional Mt. The Life! Sinai, which she thought were remains of meaning, houses built by The Life of Emily the Israelites under Moses. Egeria also saw the so-called Nawami stone huts (Eckenstein, p. 90; Wilkinson, pp.

209-210, 213, 216, 328) on her way to Mt. Sur La! Sinai. These have been found in various spots across the Sinai and Negev, some with the of Emily stone roofs amazingly still intact. Dissertation! Based on pottery chronology, they are dated to the Chalcolithic age. (Beit-Arieh, BAR , July/Aug 1984, pp. 34-36.) (46) Avraham Negev, Understanding the Nabateans, BAR , vol. 14, no. 6 (Nov/Dec 1988) pp. The Life Of Emily! 32, 34. (47) Davies, Wilderness (1979) pp.

49, 106 n. 2, 110 n. 17. (48) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) pp. 81-82. Arab historian Masoudi ca. How Did Go Extinct! 951 A.D. disputed this identification of The Life of Emily Essay, Shoeib with Jethro. (50) Exodus 12:37; 13:20; 14:2; Numbers 33:3-8. See Keil-Delitzsch, Comm. Exodus (1878) pp.

26-27 (on Exod. 12:37-42). (51) Ancient Hebrew tradition of 7-day travel on Abib/Nisan 15-21 from meaning, Egypt to the Red Sea: Johann David Michaelis, Essai physique sur lheure des marees dans la Mer Rouge, comparee avec lheure du passage des Hebreux (Paris, 1755; rev. The Life Bronte Essay! Gottingen, 1758) as partly cited in Alexander Wheelock Thayer, The Hebrews and the Red Sea (Warren F. Draper, Andover, Mass., 1883) p. 11 fn. Meaning! 1; see also Howard B. Rand, Primogenesis (Destiny Publishers, Haverhill, Mass., 1953) pp.

166-167, as quoted in John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt (Baker, Grand Rapids, Mich., 1986 rev.) p. 174; Fields, Exploring Exodus (1976) pp. 260, 289 (3 days to Succoth then 4 days to Red Sea). (52) Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 6:7:3 [140]; Thackeray-Marcus, Josephus (1934) p. 237. (53) Eckenstein, Hist. Sinai (1921) p. 81; Davies, Wilderness (1979) p. 46.

(54) Grollenberg, Atlas (1965) pp. 44, 157; G. Ernest Wright and F. V. Filson, Westminster Historical Atlas (Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1956 rev.) p. 33; James Hastings (ed.), Frederick C. Grant and The Life of Emily Essay, H. H. Rowley (rev. eds.), Dictionary of the Bible (Scribner's, New York, 1963 rev.) map 5; Negev, AEHL (1986) p. 262. (55) Ibid.; Martin Gilbert (ed.), Jewish History Atlas (Weidenfeld Nicholson, London, 1985) map reprinted in Martin Gilbert (cons. ed.), Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (Macmillan, New York, 1990) p. 15. (56) Achtemeier, Harper's Bible Dict. (1985) p. 634. Harper's next sentence confusingly talks about the Midianites roaming far beyond this ancestral homeland as far as the Sinai , which might suggest to a cursory reader that the William of the A Laboratory Demonstration Sans Sinai was outside of of Emily Essay, Midian but apparently means the Sinai was outside of the bonaparte ancestral center of Midianite territory. However, there is no Biblical basis for distinguishing between a central Midian and an outer Midian.

(57) Ibid., p. Essay! 957; James L. Mays (gen. Bonaparte! ed.), Harper's Bible Commentary (Harper Row, San Francisco, 1988) map 2. Copyright 1990-2001 by Brad C. Sparks. Addendum: Prof. K.A. Kitchen addresses the possible routes of the Exodus and the overwhelming evidence that the traditional location at the South end of the Sinai Peninsula is correct. See his new book, On the Reliability of the Old Testament , Wm. B. Of Emily! Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 2003. To Shawshank! See especially pages 241-274.

Route Maps, from K.A. Kitchen. Another Traditional route map with major place names. (added 3/18/04). Online version created January 30, 1997. The Life Of Emily Essay! Modified January 31, 1997, April 21, 1997, February 9, 1999, Last revision April 23, 2001.

Formatting changes: Thursday, February 6, 2003. January 1, 2004. April 17, 2004. Samples! October 7, 2004. March 24, 2005. April 2, 2005. August 7, 2006.

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Lack of clarity and definition of 21st learning precision while communicating can be overcome by conveying proper information to the team members. A team leader must develop interpersonal relations and learn to be a good listener. As a team leader, one must listen without prejudice before any feedback is The Life of Emily given out. A good team leader must translate the directive into a language that is appropriate to the context in which his subordinates understand avoiding the sonnet sur la risk of poor communication. Sometimes laziness or lack of urgency in transmitting messages either upward or downward becomes a barrier in effective communication in of Emily Essay an organization (Hackman Johnson, 2009). Timely communication achieves healthy cooperation and coordination in any entity. Subordinates should also be given reasonable time for adjustment in scenarios where messages conveyed have a bearing on their working conditions. For example, when a team leader announces changes in shift, order or place that is Golding’s of the Demonstration Sans the Restraints relevant to them.

Members of a team require ample time to understand messages sent to them. It is inappropriate for a team leader to force changes on the subordinates before they adjust with such changes. Other ways of overcoming barriers of communication within the PepsiCo include feedback of information, use of proper language and conveying information through action and deeds. Leadership can significantly affect an of Emily Bronte Essay, entity, by either determining its success in a market or by defining the organizational culture. Strong, ethical leadership is very crucial in how did go extinct any business climate.

In spite of the existence of various leadership styles, successful leaders are seen to shape their management practices to suit employee needs. Good leadership is characterized by of Emily Essay, having a vision and sonnet nature implementing it to a reality. Team building is an extremely essential aspect of successful business. Teams are effective when they have a team leader who is able to help see them through some of the more difficult stages of the team-building process. Communication is of Emily Bronte Essay highly instrumental in motivating employees since it gives expression to ideas and thoughts.

Effective communication improves performance. Regular feedbacks help reduce barriers in communication. Hackman, M. Z., Johnson, C. Sonnet! E. (2009). Leadership: A Communication Perspective (Fifth ed.). Long Grove, Illinois: Waveland Press,Inc. LaFasto, F. M., Larson, C. (2001).

When Teams Work Best. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.