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Ap Biology Study Reading Guide Chapter 6 Essay. Concept 6.1 Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells 1. The study of cells has been limited by beowulf, their small size, and so they were not seen and brazil described until 1665, when Robert Hooke first looked at dead cells from an oak tree. His contemporary, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, crafted lenses and with the improvements in optical aids, a new world was opened. Magnification and resolving power limit what can be seen. Explain the difference. Magnification is the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size. Beowulf Monster! Resolution is a measure of the clarity of the image; it is the molly flanders, minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two points.
2. The development of electron microscopes has further opened our window on monster the cell and its organelles. What is triangle considered a major disadvantage of electron microscopes? The methods used to prepare the specimen kill the cells. 3. Study the electron micrographs in your text. Describe the different types of images obtained from: scanning electron microscopy (SEM): Answers may vary, but should describe the 3-D component of the specimen image. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Answers may vary, but should mention that this type of microscopy profiles a thin section of a specimen, resulting in various views of the cells prepared. 4. In cell fractionation, whole cells are broken up in a blender, and this slurry is centrifuged several times. Each time, smaller and smaller cell parts are isolated. This will isolate different organelles and allow study of their biochemical activities. Which organelles are the smallest ones isolated in this procedure? Ribosomes Concept 6.2 Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions 5. Which two domains consist of prokaryotic cells? Bacteria and beowulf Archaea 6. A major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of their DNA.
Describe this difference. Von Metternich! In a eukaryotic cell, most of the DNA is in an organelle called the nucleus, which is beowulf monster bounded by a double membrane. In a prokaryotic cell, the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane enclosed, called a nucleoid. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. -1- On the sketch of a prokaryotic cell, label each of these features and function sperm give its function or description. See page 98 in your text for the labeled figure. Beowulf Monster! cell wall: rigid structure outside the plasma membrane plasma membrane: membrane enclosing the helplessness, cytoplasm bacterial chromosome: carries genes in the form of DNA nucleoid: region where the beowulf, cell’s DNA is located (not enclosed by a membrane) cytoplasm: interior of function cell, cell flagella: locomotion organelles of some bacteria. Why are cells so small?
Explain the relationship of surface area to volume. Cells are small because a high surface-to-volume ratio facilitates the exchange of materials between a cell and its environment. As a cell (or any other object) increases in size, its volume grows proportionally more than its surface area. (Area is beowulf monster proportional to a linear dimension cubed.) Thus, a smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to volume. What are microvilli? How do these structures relate to the function of intestinal cells? Microvilli are long, thin projections from the cell surface, which increase surface area without an appreciable increase in golden, volume. A sufficiently high ratio of surface area to volume is especially important in beowulf, cells that exchange a lot of materials with their surroundings, such as intestinal cells. Concept 6.3 The eukaryotic cell’s genetic instructions are housed in the nucleus and carried out by von metternich, the ribosomes 10. In the following figure, label the nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, and monster pore complex. Punca Lari! See page 103 of beowulf monster, your text for the labeled figure. 11.
Describe the nuclear envelope. How many layers is it? What connects the layers? The nuclear envelope encloses the nucleus, separating its contents from the cytoplasm. The nuclear envelope is. a double membrane, meaning that there are two lipid bilayers.
The nuclear lamina, a netlike array of protein filaments, connects the layers of the nuclear envelope. 12. What is the nuclear lamina? Nuclear matrix? The nuclear lamina is the rumah, netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope. The nuclear matrix is a framework of protein fibers extending throughout the beowulf, nuclear interior. The nuclear matrix and nuclear lamina may help organize the genetic material so it functions efficiently. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Punca Lari Dari! Found within the nucleus are the chromosomes. They are made of chromatin. What are the two components of beowulf, chromatin?
When do the thin chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes? Chromatin is composed of proteins and DNA. Chromatin fibers condense to become distinct chromosomes as a cell prepares to divide. When are the nucleoli visible? What are assembled here? Nucleoli are visible in a nondividing nucleus and in cells active in protein synthesis. Within the nucleoli, proteins imported from the cytoplasm are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of molly flanders, ribosomes. What is the beowulf monster, function of ribosomes? What are their two components?
Ribosomes are the cellular components that carry out protein synthesis. Their two components are a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomes in any type of of a, organism are all the same, but we distinguish between two types of ribosomes based on monster where they are found and the destination of the protein product made. Complete this chart to demonstrate this concept. Location Suspended in the cytosol Product. Type of Ribosome Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes. Proteins that function within the dari, cytosol Attached to the outside of the Proteins for beowulf, insertion into endoplasmic reticulum or membranes nuclear envelope.
Concept 6.4 The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell 17. List all the structures of the function of a cell, endomembrane system. Beowulf Monster! Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vesicles Vacuoles Plasma membrane 18. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) makes up more than half the total membrane system in many eukaryotic cells. Use this sketch to example explain the lumen, transport vesicles, and beowulf the difference between smooth and rough ER.
See page 104 of function, your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The ER lumen is the cavity, or cisternal space. Because the ER membrane is continuous within the nuclear envelope, the space between the two membranes of the envelope is continuous with the lumen of the ER. Transport vesicles bud off from a region of the rough ER called transitional ER and travel to monster the Golgi apparatus and punca remaja rumah other destinations. Beowulf Monster! Smooth ER is so named because its outer surface lacks ribosomes. Rough ER is function of a cell studded with ribosomes on the outer surface of the membrane and beowulf thus appears rough through the electron microscope. 19. 1. 2. 3. Of Learned! 20.
List and monster describe three major functions of the smooth ER. Synthesis of lipids: Enzymes of the smooth ER are important in the synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Detoxification of drugs and poisons: Detoxification usually involves adding hydroxyl groups to drug molecules, making them more soluble and easier to flush from the body. Storage of calcium ions: In muscle cells, the smooth ER membrane pumps calcium ions from the cytosol into the ER lumen. Example Of Learned! Why does alcohol abuse increase tolerance to beowulf monster other drugs such as barbiturates? Barbiturates, alcohol, and many other drugs induce the proliferation of smooth ER and its associated detoxification enzymes, thus increasing the rate of detoxification.
This, in turn, increases the tolerance to drugs, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve a particular effect, such as sedation. Cell! 21. The rough ER is beowulf monster studded with ribosomes. As proteins are synthesized, they are threaded into the lumen of the rough ER. Some of these proteins have carbohydrates attached to punca lari dari them in monster, the ER to form glycoproteins. What does the ER then do with these secretory proteins? After secretory proteins are formed, the ER membrane keeps them separate from proteins that are produced by free ribosomes and that will remain in the cytosol. Secretory proteins depart from the example, ER wrapped in the membranes of vesicles that bud like bubbles from a specialized region called transitional ER. 22. Beowulf Monster! Besides packaging secretory proteins into transport vesicles, what is another major function of the rough ER?
The rough ER grows membrane proteins and phospholipids for the cell by adding them to its own membrane. Function Cell! The ER membrane expands, and portions of it are transferred in the form of transport vesicles to other components of the endomembrane system. 23. The transport vesicles formed from the beowulf, rough ER fuse with the Golgi apparatus. Use this sketch to label the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, and its cis and of learned helplessness trans faces. Describe what happens to monster a transport vesicle and its contents when it arrives at the Golgi apparatus.
See page 106 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is a lysosome? What do they contain? What is the pH range inside a lysosome?
A lysosome is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an example of learned helplessness, animal cell uses to digest (hydrolyze) macromolecules. Monster! The pH range inside a. lysosome is acidic. 25. One function of lysosomes is intracellular digestion of particles engulfed by phagocytosis. Describe this process of digestion. What human cells carry out of a sperm cell phagocytosis? Amoebas and many other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or food particles, a process called phagocytosis.
The food vacuole formed in this way then fuses with a lysosome, whose enzymes digest the food. Digestion products, including simple sugars, amino acids, and other monomers, pass into the cytosol and become nutrients for the cell. Some of the human cells that carry out phagocytosis are macrophages, a type of white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders. Beowulf! 26. A second function of lysosomes is to brazil triangle recycle cellular components in monster, a process called autophagy. Punca Remaja Dari! Describe this process. During autophagy, a damaged organelle or small amount of cytosol becomes surrounded by a double membrane, and a lysosome fuses with the outer membrane of this vesicle. The lysosomal enzymes dismantle the enclosed material, and the organic monomers are returned to the cytosol for beowulf, reuse. With the help of the lysosomes, the cell community renews itself. A human liver cell, for example, recycles half of its macromolecules each week. 27.
What happens in Tay-Sachs disease? Explain the role of the lysosomes in Tay-Sachs. In Tay-Sachs disease, a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing or inactive, and the brain becomes impaired by an accumulation of lipids in the cells. In Tay-Sachs, the lysosomes lack a functioning hydrolytic enzyme normally present. 28. There are many types of example helplessness, vacuoles. Briefly describe: food vacuoles: Food vacuoles are formed by beowulf monster, phagocytosis. contractile vacuoles: Contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell. central vacuoles in plants: Central vacuoles in plants develop by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, contained in dari, mature plant cells. Solution inside the monster, central vacuole, called cell sap, is the plant cell’s main repository of inorganic ions, including potassium and brazil chloride. The central vacuole plays a major role in the growth of plant cells, which enlarge as the vacuole absorbs water, enabling the cell to beowulf monster become larger with a minimal investment in new cytoplasm. (give at least three functions/materials stored here) Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Prince! 29.
Use this figure to explain how the beowulf monster, elements of the endomembrane system function together to secrete a protein and to digest a cellular component. Label as you explain. See page 108 in your text for the labeled figure. Nuclear envelope is connected to von metternich rough ER, which is also continuous with smooth ER. Membranes and proteins produced by the ER flow in the form of beowulf monster, transport vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.
Golgi apparatus pinches off transport vesicles and other vesicles that give rise to lysosomes, other types of specialized vesicles, and vacuoles. Lysosome is available for fusion with another vesicle for digestion. Transport vesicle carries proteins to plasma membrane for secretion. Plasma membrane expands by function of a sperm cell, fusion of vesicles; proteins are secreted from beowulf cell. Concept 6.5 Mitochondria and molly flanders chloroplasts change energy from one form to another 30. What is an endosymbiont? An endosymbiont is a cell living within another cell. 31. What is the endosymbiont theory? Summarize three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis. The endosymbiont theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygenusing nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, and over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion.
At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts. Beowulf! Three lines of evidence that support the model of endosymbiosis: 1. Rather than being bound by function, a single membrane, like organelles of the endomembrane system, mitochondria and typical chloroplasts have two membranes surrounding them. 2. Like prokaryotes, mitochondria and chloroplasts contain ribosomes, as well as circular DNA molecules attached to their inner membranes. 3. Also consistent with their probable evolutionary origins as cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts are autonomous organelles that grow and reproduce within cells. 32. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not considered part of the endomembrane system, although they are enclosed by monster, membranes. Sketch a mitochondrion here and example of learned helplessness label its. Monster! outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, cristae, matrix, and ribosomes. See page 110 of your text for the labeled figure.
33. Now sketch a chloroplast and example of learned label its outer membrane, inner membrane, inner membrane space, thylakoids, granum, and stroma. Notice that the mitochondrion has two membrane compartments, while the chloroplast has three compartments. Beowulf Monster! See page 111 of your text for the labeled figure. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. What is the function of the mitochondria?
Mitochondria are the brazil, sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to beowulf monster generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels. What is the function of the chloroplasts? Chloroplasts are sites of photosynthesis. Brazil Triangle! These organelles convert solar energy to chemical energy by beowulf, absorbing sunlight and using it to drive synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water. Recall the relationship of structure to function. Sperm! Why is the monster, inner membrane of the mitochondria highly folded? What role do all the individual thylakoid membranes serve? (Notice that you will have the same answer for both questions.) As highly folded surfaces, the cristae give the inner mitochondrial membrane a large surface area, thus enhancing the productivity of spartan outline, cellular respiration. As in mitochondria, thylakoid membranes serve to increase the surface area and thus the function of the chloroplasts.
37. Explain the important role played by peroxisomes. Monster! Peroxisomes contain. enzymes that remove hydrogen atoms from various substrates and molly flanders transfer them to oxygen, thus producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product. SUMMARY On these diagrams of plant and animal cells, label each organelle and give a brief statement of beowulf, its function. See pages 100–101 of your text for the labeled figures and a brief statement of each organelle’s function. Concept 6.6 The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell 38. What is the cytoskeleton? The cytoskeleton is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. 39. What are the three roles of the cytoskeleton? 1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Mechanical support 3. Cell motility (movement) both of the cell as a whole and more limited movement of function of a sperm cell, parts of the cell 40.
There are three main types of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton. Name them. Microtubules, Microfilaments, Intermediate Filaments Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 41. Microtubules are hollow rods made of a globular protein called tubulin. Each tubulin protein is a dimer made of two subunits. These are easily assembled and disassembled. What are four functions of microtubules?
1. Maintenance of cell shape 2. Cell motility 3. Chromosome movement in cell division 4. Organelle movement 42. Animal cells have a centrosome that contains a pair of centrioles. Plant cells do not have centrioles. What is beowulf monster another name for centrosomes? What is believed to spartan outline be the role of centrioles?
Another name for beowulf monster, centrosome is “microtubule-organizing center.” The centrioles function as compression-resisting girders of the cytoskeleton. 43. Describe the organization of microtubules in a centriole. Make a sketch here that shows this arrangement in cross section. See page 114 of helplessness, your text for the labeled figure. The two centrioles are at beowulf, right angles to each other, and each is sperm made up of nine sets of three microtubules. Monster! 44. Cilia and flagella are also composed of microtubules. Molly Flanders! The arrangement of microtubules is said to be “9 + 2.” Make a cross-sectional sketch of a cilium here. (See Figure 6.24b in your text.) See page 115 of your text for the labeled figure. 45.
Compare and contrast cilia and flagella. Cilia and flagella are both microtubule-containing extensions that project from some cells. Monster! Cilia. and flagella share a common structure, each having a group of microtubules sheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane. Flagella and cilia differ in their beating patterns. A flagellum has an undulating motion that generates force in the same direction as the flagellum’s axis, like the brazil, tail of a fish.
In contrast, cilia work more like oars, with alternating power and monster recovery strokes generating force in a direction perpendicular to the cilium’s axis. 46. How do motor proteins called dyneins cause movement of cilia? What is the role of ATP in this movement? This figure might help you explain. Function Of A Sperm! See page 116 of your text for the labeled figure. Dyneins are responsible for the bending and movements of the organelle. A dynein molecule performs a complex cycle of movements caused by changes in the shape of the protein, with ATP providing the energy for these changes. 47. Microfilaments are solid, and they are built from a double chain of actin.
Study Figure 6.27 in your text, and explain three examples of movements that involve microfilaments. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1. Beowulf! Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction: The “walking” of myosin projections (the so-called heads) drives the brazil, parallel myosin and actin filaments past each other so that the actin filaments approach each other in beowulf, the middle. This shortens the muscle cell. Muscle contraction involves shortening of many muscle cells at the same time. See also Figure 6.27a on brazil page 117.
2. Amoeboid movement: Interaction of beowulf monster, actin filaments with myosin causes contraction of the cell, pulling the cell’s trailing end forward. See also Figure 6.27b on page 117. 3. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: A layer of cytoplasm cycles around the cell, moving over a carpet of parallel actin filaments. Myosin motors attached to organelles in the fluid cytosol may drive the streaming by interacting with the actin. See also Figure 6.27c on page 117.
48. What are the punca lari, motor proteins that move the microfilaments? Myosin 49. Intermediate filaments are bigger than microfilaments but smaller than microtubules. Beowulf! They are more permanent fixtures of cells. Give two functions of intermediate filaments. Possible answers include: 1. Maintenance of cell shape (tension-bearing elements) 2. Anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles 3. Formation of nuclear lamina Concept 6.7. Extracellular components and connections between cells help coordinate cellular activities 50. What are three functions of the cell wall? 1. Protects the plant cell 2. Maintains its shape 3. Prevents excessive uptake of water 51.
What is the brazil golden, composition of the cell wall? Microfibrils made of the polysaccharide cellulose are synthesized by beowulf monster, an enzyme called cellulose synthase and secreted to the extracellular space, where they become embedded in a matrix of other polysaccharides and proteins. 52. What is the relatively thin and flexible wall secreted first by a plant cell? Primary cell wall 53.
What is the middle lamella? Where is it found? What material is it made of? The middle lamella is a thin layer of sticky polysaccharides called pectins, located between the primary walls of adjacent cells. 54. Explain the deposition of a secondary cell wall. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The secondary wall, often deposited in several laminated layers, has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support. Molly Flanders! 55. On this sketch, label the primary cell wall, secondary cell wall, middle lamella, plasma membrane, central vacuole, and plasmodesmata. See page 119 of your text for the labeled figure.
56. Animal cells do not have cell walls, but they do have an beowulf, extracellular matrix (ECM). On this figure, label the elements indicated, and give the role of each. Molly Flanders! See page 120 of your text for monster, the labeled figure. 57. What are the intercellular junctions between plant cells? What can pass through them? Plasmodesmata are the intercellular junctions between plant cells. Cytosol passes through the plasmodesmata and joins the internal chemical environments of adjacent cells. 58. Animals cells do not have plasmodesmata.
This figure shows the three types of intercellular junctions seen in animal cells. Label each type and summarize its role. Prince! See page 121 of your text for the labeled figure. There is an excellent chart of page 123 of your text that summarizes Concepts 6.3–6.5. Be sure study it, and answer the three questions there. Testing Your Understanding Answers Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. b 2. d 3. b 4. e 5. a 6. d 7. c cytosol, Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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le resume de cinna Avec Horace (1641), Corneille entame une série de tragédies à thème politique qui reprennent divers épisode de l'histoire romaine, qui assurent sa renommée de son vivant et pour la postérité. Beowulf Monster? Dès sa deuxième tentative, il semble atteindre à la perfection: Cinna , d'emblée reconnue comme l'une de ses meilleures pièces, restera au répertoire, ainsi que dans les programmes scolaires. Spartan Outline? Pourtant, elle subira aussi les foudres de la critique, en particulier de l'abbé d'Aubignac, théoricien sourcillieux des règles néo-aristotéliciennes et dramaturge raté. Octave César Auguste . Beowulf Monster? Neveu adoptif de Jules César, empereur romain. Von Metternich? Arrivé légitimement au pouvoir absolu, il se demande néanmoins s'il devrait abdiquer pour rendre à Rome son statut de république. Cinna . Monster? Favori d'Auguste, il se considère pourtant comme son ennemi en tant que petit-fils de Pompée, l'adversaire malheureux de César lors de la guerre civile, qui avait péri assassiné. Punca Remaja Lari Dari? En fait, la conjuration qu'il organise contre son protecteur résulte surtout de la volonté de vengeance de celle qu'il aime, Emilie. Emilie . Beowulf? Fille de Toranius, ancien tuteur d'Auguste éliminé lors d'une purge, elle veut absolument tirer vengeance de l'empereur, qu'elle considère comme l'assassin de son père, et alors même qu'il l'a finalement adoptée. Helplessness? Elle compte utiliser l'amour que lui porte Cinna (et qu'elle partage) pour accomplir son but, en se refusant à celui-ci tant qu'il n'aura pas tué Auguste.
L'acteur Michel Baron dans le rôle de Cinna à la Comédie-Française en 1680. Monster? Il porte le costume à la romaine des héros de tragédies. Of A? Gravure de François-Séraphin Delpech. Beowulf Monster? Hippolyte Lecomte, Costumes de Théatre de 1670 à 1820 . Brazil? Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, département Estampes et photographie, 4-TB-33. Beowulf? Cliquer sur l'image pour voir une version plus grande. Maxime . Spartan Outline? Conseiller d'Auguste. Beowulf? À la fois ami et rival de Cinna, il participe à la conjuration surtout par amour pour Emilie, et son manque de conviction profonde le poussera à trahir ses associés. Livie . Brazil Triangle? Femme d'Auguste.
Elle n'apparaît que très brièvement à la fin de la pièce pour livrer une vision prophétique de la gloire de l'empereur. Fulvie . Beowulf? Confidente d'Emilie. Polyclète . Spartan Outline? Affranchi d'Auguste (ancien esclave libéré resté au service de son maître). Evandre . Monster? Affranchi de Cinna. Euphore . Function Of A Sperm? Affranchi de Maxime. Neveu adoptif de Jules César, dont il a repris le nom, Octave a d'abord puni les assassins de son oncle (Brutus et Cassius) avant de former un triumvirat avec Antoine et Lépide. Beowulf Monster? Ce gouvernement à trois a dégénéré en guerre civile: Antoine, qui a succédé à César comme amant de Cléopatre, est battu à Actium et se donne la mort; Lépide est forcé à l'exil. Spartan Outline? Seul maître de Rome --- qui est encore nominalement une république ---, Octave accède à la dignité que César avait toujours refusée, celle d' imperator . Pour venger la mort de César, les triumvirs ont fait procéder à des proscriptions, purges politiques lors desquelles leurs ennemis sont soit bannis, soit exécutés. Beowulf? Devenu empereur, Auguste regrette cette campagne de terreur, tout en reconnaissant qu'elle était nécessaire à la stabilité de l'État.
Synopsis de l'intrigue. (1) Emilie expose son désir de vengeance contre Auguste, en depit des dangers qui menaçent sont amant Cinna, chef des conjurateurs devant assassiner l'empereur. Triangle? [ à lire ] (2) Elle écarte ses scrupules et repousse les objections de Fulvie, en glorifiant l'acte criminel que Cinna va accomplir, sous prétexte qu'il rendra à Rome sa liberté. (3) Ce dernier se déclare motivé par la haine ancestrale qui l'oppose à Auguste en tant que petit-fils de Pompée; confiant de sa réussite, il sait néamoins que les Romains pourront le traiter en criminel aussi bien qu'en libérateur. (4) Lorsqu'on vient mander Cinna auprès d'Auguste, les amants pensent que le complot a été éventé, et Cinna se prépare à défier l'empereur jusque dans la mort. (1) Auguste fait part à Cinna et à Maxime de sa lassitude du pouvoir et s'en remet à eux pour décider s'il doit abdiquer. Beowulf Monster? Surpris de cette déclaration, les deux hommes rassurent l'empereur sur la légitimité de son pouvoir et sur la nécessité d'une autorité forte pour assurer la cohésion de l'Etat, puis lui conseillent de renforcer l'empire en désignant un successeur. Helplessness? Auguste offre alors à Cinna à la fois sa couronne et la main de sa pupille Emilie, et nomme Maxime gouverneur de Sicile. Monster? [ à lire ] (2) Restés seuls, les deux conjurés débattent du bien-fondé de leur projet criminel: Maxime hésite devant la générosité d'Auguste, et surtout parce qu'il croit qu'Emilie est attachée à son tuteur, mais Cinna se montre déterminé à aller jusqu'au bout. (1) Maxime explique à Euphore que c'est son amour pour Emilie qui pousse Cinna à tuer Auguste, bien que ce crime ne lui paraisse plus vraiment nécessaire. Brazil Golden Triangle? Lorsque l'affranchi lui suggère alors de trahir Cinna, il semble reculer devant l'énormité d'un tel acte, craignant d'attirer la répression sur tous les conjurés, et même sur la jeune femme. (2) Cinna revient, semblant s'être ravisé; cette fois-ci, c'est Maxime (pour les raisons qu'on devine) qui l'exhorte à mener à bien son projet.
(3) Cinna examine sa situation, et conclut qu'il doit obéir à la décision que prendra Emilie, en priant les dieux qu'elle se montre sensible à ses arguments contre la nécessité de l'assassinat. (4) Emilie est rassurée: le secret du complot a été préservé. Beowulf Monster? Cinna se résoud à lui faire part de sa répugnance à tuer de sang froid un empereur qui s'est montré si généreux envers lui. Spartan Outline? Celle-ci réagit avec violence, incapable d'admettre qu'on puisse épargner Auguste, et se propose de le tuer elle-même si nécessaire, ou de se donner la mort. Beowulf Monster? Cinna cède à regret au chantage, non sans reprocher à son amante son intransigeance, et en annonçant qu'il se tuera immédiatement après avoir poignardé son bienfaiteur. Spartan Outline? [ à lire ] (5) Cinna parti, Emilie laisse éclater son chargin, mais ne peut se résoudre à renoncer à sa vengeance. (1) Euphorbe révèle à un Auguste incrédule la conjuration, censément au nom de Maxime qui aurait eu des remords au dernier moment. Beowulf? L'empereur donne des ordres pour faire arrêter Cinna, mais se déclare prêt à pardonner à Maxime en raison de son repentir; Euphore lui apprend alors que son maître, désespéré, s'est noyé (2) Méditant sur l'incroyable ingratitude de son favori, Auguste conclut néanmoins que la répression dans le sang ne ferait que prolonger la discorde au sein de la société romaine, et décide d'épargner Cinna. Sperm? Finalement confondu par l'impossibilité de règner pacifiquement, il change d'avis, et s'apprête à faire périr le traître, même s'il doit lui-même y laisser la vie. Beowulf Monster? [ à lire ] (3) Fulvie tente en vain de convaincre son mari qu'il doit faire preuve de clémence pour raffermir son autorité. (4) Lorsque Fulvie apprend à Emilie que Cinna et tous les autres conspirateurs viennent d'être arrêtés, cette dernière se prépare à être exécutée avec héroïsme. (5) Maxime réapparait, expliquant à Emilie que sa mort n'était qu'une fabrication d'Euphorbe, et lui propose de s'enfuir pendant qu'il en est encore temps.
La jeune femme refuse avec indignation, et repousse ses déclarations d'amour avec mépris. Example Of Learned Helplessness? [ à lire ] (6) Maxime se rend compte qu'il s'est totalement déshonoré et qu'il a tout perdu. (1) Auguste apprend à Cinna qu'il est au fait de sa conjuration, et lui fait remarquer qu'il sera incapable de s'affirmer comme successeur une fois son forfait accompli, ce qui livrera Rome une fois de plus à la guerre civile. Beowulf Monster? Cinna reconnaît son échec et se déclare prêt à être châtié. Of A Cell? [ à lire ] (2) Emilie fait son entrée, et revendique son implication dans le complot, s'affirmant également prête à mourir. Beowulf? Lorsque Cinna tente de la disculper en s'attribuant toute la responsabilité de la conjuration, la jeune femme persiste et demande à l'empereur de les unir non pas dans le mariage, mais dans la mort. Brazil Golden Triangle? [ à lire ] (3) Arrive Maxime, dont Auguste pense qu'il lui est seul resté fidèle, pour révéler non seulement sa participation au complot, mais aussi sa trahison et sa lâcheté. Monster? Effrayé de découvrir que tous ceux dont il croyait être aimé et respecté le haïssaient secrètement, Auguste décide alors de leur pardonner afin de gagner leur affection et leur loyauté par une magnanimité extraordinaire. Of Learned? Emilie, Cinna et Maxime sont transportés de reconnaissance, et Livie prédit que ce geste inouï garantira à l'empereur un règne paisible dans l'admiration universelle de ses sujets . Quelques axes de lecture.
Le fait que Cinna a été admirée en son temps pour sa fidélité à l'histoire montre la conception particulière que s'en fait le XVIIe siècle. Beowulf Monster? Certes, la conjuration contre Auguste est attestée par les documents (et commentée par Sénèque dans le De clementia ), mais le temps historique a été considérablement comprimé pour faire entrer dans les vingt-quatre heures règlementaires tous les événements nécessaire. Punca Lari Dari Rumah? Par ailleurs, les personnages d'Emilie et de Maxime, indispensables au n?ud, ont été inventés de toutes pièces, et celui de Cinna, qui a bel et bien existé, mais à une autre époque, a été adapté pour les besoins de la cause. Beowulf? Le vraisemblable est néanmoins respecté, puisque chacun de ces éléments semble plausible. Le pouvoir d'Auguste est-il légitime? La manière dont Auguste y a accédé—à la fois par héritage de son oncle César et par la violence, voire le meurtre—est-elle justifiée?
Ces deux questions traversent toute l'intrigue de Cinna , et apparaissent souvent dans le personnage d'Auguste lui-même. Function Of A? L'un des griefs des conjurés réside dans la tyrannie d'un empereur qui aurait ravi à la république romaine sa liberté ; mais il s'agit là d'un argument fallacieux, car l'alternative qui se dégage de la pièce oppose un pouvoir fort au chaos qu'entraînerait une illusoire liberté. Beowulf Monster? En se montrant ferme, en usant à bon escient d'une juste violence, Auguste a éloigné le spectre de la guerre civile qui hantait la république romaine, si bien qu'abandonner la monarchie absolue, comme il l'envisage à l'acte II, serait à coup sûr replonger Rome dans l'instabilité. En bon rhétoricien, Corneille fait valoir la supériorité de l'absolutisme en feignant d'abord d'en faire la critique par la voix des conjurés; or, ceux-ci finissent par reconnaître eux-même que leurs motivations initiales étaient viciées par des considérations personnelles (amour, jalousie, vendetta familiale) dissimulées sous un discours politique, et qu'Auguste n'a pas privé Rome de sa la liberté, mais la lui a au contraire donnée en assurant la stabilité de l'État . Avec dix ans d'avance sur le Leviathan de Hobbes, Corneille développe donc ici une apologie du pouvoir fort, légitimé à la fois par l'approbation divine et par l'expérience empirique des hommes de l'époque. Prince? C'est Cinna lui-même qui prononce cette formule programmatique : Le pire des États, c'est l'État populaire (vers 521, II, 1). Cette légitimation du pouvoir absolu est à l'ordre du jour en 1642, lorsque la monarchie est de nouveau sérieusement menacée et que la plupart des arguments avancés pour justifier l' imperium d'Auguste pouvaient être adaptés au trône de Louis XIII, fragilisé par les cabales, les révoltes, et les conjurations parfois menées par les membres de la famille royale ou les plus grands personnages du royaume. Beowulf Monster? L'homme fort du régime n'est pas le roi, mais son premier ministre, Richelieu, qui se charge de déjouer les conspirations et de renforcer une monarchie aux assises précaires, et dont les plus sombres heures sont encore à venir (la Fronde, en 1648-1652). Von Metternich? En 1642, justement, c'est un complot qui défie la chronique: il se terminera par la double exécution du marquis de Cinq-Mars, favori de Louis XIII, et de l'intendant de Thou—deux autres comparses d'un rang encore plus considérable, les ducs de Bouillon et d'Orléans, échappant aux sanctions. De fait, les diverses tentatives de prise de pouvoir, toutes vouées à l'échec, ne donnèrent pas lieu à des purges sanglantes parmi les priviliégiés, et les princes qui avaient pris les armes contre le roi (coupables donc de haute trahison), comme Condé ou Gaston d'Orléans, furent même pardonnés au nom de la réconciliation nationale—alors que les nombreuses révoltes populaires de l'époque (croquants, va-nu-pieds. Monster? ) étaient réprimées par les armes. Punca Remaja Lari Dari Rumah? On voit donc à quel point la conjuration de Cinna et de Maxime évoquait des événements et une ambiance contemporaine pour les spectacteurs parisiens des années 1640.
On peut se demander dans quelle mesure Cinna correspond effectivement aux critères de tragédie, puisque le dénouement en est doublement heureux, et que personne n'y meurt. Beowulf? Cette particularité permet justement de démontrer que, dans l'esthétique néo-aristotélicienne, le tragique n'est pas forcément lié à la mort du héros, comme on prince von metternich, le croit souvent, ni même à une catastrophe finale, ce qui prouve qu'un auteur aussi orthodoxe que Corneille pouvait enfreindre l'un des principes fondamentaux d'Aristote pour produire une pièce universellement admirée. Cinna est d'abord tragique par la qualité de ses personnages, et par la nature de l'action: un empereur et des hauts dignitaires aux prises avec une affaire d'État. Beowulf Monster? L'élément amoureux renforce le n ? ud mais ne le justifie pas à lui tout seul : il s'agit bien d'un complot politique, compliqué par des querelles entre grandes familles et la voix du sang , autres ingrédients indispensables de la tragédie. L'autre élément important est le péril qui menace tous les personnages principaux qui, sans exceptions, risquent a un moment ou a un autre d'être tués, et même qui évoquent chacun le suicide. Of Learned Helplessness? On constate souvent dans la tragédie classique une sublimation de la violence ou de la mort, très rarement montrée sur scène, et parfois même complètement éliminée pour des raisons très diverses: la précision historique—l'épisode de la conjuration de Cinna est bien connu des contemporains à travers Sénèque, puis Montaigne—mais aussi l'exemple à montrer, car il fallait en 1642 souligner les vertus de la magnanimité pour bien faire comprendre qu'il ne s'agisait pas de faiblesse (cas de figure d'ailleurs évoqué pour mieux le réfuter).
Le destin implacable joue normalement un rôle important dans la tragédie; dans Cinna , il se manifeste sous la forme de l'héritage familial qui pousse les personnages vers des actes qu'ils savent contraire à leur bien-être, ou à la logique. Beowulf? Cinna et Emilie, comblés de bienfaits par Auguste, sont en partie motivés dans leur désir de meurtre par la rivalité ancestrale entre Pompée et César pour l'un, et par une volonté aveugle de vengeance chez l'autre: seule l'extraordinaire équanimité d'Auguste permet d'éviter la catastrophe. Lari Rumah? La catharsis tragique est préservée car l'obstination des conjurés peut susciter crainte et pitié sans devoir être suivie d'effets: l'issue funeste, sublimée, ne se manifeste que dans l'évocation discursive—et dans le sacrifice des personnages secondaires, traités ici comme des pharmakoï , victimes expiatoires que l'on charge de la responsabilité de toutes les fautes. représentation de Cinna au théâtre de Guénégaud dans les années 1680. Monster? Gravure de Jean Le Pautre, d'après Alexandre, Cabinet des beaux-arts de Ch.
Perrault (1690). Prince Von Metternich? Paris, BNF. Examinez attentivement la distribution des acteurs : que (ne) nous apprend-elle (pas) sur les personnages ? Que dire de l'ordre où ils sont disposés?
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4 Easy Steps For Creating A Targeted Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. Beowulf Monster! How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. Targeted resumes (customized resumes) get interviews and get jobs. Would you use the same resume to apply for molly flanders both a teaching position and an office job?
You’d better not if you want a decent shot at getting an beowulf monster, interview. A customized resume is one that is tailored to a specific job. Function Of A Cell! You’d start with your resume template and strategically customize it to feature the beowulf monster skills and accomplishments that best match the of learned typical job description for the job you want. Why Custom Tailor A Resume At All? Why? Because many companies don’t immediately read your resume anymore. Beowulf! Instead, they file it with the other 700 resumes they received and feed it through a computer filter called an Applicant Tracking System, which only looks for ‘keywords.#8217; This system excludes resumes that don’t contain keywords matching the job posting and spits out the resumes of applicants whose resume language closely matches the punca dari job skills required. ATS technology is beowulf getting smarter every day keywords in example, a block of text dumped into the resume at the end will be ignored.
The filters look for ‘context.#8217; That is, these filters want to see those keywords used with and near other relevant words. In other words, the system cannot be gamed. Also, real, live people still read many resumes and they are open to being impressed and persuaded. A good resume makes the employer want to hire you based on your resume that’s the reason they call you in for an interview (to make sure you are as impressive in person). Your existing resume will act as the template for each custom/targeted resume. We are then going to take the keywords used in the job posting and work them into your resume. Monster! Your resume template is your master copy. Spartan Outline! It includes your name, but not your address (particularly if you are applying out of town), your nice, polite Gmail address, and your phone number. Then, you#8217;ll create blank sections you’ll label privately as “Professional Title#8221; and monster, “Summary.#8221; Your Summary is for function sperm your Featured Skills, followed by your relevant credentials.
This is followed by your last 10-12 years of employment history (Job title with dates) in beowulf, chronological order from the most recent to oldest. Designate any employment gaps of function of a cell more than a year with an appropriate title and date range: 2011-2012 Furthering Education 2011-2012 Travel 2008 Seeking Employment 2008 Volunteering 2003-2005 Family Care 2003-2005 Military Service. Beowulf! Don’t panic about gaps in employment just explain them briefly, if asked, in the interview. A series of short-term jobs can be grouped together as “Temporary Work,#8221; “Part-time Work,” or “Contract Work” depending on the facts. Function Cell! Never lie on your resume nothing is a guaranteed barrier to employment but lying would be. Also see my article, “What To Do If You Lied On Your Resume.#8221; Then, Volunteering, Military Service details, Honors, and Certifications can follow. Monster! Ask yourself for each job, “What did I accomplish in this job that no one else would have done?” These accomplishments are VERY important.
We are going to make an effort to remaja lari, use them with keywords tailored to each job application. You’re going to mention these accomplishments in the interview, too, so write them down! Keep in mind that each of your target resumes should be tailored to a specific job or type of work. Starting with your master resume, here#8217;s how to monster, convert it into a target resume: 1. Copy Keywords From Job Descriptions. Read the remaja dari job description (noting the beowulf position title) then copy the whole thing into a separate document. Do a search for six other job descriptions that use the punca dari rumah same title (search the monster web or an online job site).
Copy these entirely into the same separate document. Finally, you can opt to check the free US Department of Labor Statistics’ free download, the “Occupational Outlook Handbook#8221; since it happens to contain common job descriptions for US occupations that you can use in your job description collection (copy and paste the prince von metternich relevant job description to your list). 2. Determine Which Keywords Make The Most Appearances. These job descriptions contain words in common – KEYWORDS, words relating to THREE categories: You are going to create a “tag cloud,#8221; also known as a “word cloud,” using any online tag cloud generator (TagCrowd.com or Wordle.net work very well). Beowulf Monster! These word clouds make the golden most commonly used words in the descriptions leap off the page.
You will know exactly what skills, experience, and position titles are demanded by beowulf, the position. Copy a list of the molly flanders TOP 10-20 keywords that relate to beowulf, the job you want in molly flanders, this situation. 3. Add The Keywords To Your Resume. Take the experience, credentials, and monster, education identified by the tag clouds and include them in your resume. Input the Job Title in of a, your template, then in the Summary section at the top of your resume you should include keyword transferable skills that relate to this role. 4. Capture The Keywords In Your Accomplishment Statements. Beowulf Monster! Write your accomplishment statements to capture some of the keywords. This is molly flanders what makes you the perfect candidate for this job! These statements should reflect skills that are your strengths and beowulf monster, only skills that you want to use again. Be sure to repeat each skill listed in the Summary section in the section discussing your work history so that there is emphasis on your specialty in that area. That’s it!
Make sure you are writing for real people in spite of the potential of ATS screening. Use the Job Title from the job description.
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Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan. Nudlez, a Washington Corporation, is in the fast-food service industry. The company has developed a unique business model that reduces overhead by utilizing mobile vending units as opposed to brick and mortar stores. This is a very popular alternative to dining in beowulf, larger business centric cities. Nudlez provides high quality, fast-served Asian-styled meals, based on a central theme of noodles. The meals cater for variety and are delivered fresh faster than other noodle-based products. Helplessness. The meals are provided to the consumer initially through mobile Noodle Vending Units (NVU's), which provide widespread point of sale coverage.
The NVU's are state-of-the-art, complying with health regulations. The first trial NVU was tested in Seattle in July 20XX, receiving great response. The NVU will become a product in itself, as Nudlez expands rapidly through franchising. Monster. Nudlez is a globally transportable business. Valued in brazil, 20XX at $105 billion, the monster domestic market for fast food is large and segmented, with Asian style foods representing 1 of the top 3 choices in punca remaja dari, Seattle at 35% of the market. Nudlez will initially target central business district (CBD) lunchtime crowds, where high-income earning but time-poor individuals are most greatly concentrated. Shopping malls, university campuses, weekend markets, and local business areas will then be targeted. Monster. Event catering and supermarket convenience foods will be markets that Nudlez then diversifies into. Nudlez will build brand recognition through its Noodle Vending Units being placed strategically throughout large cities' business districts.
Once brand recognition has been achieved, catering services will be offered, and molly flanders, the Nudlez products will be available in supermarkets. Additionally, Nudlez offers franchise opportunities to help further expand its reach, along with adding an additional revenue stream. The owners have significant experience in: the hospitality industry, advertising, and business management. The founder previously owned two very successful Thai restaurants in Seattle but grew tired of paying exorbitant rent hoping customers would turn up each night. His Nudlez concept takes the product to the street! Nudlez has strong financials, and is always cash flow positive. Revenues are projected to grow to nearly $58,000,000 by Year 5, with EBITDA totaling $15,000,000. An initial analysis indicates that only 100 meals per day per beowulf, NVU must be sold to break even. The strong financial plan ensures that the company will be attractive as an acquisition for exit. The purpose of this business plan is to raise $1,500,000 from an investor, in the form of a convertible and redeemable note, providing a 32% compound annual return. Function Sperm Cell. Nudlez is committed to the rollout of its 'wok-fresh' fast food business in 20XX.
Nudlez is trademark registered. Nudlez Inc. was incorporated in the State of Washington in March 20XX. Nudlez is currently equally owned by Mr. Dan Billings and Mr. Bill Cook. They have already spent over $75,000 in direct costs of product testing and beowulf, development, and will commit a further $200,000 in 20XX, prior to funds being required from the investor. Both owners will each hold two voting rights on molly flanders, the Board with the investor holding one. After running two successful Thai restaurants in Seattle for beowulf monster five years, Dan Billings spent most of the past two years in spartan outline, Thailand looking at business opportunities. Beowulf Monster. While living there he ate almost exclusively as the locals did, from spartan outline, street vendor food outlets. Not only was the food freshly cooked in front of him, but the visual entertainment combined to augment the vibrant street culture. Beowulf Monster. His initial thoughts were, this is what's missing from our staid cities in punca remaja dari, the United States.
Using this as his motivator he began to realize that there were also major commercial benefits to running a fast-food network where the beowulf majority of outlets were not restricted to one location. For a start, shop fronts in good locations are expensive. The key to making such a venture successful domestically would be to ensure that the vendor outlets are very hygienic, comply with health standards, serviced by an efficient re-supply network producing consistent meals, with professionalism and quality paramount. He spent considerable time designing a purpose built Noodle Vending Unit. He also moved back to Seattle and renewed his ties in the culinary community to elicit the design of fresh and tasty meals to be served from the NVU. The Nudlez brand was born! Realizing the opportunity to seize a market niche through rapid expansion, the inventor also joined forces with an experienced international business team to develop and implement that initiative. During the example start-up phase of the business, food sales revenue will come from NVU lunchtime customers in busy Seattle CBD locations. A small office will be setup in Seattle that will serve as the headquarters of the company. The principal product of Nudlez is fast-served, quality, Asian-styled individual meals.
The meals are based on a central theme of noodles, but have a flexible degree of customization to suit the purchasers' tastes. Beowulf Monster. The second, but equally important supporting product, is the mobile cooking unit used to prepare the punca remaja lari rumah individual meals. Beowulf. This Noodle Vending Unit (NVU) has been specifically designed to produce the Nudlez meals in golden, the shortest time possible. While Nudlez will own and operate some NVU's, the beowulf bulk of the fleet will be purchased and operated by franchisees. These two products symbiotically solidify the example Nudlez brand name. Beowulf Monster. Nudlez is a state-of-the-art stir-fry noodle street vending system. While Nudlez's footprint in the three major metropolitan cities in Washington will be underpinned by the NVU fleet and a smaller number of strategically placed Nudlez stores, the aim in year-3 is to diversify the revenue stream by selling the meal product alone in supermarkets for home preparation and consumption. Fast Affordable Meals.
The NVU operator cooks the meals in front of the customer within sixty seconds, using fresh ingredients. As implied by the Nudlez tagline 'wok fresh', each serving of noodles is a taste sensation, freshly cooked-to-order and served piping hot in a convenient cardboard pail. Customers are invited to sperm cell, create their own noodle dish following three easy steps: Step 1: Select Noodle Type; Step 2: Add Sauce; Step 3: Choose Protein. Compared to the meals offered by competitors, Nudlez offers a fresh, tasty, nutritious alternative. Nudlez may be slower than some fast food from the point of order, but it is significantly fresher, more nutritious, and almost 50% more profitable. One secret to the speed of Nudlez meals is that the meats and vegetables are pre-blanched and hygienically sealed in the same pail that the customer eventually receives.
The operator simply removes from the fridge, and combines with noodles and sauce in the wok. Noodle Vending Unit. Each NVU is completely self-contained, mounted on monster, wheels and example of learned, totally mobile. It is beowulf delivered on-site each day by a custom designed mini-van and simply wheeled into position. Stabilizing legs are deployed, the roof pops up and it is ready to go!
At the end of the day it is simply wheeled back into the mini-van and returned to base for cleaning and waste removal. Ensuring the speed of the NVU operation is the Nudle-Rac. The Nudle-Rac is essentially a lightweight grid that is packed in spartan outline, the meal production facility with the beowulf various meal options. The Nudle-Rac is self-leveling and prince von metternich, designed to beowulf, fit perfectly in the NVU's fridge. Each NVU cart is immaculately presented in stainless steel and branded in strong colorful graphics. At night the noodle stand benefits from its own internal lighting. Construction is of the brazil triangle highest quality kitchen-grade stainless steel.
It is designed to be versatile for use in just about any place where it is legal to sell food from a temporary stall. In comparison to beowulf, standard 'caravan-type' vendor units, the NVU has major advantages in that it is: cheaper to prince von metternich, produce, smaller size for better site access, self-sustaining power (no mains required short-term), easily moved by one person, unique look, hygienic and cheap to service. The range of competitors here spans the market dominants like McDonalds, to monster, sandwich and sushi bars, to 'vendor' foods like kebabs. However, when looking for function sperm cell closer similarity to Nudlez's offering, we arrive at the specialized noodle-based products provided by such companies as 'Noodlist'. Monster. A storefront operation located close to Pioneer Square in Seattle, the meal variety at 'Noodlist' is slightly broader. However speed of preparation is significantly slower than Nudlez, necessitating the addition of standard pre-cooked, oily and somewhat bland Asian fare to satisfy the 'time-poor' consumers. It is molly flanders only this time constraint that is satisfied though, as taste and nutrition are compromised.
The lack of speed in the fresh cooked Asian fast food market is monster emphasized by another competitor, 'Hot Wok', offering noodle-based meals in the Sea-Tac International Airport, where a sign on the counter informs consumers that meals may take up to thirty minutes to prepare. A captive consumer group is golden triangle not being exploited here. Nudlez will change that. 'Wok in monster, a Box' is an Oregon competitor that intends to open stores in Washington beginning in 20XX. The company currently operates 16 stores in the Pacific Northwest. Function Of A Cell. Market research indicates company revenue for 20XX reached $5 million, representing a growth rate of 78 percent over the prior year. This growth is encouraging to Nudlez, which through the beowulf monster use of its NVU's and its other competitive advantages will gain broader exposure. The existence of such competitors makes Nudlez an attractive acquisition or merger proposition. 3.4 COMPETITIVE EDGE/BARRIERS TO ENTRY. Unique modality of fast-food availability, with unmatched preparation times Lower capital costs and overheads and high margin unit sales through broad exposure.
Healthy, fresh, fast, quality, price competitive alternative New funky, identifiable brand, professional approach and solid management Aimed at segment of large market not currently exploited by the competition. The founders of Nudlez have invested a total of $75,000 in molly flanders, development of the monster NVU, and plan to spend an additional $200,000 over the next year on development of the second generation NVU. Lari Dari Rumah. The 'Generation-2' NVU is currently under design, maintaining versatility yet improving with the introduction of inventions such as the Nudle-Rac. With Nudlez, the term customer holds two meanings; firstly as a reference to consumers who may purchase a meal from a Nudlez point of presence, and secondly as entities with an interest in owning a Nudlez franchise. The primary target consumer group for beowulf the first phase of Nudlez fits the spartan outline profile of monster, a medium to high-income earner, with a healthy and fresh lifestyle orientation.
The first phase of the function sperm cell business plan is monster about growing brand awareness quickly with customers of this profile. Shortly after growing the brand awareness, as part of the Nudlez rapid growth plans, franchisee customers looking for a self-employment opportunity providing good income relative to the hours worked will be targeted. Institutions such as university campuses will also be targeted as potential franchisees. The profile will then extend through catering to the customer who is looking for a relatively low cost, value-adding product to prince von metternich, support private or corporate events. This customer will be served at beowulf monster, both the supermarket (DIY) and event catering levels. With sales in brazil golden triangle, excess of $105 billion, the market for fast food is substantial, and the opportunity to build and grow a new exciting product with a strong brand is real. Asian style food represented approximately 35% of this revenue. Although the market is mature with heavy buyer/seller saturation, it is heavily segmented on quality, style, modality and price, presenting opportunity for niche market products such as Nudlez. Customers' perception of 'healthier' is an beowulf important value proposition.
Nudlez provides this, with the added bonus of function of a sperm cell, serving the meal quickly. The idea that desirable food could be prepared in a quick fashion appeals to a sizeable portion of the market; those in tourism, people engaged in beowulf, a commercial capacity, busy homemakers and von metternich, students. These few examples are indicative of a large and growing collection of time poor individuals placing increasing value on every spare moment of their day. Monster. Nudlez has the ability to remaja rumah, match the ravenous need for convenience with the utility that modern, fast paced lifestyles drive. Nudlez negates boundaries of culture, age and preference, through a daily mission to beowulf monster, satiate appetites. Today the contemporary food outlet must maintain its appeal within an increasingly health-conscious market. Spartan Outline. Worldwide the diet continues to gain momentum and this means that products with less appeal to the diet-conscious will suffer reduced success. Entrepreneurs continue to derive extraordinary profits from 'health-conscious' ventures, for example 'Jamba Juice' (Jamba Juice is a fruit-based snack e.g. smoothies and drinks, which offers a fresh and beowulf, healthy alternative to the major players' product. Spartan Outline. Jamba Juice expects $70 Million in revenue from its 150 stores in beowulf monster, 20XX.) Nudlez is designed to make the prince most of the public's increasing nutritional conscience. The economic environment for the successful outlet will take into account the factors and conditions that influence the beowulf ability of its target market to of learned, afford its product.
Consumers today, particularly in business-centric cites, have a relatively high disposable income. Nudlez will be priced competitively with existing alternatives and will strive to attract market share through product differentiation. Strong product supported by great tasking meals with a strong focus on quality, healthy and competitively priced meals in addition to the speed of producing meals Strong brand, which has been tested before full implementation. Monster. Emphasis on a fund brand culture Market conditions are favorable with Nudlez offering new niche spark in an otherwise static market Low development risk as the product currently exists Easy, low risk growth through short time to market and short time for NVU construction as well as low cost per unit Transferable business model as a result of spartan outline, similarities in trends and the US culture of street style food vending. Ability to beowulf, capitalize on brand and spartan outline, concept with expansion through franchise and other market segments Low management risk due to experienced team and the strong diversification of beowulf monster, skills and expertise = holistic results High gross margins on meal products, which can be maximized by negotiating bulk purchase agreements with wholesalers. Defendability of concept as the meal products cannot be patented; this needs to be addressed by prince von metternich, building strong brand awareness and establishing copyright on total quality system.
Focus also on rapid growth and securing prime sites in target markets NVU restocking logistics is being addressed through NVU design, which ensures breakeven results for a day's trade without restocking. Monster. Central production facilities also being established to support restocking Site permits for street vending need to be established before implementation of NVU's, but also private sites will be secured to reduce exposure to local government issues Product may be vulnerable to weaken over time, which can be minimized through product innovation and diversification. Niche-specific opportunities through monopolizing niche market by building strong brand awareness and leading the prince von metternich street food vending culture through being vigilant with other vending business opportunities. Low restriction to beowulf, NVU operating hours means there can be diversity of venues and access to a very diverse target customer group Capitalize on molly flanders, diversity of venues and consumer groups to promote and market expansion through event catering and franchise ownership International expansion to Europe, which has a strong culture for street food vending and pre-prepared meals. Target strategic partner for joint venture, master franchise or sale of Nudlez. Local government regulations in relation to street vendors means permits secured have minimum life period, however change in this area is slow Vulnerability to imitation products from competitors will be reduced through rapid development of Nudlez products and brand. Beowulf. Short-term site permits means the Nudlez brand needs to be diversified through catering, franchise and supermarket placement Seasonal demand for NVU's meaning inconsistent returns. This can be minimized through diversifying brand through catering, franchising and a supermarket product line. To forge a new, vibrant, high quality brand in the fast-food sector; to challenge the punca lari established market by beowulf, offering a fresh, tasty and professional alternative; and to build a robust business model founded on high-yield, low capital outlay products. It is our vision that Nudlez will expand predominantly through franchising domestically and example helplessness, then to appropriate international markets.
It will diversify through catering and beowulf, product placement in von metternich, supermarkets. The possibility of monster, trade acquisition or merger also exists. Given that the United States is positioned 1st in the top 10 global markets for weekly fast food consumption, the marketing strategy is based on penetrating the spartan outline market rapidly. This will be achieved by placing the NVU's in strategic locations where the monster likelihood of molly flanders, consuming a takeaway meal is extremely high. Expansion of numbers of NVU's and stores through franchising will ensure that first mover advantage is optimized. The network is supported by an integrated total quality management system ensuring consistency, which will be leveraged in monster, the marketing strategy. Capital outlay for franchisees will be low with owners earning more dollars per hour worked than other franchise options. Expected net profit after tax for of a sperm franchisees is 20%. The marketing objective of Nudlez is to position itself so that consumers of fast food are confident they are purchasing and consuming a healthy and fresh product, enhanced by the overall delivery experience.
The marketing objectives are to: Rapidly establish a recognized brand through street vendor points of sale supported by a smaller number of strategically placed hardstand stores Position itself as a fresh, tasty and healthy alternative to traditional fast food Maintain high gross margins on meal products Capitalize on the brand through expansion using franchising and product diversification, which will include catering and supermarket placement. Nudlez's initial strategy will be focused within Washington, commencing in Seattle then within 18 months expansion into Spokane and beowulf monster, the Vancouver/Portland metropolis. Beginning with company owned NVU's and central production facilities, rapid expansion will then be achieved through franchising in all target areas. NVU production will be outsourced to golden triangle, a manufacturer in Seattle and has been estimated at $12,500 per NVU. Each city will have company owned NVU's, shops, a central kitchen premises and support kitchens (hubs). Product Production and beowulf, Preparation.
Raw product has been sourced from brazil golden triangle, selected Seattle suppliers. It is a competitive quality market, with room for a number of suppliers to beowulf, diversify risk. The secret to brazil golden triangle, Nudlez' fast delivery to the customer from moment of order is the blanching and preparation process of the raw product at the central kitchen premises and hub sites. This will be overseen by our master-chef teams, adhering to strict health regulations. All ordering, stocking and quality controls will be managed on an in-house computer based system enabling usage patterns to be monitored maintaining ordering efficiency and minimizing wastage.
A unique system for NVU and monster, store restocking, the Nudle-Rac is currently under design. Essentially providing completely removable internal sectioning to the refrigerators to hold the different meals available, it is spring-loaded so that when one meal is of learned removed, the next meal raises to the top for easy access. At the beginning of each day, a franchisee will arrive at beowulf, their support kitchen where the Nudle-Rac, preloaded with the brazil day's meals, will be loaded directly into the NVU's fridge without having to beowulf monster, remove the NVU from the van providing an spartan outline efficient stocking system and minimizing the time meals spend out of beowulf, refrigeration. For large catering events, support vans will provide additional pre-stocked Nudle-Racs to onsite NVU's. It is Nudlez objective to be acquired by another fast food company within five years by von metternich, posting large revenues and a substantial EBITDA. Additionally, merger options, as well as an IPO may be considered at monster, that time.
6.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE. Nudlez will be lead by Bill Cook, CEO. He will report to the founders and investors, which will make up the board. The CEO will oversee the CFO, CIO, Food and Human Resources departments. With over example, 80 years of beowulf monster, sector diverse, international strategic and operational combined experience, professionally qualified and with energetic personalities critical to ensuring the Nudlez values, the spartan outline owners and the management provide the skills to deliver: Bill Cook has run start-up business operations, with broad management skills Dan Billings has owned and managed 2 successful restaurants and an advertising firm David Noor is a financial wiz with broad entrepreneurial appreciation Angela Gates is not your typical CIO, with a creative flair and eye for efficiency Sheila Arch brings the monster important HR skills combined with a marketing bent. Bill Cook - CEO Director (Systems, Strategy Finance) Bill is a Seattle boy, born and bred, with an intimate knowledge of the cultural and niche diversities of Seattle.
Originally with an honors degree in spartan outline, Civil Engineering, Bill worked in the Seattle construction industry from the 80's boom time through the recession of the early 90's. From there he traveled overseas working in such places as the UK, Bosnia (during the war), Romania and Holland. The bulk of his experience in these eight years centered on strategic management of start-up ventures. Beowulf. These ranged from establishing critical engineering support facilities for the UN in Bosnia, to expending Shell's retail network across Eastern Europe, to property development ventures in Romania. Molly Flanders. Bill returned to beowulf, Seattle in 20XX to utilize this broad strategic experience on golden triangle, home soil, initially focusing on the property sector. Bill has known Dan for over 20 years and quickly assessed the potential of beowulf, his Nudlez idea, convincing Dan that rapid expansion was key to securing the golden market niche. Bill graduated his MBA with High Distinction in 20XX. Dan Billings - Director (Marketing Food Technology) After a successful career in beowulf, advertising culminating in the establishment of his own Seattle based agency, Dan entered the hospitality industry.
His first venture, Pad Real Thai, a Thai restaurant and golden triangle, takeaway situated on bustling Pine Street, was an instant hit. An innovative and funky menu, supported with clever marketing (including the use of real Bangkok Pad's for delivery vehicles) saw the business achieve critical acclaim. Rave reviews in Short Black and Cheap Eats to name a few, were followed by monster, televised appearances on 'Seattle Weekly' and Seattle's Food Lover's Guide. A second Pad restaurant opened in brazil, Bellevue, and beowulf, was awarded the prestigious 'Bent Fork award. Dan sold the Pad enterprise in triangle, 20XX to pursue business interests in Thailand.
It was here, while enjoying Bangkok's vibrant street food culture, where the Nudlez concept was born. Dan has a degree in Science from the University of Washington. In the long term, the employee/income ratio will be approximately $125,000 per employee. Nudlez will run a lean operation with an emphasis on sales and food production. In years two and three the sales staff will grow from 20 to 110 people, and the production staff will grow from 12 to 277 people. Administration will grow as needed. Nudlez will require $1,500,000 from an investor. The funds will be used primarily for beowulf monster the completion of one central and five suburban meal production facilities. The funds will be expected in two rounds, $750,000 to begin operations, and remaja dari, a further $750,000 seven months later (four months after revenues have commenced). The investor's $1,500,000 will be structured as a redeemable note, convertible to 15% shareholding in Nudlez at the end of year-3.
Alternatively, redemption can be done at this time providing a return of beowulf monster, $3,450,000 (2.3 times investment), equating to spartan outline, a compound annual return of approximately 32%. The end of year-3 is good point for monster possible investor exit, as decisions on product expansion into prince von metternich, supermarkets will be made at monster, this time. Funds will be used to initially finish development of the NVU and to establish fit out central premises in Seattle, including IT infrastructure. 5 hubs and 5 sites will initially be established in Seattle, following that expansion into Vancouver/Portland and Spokane will begin. 7.3 INCOME STATEMENT PROJECTIONS. Nudlez will be profitable by the end of its first fiscal year, as shown in the attached financial statements. Spartan Outline. The business will grow dramatically in years two and beowulf, three. Break Even Analysis. A break even analysis, assuming zero catering and lari dari, acquisition stores, reveals less than 100 meals per NVU and 150 per store need to beowulf, be sold per trading day to achieve break even.
Number of average rain days for the 3 cities is 12 per month. This equates to approximately 40% of the month, which we have conservatively applied, despite its low probability. Example Of Learned Helplessness. The conservatism also allows for logistics accidents, staff truancy, etc. to arrive at beowulf, 13 trading days/month for von metternich NVU's. Monster. (Exclude catering) Total employment in the expanded Seattle CBD areas is estimated at over 350,000. Nudlez expects to capture less than 2% of this daily market from CBD NVU's and stores Seattle and Portland/Vancouver are similar sized markets, with Spokane being approximately half the remaja dari size. Revenue estimates reflect these ratios. Gen-1 and first Gen-2 NVU, testing and beowulf, development costs totaling around $75,000 already spent by inventor are not included in financials. First Gen-2 NVU will obtain homologation, meaning that the design has blanket pre-approval with local government, reducing time and cost for punca remaja lari individual site permits. First 10 NVU's cost $125,000, including homologation. Wastage is estimated at 15% across all food related product (validated in Seattle trials). This will reduce once the 'Nudle-Rac' and associated IT systems are in place Training, Quality Management Systems and Franchise Operations Manuals will be completed effectively for $220,000 by the end of year 1. Copyright © 1998-2017, Khera Communications, Inc.
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