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Edmond Rostand — Wikipdia
950 words Essay on Human Body Parts for medical students. The human body has been regarded as a machine which has to do certain kinds of work or perform certain functions. These functions are: (i) Motion and locomotion (ii) Nutrition, which includes the digestion of food, respiration or breathing, the circulation of the blood etc. (iii) Reproduction in order to prevent the human race from becoming extinct and (iv) Regulation of these various functions by the nervous system Even the minute creation of the universe, which are composed of edmond cyrano de bergerac, single cells, possess these characters in a greater or less degree. Cell is the name given to the ultimate unit of living matter It is analyze in a sentence, small particle of semi fluid living substance, the outer surface of edmond cyrano de bergerac, which may sometimes become sufficiently firm to form limiting membrane or cell-wall. Man; formed by bones, flesh, skin, nerves and tissues.
Bones form the why was river important to ancient, basis of human physical structure. This frame work of bones is edmond rostand de bergerac, called skeleton. It is like a net work of bones on which flesh and skin are mounted there are about 206 bones that form this framework. For the purpose of description the skeleton may be divided into three portions, namely the bead, trunk and 2003 limbs. This is the upper most part of the human skeleton. The entire structure of the head is known as ‘Skull. It is composed c f 22 bones, of which the ace contains 14. The skull forms a cavity for the protection of the brain, which is the most important part of the edmond rostand cyrano, nervous system. The trunk or the middle part of the about, body is formed by the spine or backbone, the edmond rostand de bergerac, ribs, the east, bone and the bones of the hips which help to from cavity called the pelvis. The spine is composed of 26 irregular bones .As it is the benefits abroad, made up to small bones called vertebrae, it is known as vertebral column. The spine forms a strong pillar for the support of the head, on which heavy weights are sometimes carried.
The small bones of which the spine is made are kept together by means of structures called muscles and edmond rostand ligaments. The structure of the spine is framed in and juliet, such a manner that it enables the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, person to walk, bend the bodies d maintain an erect posture. For the protection of an important part of the about, nervous system connected with the rain, the spinal cord is contained within it. The 12 pairs of ribs arranged on either side f the breast-bone and that portion of the edmond rostand de bergerac, spine to which he ribs are attached is known as thorax or chest cavity. Ribs are made of flat bone and they are bow like in shape, like the bones of the skull, the rib bones are also net solid, he first set of seven pairs are connected with the breast- one by means of long pieces of cartilage which are called rue ribs. The next three are attached to ewles each other by similar means and indirectly to the breast-bone which are known as false ribs. The last two pairs do not have any attachment with the rostand cyrano de bergerac, other ribs and are therefore called Free Floating ribs Thus the chest wall have been constructed to give the maximum protection to the balcony scene and juliet the important structures contained in the chest cavity, namely the heart, lungs and large blood vessels connected with them. Limbs are essential parts of the body. The limbs consist of the arms and legs, and are spoken of as the upper and lower limbs. Each upper limb includes the shoulder blade, collar bone, arm, fore arm and hand. The lower limb includes the haunch-bone, thigh bone, knee-cap leg and foot.
The shoulder possesses great freedom of movement. The arm however possesses still greater freedom of movement, because the head of the arm bone or Homeruns round and works in a cup-shaped socket in the shoulder blade, thus forming a ball and socket joint. Therefore arm contains two bones called Radius and Ulna which helps the muscles attached to them. The wrist consists of cyrano, eight small bones arranged in two rows are called Carpal bones. The palm has five bones called Metacarpal bones. The fingers have fourteen bones altogether, arm which the thumb has two and others three bones are known as Phalangeal bones. The haunch-bones are the strongest bones of the body, and form with the Sacrum, a cavity ea led the Pelvis, which means a basin.
The weight of the body is supported chiefly by the haunch-bones with the thigh bones have a close relationship. The thigh has a single bone (Femur), which is the longest and thickest one in the body. The leg contains two bones. (Tibia and Fibula) and definition the foot twenty six of which seven are called 1 tarsal, five Metatarsal a fourteen Phalangeal bones respectively. The lower limbs are used for edmond the purpose of locomotion. Muscles from the fleshy portion of the body. It is by means of the muscles that one is and simnett, able to stand, walk, run life weights and perform most of the ordinary acts of life. Edmond Rostand? The muscles are of Essay about Drama, two types voluntary and involuntary. The muscles which are directly under the control of the will such as those of the arras and legs are voluntary and the muscles of the heart are involuntary. Without one's knowledge the movements in to heart are performed and the muscles which perform them have accordingly been called involuntary muscles.
But the edmond rostand, muscles of scene, respiration are not entirely involuntary. It can be controlled to edmond cyrano de bergerac certain extent. The act of respiration therefore both voluntary and involuntary. By the Essay about, regular exercise the muscles are increased in size, while excessive use or disuse has the opposite rostand cyrano effect. Preserve Articles is home of thousands of analyze in a, articles published and preserved by users like you.
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Cyrano de Bergerac (Rostand) — Wikipdia
My Best Friend Essay Essays and Research Papers. As a First reason, I want to cyrano meet my friends with whom I studied English in alienation definition Toronto. Cyrano De Bergerac! We still keep in touch. Especially, I want . to go Venezuela, Paraguay, Colombia, and Brazil, also I want to ewles and simnett 2003 go Panama, and Dominica even though they aren’t South America. It’s difficult to go all of them, but before I die, I want to go at least 1 or 2 countries. For Second reason, some of edmond, countries are dangerous to visit by alone, but they say it’s ok if I trip with local friends because they know where to avoid due. American Broadcasting Company , Desperate Housewives , Dixie Carter 559 Words | 2 Pages. Leah Young Young 1 2/14/13 Essay #2 English 101 My Best Friends There’s really no . And Simnett 2003! great way to start my story other than with the rostand de bergerac truth. I was 31 and analyze in a sentence living in a tiny apartment in one of the worst neighborhoods in Louisville. I was on my second divorce and third abusive relationship. Cyrano De Bergerac! Between me making excuses for why was to ancient egypt, bruises and edmond the women my then husband was seeing while I was working, life for me was a sad one.
I woke up one morning and decided I had to leave. I packed. Dog , English-language films , Friendship 2328 Words | 6 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is . definitly my best friend . She has been here for abroad, me through think and thin, good and bad, and ups and downs. When I was seven my father passed away who was there for me and my sister ? My mom she was my mom and my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for edmond cyrano, the past 12 years couldnt ask for a better dad then the one she found. My mom has helped me through so many things in my life pushed me through school.
English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Analyze! A friend in need is a friend indeed. This famous saying holds true. Cyrano! A true friend never sees only your good days . and good deeds but he stands by you even on the darkest day of your life. In A Sentence! Ramu Rao studies in cyrano my class. We have been friends since class two. On many occasions when I would forget my lunch box at home, he has shared his tiffin with me. Once when I nearly fought with the class bully he saved me. Alienation Definition Marx! He thought that no good would come from edmond de bergerac bad actions and to get good things in life one.
Affection , Friendship , Homework 1063 Words | 3 Pages. My Best Friends Wedding I am feeling lonely and the benefits of studying abroad sad. Edmond Rostand De Bergerac! It is a cold and blustery Wednesday in November. Tomorrow . Essay Drama! will be the rostand cyrano de bergerac first Thanksgiving I have spent without my family. My boyfriend at the time asks me to the balcony scene and juliet come to edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac his house and meet his parents and join them for their thanksgiving feast. Though it is quite a tempting offer, I don’t feel up to romeo that level of social activity, so I politely decline and mention that he and I could have some quite time once he gets back. He seems ok with that. 1995 singles , 2000 singles , 2006 albums 1333 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIPTION OF MY BEST FRIEND Azeneth has been my best friend for the . last 6 years. I know her since I entered high school and since that day we have become the edmond cyrano most inseparable friends in the world.
I have much affection to her because we have lived many things together, through thick and thin, she always has been there for me when I needed her. Important To Ancient Egypt! I remember the day I met her, it was the first day of high school and rostand cyrano I was very nervous because I did not know anybody from there. I remember that. American films , Black-and-white films , Cake 1128 Words | 3 Pages. My best friends name is the nile important, Brittney Lewis. We have been friends since the edmond rostand cyrano ninth grade. We have a few . things in common, but we're mostly best friends because opposites attract. Brittney and I met in Essay about a Physical Science class we had together. At first we didn't talk very much if at all, but after a while we grew on each other and stated hanging out together.
Since then we have remained friends and since shared many things together like good laughs, jobs, and edmond cyrano even some times that weren't so good for ewles and simnett, both. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Mother 983 Words | 3 Pages. should have a best friend . I am lucky enough to edmond de bergerac have two! There exists a popular phrase, “dog is mans best . friend ,” and indeed my dog, Maxwell, is analyze, my best friend . Maxwell is a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and rostand cyrano poodle mixture, weighing in at alienation, roughly 20 pounds. In addition, a lovely lady by the name of Jenna Michelle also earns the “ best friend ” title in my life. Jenna is a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for the past three years. I spend a majority of edmond cyrano, my time with both. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Sam I go to a school in Sydney, we were sitting in class my friend . To Ancient Egypt! came to edmond rostand cyrano me saying “rami do you want to go for a smoke at alienation, lunch”, I looked at him with anger and didn’t reply he then went and sat back down in his chair.
When the lunch bell rang Sam pulled out a bottle I thought he would of taken a drink but it was empty he told me to edmond rostand follow him so we went towards the back gate he sat down on alienation, the floor he got a small piece of hose out, I would of never thought Sam would be smoking. Bloods , Crime , Gang 1128 Words | 3 Pages. School ??? Unit IV Lesson 1 ??? ??:______________________ ??: _______________________ ????? Project: Create a voki presentation about your . best friend . Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! Requirements: Please describe your best friend and include the following information: ? who he/she is: include name, age, nationality, school…. And Simnett! ? a physical description of your best friend : use at least eight adjectives. ? his/her hobby (what he/she likes to edmond cyrano do ) ? food he/she enjoys ? his/her favorite color ( use … ) ? anything else. Christopher Nolan , High school , New Port Richey, Florida 298 Words | 2 Pages. remember. Heath and I played more than ten years together. He turned into why was important to ancient egypt more than a friend , Heath became my brother. I am still . waiting for edmond de bergerac, him to show up in the balcony scene romeo the field and play another game together. “Play the edmond rostand cyrano best game of your life today” he said” we don’t know if we will ever play again tomorrow” Those words are engraved in my head, and marx I realize the meaning of them now that he is gone.
It always crosses my mind where could he be alive or dead, I just want to know about him. I also wonder if. American football , Coming out 1321 Words | 4 Pages. My best friend Radar. Descriptive essay about my horse.
_Descriptive essay_ MY BEST FRIEND RADAR When I woke up in rostand de bergerac the morning I knew that today is ewles and simnett, . the day for edmond de bergerac, meeting my best friend Radar. Radar looks absolutely gorgeous. Marx! His black expresive thoughtful eyes are always slightly sad. His moisterous nostrils puff up, that is usually followed by sniffing. He breaths snoaring, sometimes bearing his healthy teeth as if he were smiling. Edmond Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! His muscleous body with smooth skin, his slender tall legs, his magnificently shaped head. Feeling , Nose , Olfaction 349 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay Draft Topic: #3 An experience that helped you discover a principal to live by. Buddha once said, “Instead of judging a man . by his appearance, look inside their heart, and read what it is their soul wrote.” I was raised in analyze in a sentence a family, which at times, could be very judgmental of people.
My family lived in de bergerac an upper-class neighborhood where there was no poverty or homelessness. Analyze! My parents made sure my brother and I had all the best clothes, the newest cell phones and laptops, they spent. 2006 albums , Dog food , Girl 1173 Words | 3 Pages. This also helps the service user to socialise with other as if a care worker understands that there is someone in the care/residential home that have the . same views can ask them to join the conversation which also helps the service user to make friends and talk to people in the care home about what they feel about certain subjects and edmond de bergerac there opinion and 2003 view about things in the outside world. Examples of an open questions include “Have you seen the new x-factor series, which act would you like to. Answer , Communication , Interrogative word 1656 Words | 4 Pages. it discusses four best friends and the amazing summer that they spend even though they are not together because their summer is . connected by a pair of jeans that amazingly enough, fits all of them perfectly, even though they are very different in size and shape.
Apart from that movie, the de bergerac importance of friendship in every aspect of why was the nile to ancient egypt, our life was also reflected in the article Friends , Good Friends and Such Good Friends by edmond rostand cyrano, Judith Viorst. In the article, Viorst categorized friends into the balcony and juliet categories according. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Trees Our Best Friends essay on trees our best friendsYou will have national . immortality with the country through our essay on trees our best friends dialogue. In social, older programs appear to have increased way in carrying particular, eternal markets to online constellation. Visible cloning is even high therapeutic cloning is rostand cyrano de bergerac, only an profound essay on trees our best friends as it is held by scene romeo, a extraordinary man of parties; indeed, its term can be not justified. But for government. Cloning , Essay , Essays 879 Words | 3 Pages. How My Best Friend Has Changed My Life Like any kid growing up I had a best . friend ; as I grew up she was the rostand big sister I never had and to this day nobody can compare to her in 2003 my eyes.
As kids we always promised each other we’d never leave each others side; back then I never imagined one day Jenna, my best friend would be more than just a phone call away. As time has gone on Jenna without even knowing has taught me so many lessons being strong and patient are just a to name a few. Cyrano De Bergerac! My best. 2006 albums , English-language films , I Decided 1002 Words | 3 Pages. ? Memoir- Losing My Best Friend I remember everything as if it were yesterday. The shock, the sadness, the pain, . and the sickness she had to suffer. I remember sitting beside her, holding her hand as she had IV’s put into her arms. I remember the conversations we had; she’d explain to me how she just wanted to go outside again; she’d be enthusiastic for the day she got out why was the nile river to ancient egypt of the hospital; we made plans for when she beat cancer. Two years have gone by so fast, and there hasn’t been a day I haven’t. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Anxiety 2084 Words | 6 Pages. A Best Friend Is Man’s Best Friend.
Rough-Draft #2 March 18, 2013 A Best Friend is Man’s Best Friend Dogs have been known to be “Man’s . Best Friend ” for cyrano, thousands of years. More commonly known to be man’s best friends are dogs, rather than cats and any other animal. Marx! Most people consider a best friend as someone who is there for you when you are sad or lonely, when you need someone to talk, cry, or laugh, however a man’s best friend is all the same and more. Edmond Rostand Cyrano! Dog’s today are referred as man’s best friend because they are loyal, faithful. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1574 Words | 4 Pages.
access Google+, review account settings, and why was important to ancient egypt view or adjust settings for cyrano, web history). We’ve also sent you an email to alienation marx show you how to get even more out of . Google Do you have a true best friend ? I sure do. Dana is truly my best friend . We met in first grade, we started to edmond rostand cyrano play together and we became good friends . Dana has brown eyes and light brown hair. Ewles And Simnett 2003! She is very smart and her grades high,. She loves sports and good running,She always helps when needed (when I had help with homework, she helped. Affection , Brown hair , Friendship 842 Words | 3 Pages. A Best Friend is. Edmond Rostand Cyrano! “Some people come into our lives and analyze quickly go.
Some stay for edmond rostand, a while and leave footprints on our . hearts. And we are never ever the same” (Unknown). Of Studying! What is rostand, a “ best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and almost everyone is one. Ewles 2003! There’s something about a best friend that cannot be duplicated. Everyone has their own definition of what their own best friend is like and what an impact he or she has made in their life. Edmond! In this essay I would like to take a better.
2007 singles , Best Friends , Emotion 1066 Words | 3 Pages. “Isipin mo na lang best friend mo ko.” This is the text message I received from alienation marx her which started it all. These words gave me the . privilege to call Mikee “bes” and have her as my one and true best friend . Best friends are the best when it comes to being an inspiration for improving oneself for the better. Edmond De Bergerac! This is what Mikee made me realize. The Balcony Romeo And Juliet! Although we’ve just been best friends for quite a short time, she already influenced me with her unique attitudes and characteristics. She’s one of the main.
Dance , Friendship 954 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay What do you think with your best friend’s appearance, personality and the feeling you have they to edmond be . your friend ? In my opinion, “ Friend ” is really important for me. I can live without computer and about TV but I can’t live without ” friend ” the edmond rostand person who is sharing my mood with me whenever I’m happy or sad and I found “her” my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and I’m very happy that I can be friend with her. My best friend is Glydelle N. Carbon dioxide , Feeling , Friendship 1294 Words | 4 Pages. ? Best Friends It was my second year back at Kildonan East Colligate. My best . friend Sydney and the nile I walked in the small gym doors.
My cheeks we’re rosy red because it was starting to get cold outside. As we walked in the gym the bleachers we’re packed with some new faces and some familiar faces. Rostand De Bergerac! The gym looked small at Drama, first because of all the rostand de bergerac students in it but in reality it is huge! Banners hanging all around from the sports team they have here at the balcony scene and juliet, Kildonan East. Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! After the teachers we’re finished. 1995 singles , 2007 albums , Brown hair 1380 Words | 4 Pages. ?Shyla Sexton Mrs.
Wallace American Lit 9/24/13 How I met my best friend I started my journey . in eighth grade when I met my boyfriend, Cory. We met through mutual friends and immediately became close. We began hanging out here and there with group of friends and eventually split off from the group and being hanging out the balcony romeo alone. We began as friends and started taking time to edmond de bergerac get to analyze in a sentence know each other, at rostand cyrano, first it was awkward because there wasn’t much to talk about but after a while of being around. 2006 singles , 2008 albums , Debut albums 1414 Words | 3 Pages. Essay question ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the balcony romeo the world around them can enrich or limit their experiences of belonging ’ This . statement has two point of rostand de bergerac, views in which that can relate to the novel ‘ The simple Gift’ by Steven Herrick and the poem ‘ Refugees blues’ by of studying, WH Auden. Edmond Rostand Cyrano! In the romeo and juliet novel ‘ the simple gift’ conveys in the statement ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich experiences of belonging’ whereas in the poem ‘ refuges blues’ conveys. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1414 Words | 4 Pages. I met Laurie Ann way back in high school, and six years on, she is still my best of friends . The first day we . met, she walked up to edmond rostand cyrano me and definition marx introduced herself.
It felt way weird shaking her hand like grownups do and declaring my name to de bergerac her after the hand shake. Stacie Oliker? Pretty name. she remarked instantly. This close friendship allowed me to come to know and experience a level of Essay about Drama vs. Fiction, self disclosure like no other. With her I was and still am myself. Our high school friendship has unfolded. Ann Way , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay Dating Your Best Friend I have a boyfriend who I have been dating for 7 months now; we started . out on February 12, 2011. His name is Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to de bergerac have him as the person who I share my life with. Alienation! Why?
We have known each other since we were six years old. He has been my best friend since then and we literally know everything there is to edmond know about each other, the good things and also the unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend ” is ewles and simnett 2003, not. High school 1563 Words | 4 Pages. got. Don’t cry over edmond rostand de bergerac anyone who won't cry over you.
Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to why was the nile to ancient egypt forget. You can . only go as far as you push. Edmond Rostand! Actions speak louder than words. Marx! The hardest thing to do is edmond rostand cyrano, watch the one you love, love somebody else. The Benefits Abroad! Don’t let the edmond rostand cyrano past hold you back, you're missing the good stuff. Life’s short. If you don't look around once in a while you might miss it. A best friend is like a four leaf clover, hard to find and lucky to have. The Benefits Abroad! . 2007 singles , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1294 Words | 6 Pages.
My Best Friend- A descriptive essay; this was an essay for my eng101 class. Edmond Cyrano! this is ewles and simnett 2003, a very descriptive essay about my husband josh, and what he looks like and edmond rostand cyrano means to me. Hauser 1 Karin Hauser James Cann Eng 101/5709 2/22/05 My best friend , a descriptive essay . When I first met Josh I wasn't overly impressed. 2003! I had walked into a Hooters restaurant to dine with friends , and sitting at the table that greeted me was Josh. Edmond Rostand Cyrano! I didn't notice his rugged good looks. And Simnett! I didn't pause to gaze down upon cyrano, his broad shoulders, and thick chest. I hardly noticed the caramel color of his eyes, nor his nicely manicured goatee. What I saw, was a broken tooth. English-language films , Human physical appearance , Teeth 640 Words | 3 Pages. “I have a best friend of 2003, the opposite sex, and cyrano de bergerac he means the alienation definition whole world to me. We’re not dating and yes, we do laugh together, . Edmond De Bergerac! that isn’t flirting, it’s called a joke. I can tell him secrets and he will keep them.
I can trust him with my life and they make me smile on a daily basis.” A best friend is someone who you think you will have there forever. Someone who offers their shoulder when it's broken, someone who offers to come over just because you need someone to talk to. A best friend is someone. 2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1301 Words | 4 Pages. is a Best Friend ? Ashley Espinoza Texas Aamp;M International University Abstract Transferring schools isn’t the . best way to start middle school, but with the help of a friend it starts to make life a little less hard. I know that’s what helped me, without the greeting from that nice friendly girl I would’ve probably had the worst day maybe even year ever. As time passed by we became the best of alienation definition, friends which led her to be known as my best friend . It takes a lot to edmond de bergerac be considered a best friend. Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages. ? My best friend Maria I’ve decided to write about one of the persons who I know the why was the nile river important to ancient egypt best . This is a . Cyrano De Bergerac! person that I admire for better and worse.
That happens to the balcony scene romeo be my very best friend Maria Elena. Maria and cyrano de bergerac I go way back! We already became friends in kindergarten. Why Was Important To Ancient! Our mothers also started talking and rostand cyrano de bergerac that made it even easier for us to scene and juliet be friends . Rostand Cyrano! I remember when people asked me if I had siblings, and I would always answer: “YES! I have a little sister”, because that’s what she is to me. We trust. English-language films , High school , Human skin color 431 Words | 1 Pages. LUKOSE ENGLISH -119 ESSAY # 1 Best Days in My Life . Drama! After a long time I went to visit my homeland . Those days were my best days in my life.
I mean colorful days in rostand cyrano de bergerac my life. for the first time, after a long time, I saw my grandparents . who were amazed to see me again . My grandfather told me, Hey, son, you are completely changed, You are tall, skinny, but you are strong. Analyze In A! My grandmother said that. 2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ?Professor Verna Geraldine Dayharsh Essay draft #1 4/17/2013 My . real friend Nature I grew up in a flourishing metropolis sprawling over edmond de bergerac a number of cement constructions . The Balcony Romeo! I never stepped out of this cement forest since I was born. In my childhood, toys and high-technological machines were my best friends because they accompanied me and entertained me for a long period of time. Compared to countryside children, I was. Banana slug , Interpersonal relationship , Life 1041 Words | 4 Pages.
Woman’s best friend . 44% of Americans own a dog. Cyrano! I have owned three dogs in my lifetime; three in which I no . The Nile River To Ancient! longer own. Some say a dog is a man’s best friend , but to me, a dog is a woman’s best friend too. A dog is rostand de bergerac, not just a friend though; it is definition, part of the edmond cyrano family. I have loved all of and simnett 2003, my dogs the same, but differently. Each one of the rostand dogs that I have owned had their very own special personality. And Simnett! Each dog meant something different to me; I had my first dog (Sammy), my best friend (Daisy). Dog , Dog health , Dogs 929 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and rostand de bergerac Contrast My Two Best Friends Are Like Twins. My Two Best Friends are like Twins Many people in the world have two best friends . . Some of them are so similar that it's shocking. They find some similarities in their attitude, personality or even interests.
People may find similarities or differences in their best friends and some may not find any interests at all. Abroad! But, I have found three similarities in edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac my best friends Stacy and Priscilla. Both of my best friends are smart, caring, and funny. 2003! My friend Stacy and rostand de bergerac Priscilla are. 2008 singles , Certified Nursing Assistant , Difference 459 Words | 3 Pages. We may be able to have a hundred or a thousand friends , or even more. Definition! But there is only one friend who really has loyalty on you . Edmond De Bergerac! if you really think about it, that is best friend . My best friend is my best partner for the benefits of studying abroad, living my life. His name is edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, Sugeng Gunawan, and I used to call him Sugeng. He is why was important to ancient, someone who really knows me deeply.
He knows the characteristic of edmond, me, from the outside and even inside of me. Someone who is able to feel my mood. He knows when I feel happy and Drama when I feel very sad. He. 2006 albums , Aerosmith , De La Soul 824 Words | 4 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner.
One of the most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to study the economic situation of a show, and how the economics of the show have affected the television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac order to win over their audience. Alienation! In this episode the rostand cyrano six. Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. close to my heart. Although it is river important to ancient egypt, a terrible feeling, I can honestly say that I learned a great deal from each circumstance. As I sit here . trying to edmond remember my earliest experience with death, I recall on the time that my hamster, Chewy had passed away.
I was 9 years old and was in a strange part of my life. I was never popular in school and scene romeo didn’t have a lot of friends growing up. Edmond Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! Chewy was my best friend and cheered up me whenever I felt down. His warm fuzzy coat always made the analyze sentence hairs on my arms. Best Friends , Burt Reynolds , Emotion 1818 Words | 4 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on . Cyrano De Bergerac! _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Romeo And Juliet! Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio.
Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! Use one of the definition “hooks” from the edmond de bergerac six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about the benefits (career, family, friends , relationships, house, and vehicle). Paragraph. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. choose your major? 3. If you redo college again, what would you major in? 4. What course did you like the most? 5. Rostand Cyrano! What course did you like the least? 6. Scene Romeo! . How will your performance in your worst class affect your performance.
7. How would your best friend describe you? 8. Edmond! How would your professor describe you? 9. How would your mother describe you? 10. Why are you applying for a job that you didn’t major in? 11. During college, how did you spend your summer vacations?
12. About! What did you learn. 2006 singles , Computer science , High school 1570 Words | 6 Pages. DEATH OF A BEST FRIEND The school hall was quiet. Everyone was silent with their heads bowed down.
No one spoke,laughed, giggled . or chatted. There was just sorrow in the atmosphere. Few students could be heard sobbing while the rest just sat stone dead in their seats. What had happened? What was the cause of this sad and eerie situation?
Why did she do it? She had always been that cheerful bubbly girl that everyone loved. Her wide flashing smile could brighten up anyone’s day. My thoughts were disrupted. Eye color 1777 Words | 4 Pages. DECISION I HAD TO MAKE My endoscopy results showed that I had hiatal hernia and a stomach ulcer, the culprits behind the awful pain I had been . experiencing after taking in solid or liquid food. Edmond Rostand! At the hospital, my doctor shared his similar experience and the balcony scene romeo recovery, which forced him out of edmond rostand cyrano, school for two years.
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The Lure of cyrano, Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set. Note from river important to ancient, Jane : In 2014, I wrote and reported the following article for Scratch magazine; it has been edited and updated for my site. Madeline Iva is de bergerac her pen name, and you won’t find a trace of her real-life identity anywhere. Iva is an emerging novelist who, as she puts it, writes “lady smut.” Her first novella was published last year by HarperImpulse, and about Drama vs. Fiction it focused on edmond cyrano, sexsomnia, an actual condition in which people have sex in their sleep and ewles and simnett 2003 wake up not remembering anything about edmond rostand it. The story’s protagonist is a young economist who has the hots for a strapping biologist, and Essay about vs. Fiction starts waking up in the morning on the floor wearing different clothes. She has to solve the mystery of rostand, what she’s doing at night—and whom she’s doing it with. I met Iva for the first time in ewles 2003 2013 during a social outing with several other authors. She told me how much she loves writing smut. She calls romance novels “happiness machines”—they guarantee that you’ll be happier after reading the novel than before.
Only later did I discover Iva has an MFA in edmond rostand cyrano creative writing from a top-tier program in the U.S., where she studied under one of the most respected literary writers today. Iva is part of a growing number of authors with serious literary cred who are finding greater financial success—and a welcoming community—in the romance business. It’s not exactly news that the literary establishment looks down on genre fiction; rarely is it welcome within creative-writing degree programs—and god help the student who tries to workshop his genre work. While I was earning my BFA in creative writing, there was one student in the degree program who loved Doctor Who (before it was cool) and Essay vs. Fiction role-playing games, and brought fantasy fiction to workshop. A vague embarrassment would fall over the group. If the edmond writer wasn’t seeking to emulate Fitzgerald, Hemingway, or Woolf, we didn’t know how to critique it. Indeed, as far as careers go, the publishing world often sets up genre writing as an all-or-nothing choice: you’re either a literary novelist, or you dive head-first into the commercial side of the business. You can’t have one toe in ewles 2003 each swimming pool, can you? But for many authors, the separation between literature and genre isn’t so clear. The choice to write genre is edmond cyrano de bergerac often about money, yes, but authors like Iva are also weighing the costs and benefits of less tangible perks like community, mentorship, and audience response.
Put another way: can romance writers really have it all? How the Romance Genre Has Evolved. Iva has joined one of the bestselling genres in the publishing industry—and one of the why was important egypt most lucrative for authors. Rostand Cyrano! Fans of romance often read voraciously, consuming multiple books per week, so there is continuing and high demand for people who can write it. “Romance” tends to be an umbrella term for many types of analyze sentence, novels that, according to Romance Writers of America, are defined by (1) a central love story and edmond rostand de bergerac (2) an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Beyond that, they vary tremendously. Some are contemporary stories; others are historical. Alienation Marx! Some are sweet (no explicit sex), while others are more steamy. Romance novels can also take on the attributes of other genres (paranormal romance, romantic suspense, young adult romance). The hottest of the hot is erotic romance: It’s more explicit, there’s more sex, and there may be kinky elements.
As with sex itself, what’s erotic is in the eye of the edmond cyrano beholder, and readers will find varying definitions in the market. Then there’s erotica, which is not usually centered on romantic love and doesn’t follow any conventions of romance novels, but rather is material intended solely for the purpose of arousing the reader. Since the Essay about rise of ebooks, it’s easier than ever for cyrano de bergerac readers to download the newest titles immediately to their e-reading device without being subject to the judgment of why was the nile river important, family members, store clerks, or fellow commuters. The ability to leave behind chunky pink paperback covers and keep your romance habit a secret has benefited the edmond cyrano market, and the outstanding success of Essay vs. Fiction, Fifty Shades of Grey points to edmond de bergerac very large audience potential. Very, very large. Romance writing is also an accessible way for new authors to get their start in 2003 publishing. Houses like Harlequin allow unsolicited, unagented submissions and offer online communities that can help writers improve their craft, understand the requirements of the genre, and get published. In addition, since the advent of Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing and other digital self-publishing platforms, authors can take an experimental approach and see how they like the fit of romance—while earning money in the process. Last year, two young women received extensive media coverage when their self-published dinosaur erotica series was discovered to be making the authors a significant income.
Even something on the fringe of rostand, mainstream romance has the potential to earn authors thousands of dollars per and simnett month; author Virginia Wade claimed her Bigfoot erotica was netting her $30,000 per edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac month during peak sales periods. To be clear, the genre has changed a lot over 2003, the last 30 years. If Fifty Shades of Grey didn’t tip you off, it’s gotten more explicit. Back in cyrano de bergerac the 1980s, if the heroine had sex with someone she didn’t love, the the balcony scene romeo and juliet sex couldn’t be consensual. Cyrano! Women weren’t supposed to enjoy non-monogamous sex. But whether writing decades ago or a few months ago, romance authors may not want their bosses, colleagues, or even family members to analyze sentence know what they’re up to—thus the prevalence of pen names in de bergerac the genre. Of Studying Abroad! And there’s the other main reason some authors have to rostand cyrano de bergerac be coy: aside from in a, creating brand confusion for an author who wants to write outside the romance genre, too, a successful career writing lady smut might negatively affect her reputation in other markets, especially the edmond rostand literary market.
Not long after Iva finished her MFA, she tried writing a literary novel. She had a top agent interested in analyze in a her short story collection, but as is often the case, the edmond rostand agent also wanted a novel to sell. Under pressure to produce and disheartened by the negativity she encountered inside the literary community, Iva found herself unable to write. Essay Drama! She fell into depression for two years. It was the edmond rostand act of definition marx, writing romance, and discovering the romance community, that she says transformed and revived her career. Although she came from a prestigious literary background, genre fiction wasn’t entirely new to Iva.
She grew up reading romances because that’s what was in the house. “I had Kurt Vonnegut in one hand, and these bodice rippers in the other,” she said. As she entered the edmond romance world, she created the persona of Madeline Iva, whom she views as less angsty and Essay about vs. Fiction less complicated than her real self. Having an alter ego allowed her energetic and enthusiastic side room to grow. And Iva liked the romance community she found, comprising women who she says are warm and outgoing, vibrant and rostand cyrano de bergerac middle class, who reminded her of the women she grew up with. “I felt at home with them. The literary world is much more introverted, and much more bitter, cynical, and about weary to edmond cyrano de bergerac some degree.
There’s a vast amount of transparency in Essay Drama the romance world. That’s how women operate; it’s a women-dominated field.” In the romance industry, emerging authors don’t have to search out advice or mentor-shop, Iva said. Experienced authors and peers will tell you how it works, repeat what they told you, then take you by the hand and show you. “You could call that mothering,” Iva said. De Bergerac! “It’s just how they do it.” Adult contemporary author Jamie Brenner, who also writes erotic romance as Logan Belle, noticed the same thing about the in a community, especially in edmond rostand de bergerac her former career as an agent. While Brenner describes the literary community as very “closed ranks,” she says that no matter how new or obscure a romance author is, established romance novelists will readily blurb new books or blog about them. Alienation Definition Marx! “That’s the status quo,” Brenner said. When she published her debut Logan Belle novel, Blue Angel, in 2011, she immediately felt welcomed. Iva says the competitiveness found in the literary community—where there’s such a small slice of the pie to go around—doesn’t exist in romance because there is de bergerac so much more money being spent on romance, with plenty of the balcony scene and juliet, readers for edmond everyone. However, Brenner has noticed some changes lately that have caused her to pull back on writing as Logan Belle. The Nile To Ancient! “It’s getting very, very crowded. You have to be louder and edmond rostand louder and louder. You have to be really comfortable shipping things out.
It’s a much higher-volume business model—three books a year minimum to keep yourself in the mix.” Brenner says the other aspects of maintaining a genre career are growing more burdensome. Being on the basic social media outlets—Twitter and Facebook—used to Essay about Drama be fine, but now that’s not enough. A successful romance writer needs a “street team,” or a group of super fans advocating for her and handing out her stuff. Edmond! Genre writers also participate in more anthology work, so in alienation marx between the several novels per edmond rostand cyrano year, they often contribute stories to collections. “The books are getting worse when they’re coming out closer together. I don’t know if this pace was set by the people in and simnett 2003 genre fiction or by ebooks, but it’s a really bad trend,” Brenner says. Iva has found solutions she’s comfortable with by cultivating the edmond sense of community that first drew her to the genre. She started a group blog, Lady Smut, where she feels more comfortable with marketing and promotional activities because it’s about promoting the group rather than herself. “In the romance world, they talk about a two- to five-year startup period. Egypt! I’m still in that period. I have a very strong sense of the market, and I have a plan of what I’m going to edmond rostand de bergerac write for the next several years, and I’m ready to execute that plan. I also have mad writing chops from going to a really good grad school.”
Using Romance to Achieve Commercial Success. Barbara Palmer is the pseudonym of a Canadian bestselling novelist who is also in Essay vs. Fiction her romance startup period, trying on the genre for edmond de bergerac the first time. Her erotic novel, Claudine , was released by Penguin Canada last year. So far, Palmer says she will keep her identities entirely separate: bestselling historical novelist (who refuses to be named here) and Barbara Palmer, who will not be making any TV or visual appearances to promote her romance book. The idea of writing such a book was suggested at a lunch with her editor, and scene and juliet Palmer’s immediate reaction was to laugh. “I’m way too shy; I’m too much of a reserved WASP to edmond rostand ever write something like that,” she told me. But when Palmer went home, she couldn’t stop thinking about it and alienation definition decided to give it a try. Because she realized she was starting from zero—without any knowledge of the edmond rostand de bergerac field at all—Palmer spent an in a intense period reading all the erotic literature she could, including the classics. “ Belle de Jour is just phenomenal. I think it’s one of the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac best novels of the twentieth century,” she said. She also read a lot of contemporary romance and began to see a theme emerging among all the books, across eras: the women always end up as victims, damaged, or very submissive.
“That just didn’t compute well with me. Some women are like that, and we women do have struggles with those issues, but why are they all like this?” Palmer wanted to write about a woman who was completely different, someone who was very sensual, powerful, and in charge of her life. The Balcony! And so she created the titular character, a grad student by day who by cyrano, night works as a high-end escort and commands stratospheric prices. Palmer believes that authors like herself are crossing over to about vs. Fiction romance because of the cyrano visible potential for commercial success, even in in a wild spin-offs that push the envelope in terms of morality. “Some of these people are pulling in $60,000 to $80,000 a year just with self-published material.” The possibility of commercial success is edmond rostand something that motivated the editor and dramatic screenwriter operating under the pseudonym Aphrodite Elliot to give romance a try. Essay About Vs. Fiction! But similar to edmond de bergerac Palmer, Eliot wants to create different kinds of female characters after discovering disturbing themes when researching the genre. Essay About Drama Vs. Fiction! She labels her stories with the tagline, “It doesn’t have to rostand hurt to analyze in a sentence be hot.” And it’s definitely the rostand cyrano hotness that sells best in the current market. Agent Laura Bradford told me quite directly, “There is a lot of money to be made.” Bradford works with many types of authors who produce work at varying “heat levels.” She says she has authors who can release an erotic romance and 2003 earn $50,000 or $60,000 for the first month or two that it’s available—and that’s not an unusual situation.
Such authors, however, have been at it for ten years or more, and may already have 30 books under their belt. Generally speaking, Bradford says an erotic romance (which typically involves kink, but not everyone agrees about that) stands to earn more than mainstream romance, which is cyrano de bergerac focused on a monogamous couple and may or may not be sexually explicit. Of course, not all writers are comfortable writing the racier books. Still, Bradford says, “The bar has risen in why was to ancient egypt terms of explicitness. An average-heat-level romance today is far hotter than it was a decade ago.” None of edmond de bergerac, Bradford’s clients write romance secretly, though some do use pen names. For writers publishing the and simnett hot stuff in the 1990s, however, it was a very different experience.
Author and writing professor Mary Anne Mohanraj, who has an MFA from Mills College, told me the trade was very taboo; if she told anyone she wrote erotic material, “they were stopped in their table conversations. I would still say it, but it would derail everything.” At the time, there were very few choices for reading or buying erotic fiction, and it was hard to find. People often asked Mohanraj what erotica paid, at which point she’d have to explain the difference between erotica and porn—because, at cyrano, the time, porn paid ten times more than erotica. (Porn has a much higher ratio of sex scenes than erotica or romance, and may use cruder language.) Mohanraj wrote letters for and simnett the porn magazines and earned $300 per letter. It was only a couple hundred words, and she could knock one out in about 20 minutes. She also wrote longer pieces; all in all, she could work two days a month writing porn, then take the rest of the month off. Edmond! Mohanraj wrote erotica and porn for about ten years; when she turned 30, she switched to mainstream literature. “Writing porn is pretty mechanical, so I just got completely bored by the end of it. Alienation! I felt like I’d said most of edmond cyrano, what I wanted to say. I thought a lot of damage was being done by sex not being talked about alienation marx openly.” Once the Internet came along—and both erotic romance, erotica, and porn became much more prevalent and openly discussed—Mohanraj felt less need to be writing it. In addition to her full-time professorship at the University of Illinois at edmond cyrano, Chicago, she is currently working on a memoir as well as a science-fiction series with, as she puts it, “a fair bit of sex.” Bradford, who also witnessed the very beginnings of the erotic romance market as an and simnett agent, told me that the edmond cyrano digital publishers who came onto the scene in the nile to ancient egypt the early 2000s—Ellora’s Cave in particular—published stories that took risks in cyrano sexual explicitness that she hadn’t seen before, in addition to implementing a digital-first strategy. The mainstream publishing industry wasn’t really paying attention, so it wasn’t until around 2005 or 2006 that the New York houses started looking at sentence, the Ellora’s Cave model and several major romance publishers started erotic romance imprints.
Bradford said, “By and large, romance readers are very open minded, they are happy to try new things, happy to try new authors. Edmond Cyrano De Bergerac! You can mix it up a little bit more. I don’t think of mystery as the land of taking risks, but romance kind of is.” The Role of an MFA Degree in Writing Successful Romance (Really) As a debut author, Madeline Iva is still focused on learning the conventions, which is harder than she thought it would be. “The romance authors who are making the the benefits most money fulfill the expectations their readers have,” she said. But she’s also using what she learned from cyrano de bergerac, her MFA program, where her famous professor told her that the best novels not only alienation definition, engage your intellect, but are hellishly entertaining. “Through writing romances, I’ve learned to become more hellishly entertaining than I was before.” Iva says she owes her skill at the craft to edmond rostand cyrano her MFA program, and other romance writers I talked to who have MFA degrees—including Marina Adair and Kait Ballenger—emphasized the value of their degrees in teaching them the craft and how to accept feedback and criticism.
The combination of disciplined writing chops and romance’s marketability certainly appears to the balcony and juliet be rocket fuel for a publishing career. Adair sold seven romances while earning her MFA from San Jose State University; while she started out in screenwriting, focusing on family films and rostand teen comedies, she says she can’t imagine writing anything else now except romance. Ballenger also signed traditional publishing deals while enrolled in the balcony and juliet a low-residency program at Spalding University, and now has multiple romance books out, with more on the way. Edmond De Bergerac! Before pursuing romance, Ballenger focused on writing and Essay publishing young adult novels (her degree concentration is children’s/YA), and she continues to pursue both genres. But romance is cyrano now paying her bills, and Essay she doesn’t have a YA deal yet. Scoring book deals that provide a decent wage is an uncommon outcome for most MFA graduates, who, Iva says, don’t expect to make a living writing literature. “[The professors] told us that, statistically, you earn less after you get an MFA than before. And most everybody is going to quit writing because they’ll want a house and a family and a retirement plan.”
But Iva has found her solution, at least for now. Her romance writing career has lent her the confidence and rostand cyrano de bergerac energy to take another look at the benefits abroad, her literary work and try another novel. Edmond! She’s bringing to her new draft a fresh perspective on how to write a successful story, reach a readership, and craft an authorial persona that suits her needs. “A lot of the ‘writing’ world revolves around writerly stuff, not writing. Why Was River Important To Ancient Egypt! The writerly stuff shuts me down. But the cyrano process of actually writing and being a professional is sublime.” Jane Friedman (@JaneFriedman) has 20 years of experience in the publishing industry, with expertise in digital media strategy for authors and publishers. She is the co-founder and editor of The Hot Sheet, the essential newsletter on Essay about vs. Fiction, the publishing industry for authors. In addition to being a columnist for edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac Publishers Weekly , Jane is a professor with The Great Courses, which released her 24-lecture series, How to Publish Your Book. And Juliet! She also has a book forthcoming from the cyrano University of Chicago Press, The Business of Being a Writer (March 2018).
Jane speaks regularly at conferences and industry events such as BookExpo America, Digital Book World, and the AWP Conference, and has served on panels with the National Endowment for the Arts and the Creative Work Fund. Find out more. 23 Comments on The Lure of Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set […] A growing number of authors with serious literary cred are finding greater financial successand a welcoming communityin the romance business. […] Thanks for another great read. I’ve seen a lot on writing romance but nothing has taken this angle of definition, talking with literary writers about it. Rostand Cyrano! Kudos! Thanks, Cathy! I continue to scene romeo and juliet be fascinated by the divide we put (artificially or not) between “literary” forms of writing and more commercial forms … Hope to keep exploring the issue. Appreciate your comment! The more “literary” community could learn more and prosper by adopting more of the attitudes and values of the RWA (collaboration, creativity in de bergerac marketing, support).
Great to hear from another MFA crossing over! Thanks for sharing your experience. I’ll tell you what…those romance writers know how to the balcony scene romeo have FUN. If you don’t believe me, go to edmond cyrano de bergerac a Romance Writers meeting in your area. Some of the most most fun writers I’ve ever hung out with. #128578; They’re so fun they’re almost intimidating! #128521; I hope you do keep exploring the issue of literary vs. genre writers. I know literary writers who disdain genre writers as well as literary authors who also write romance novels under a pen name.
It’s clear that romance novels are a hot commodity now and it’s a genre that can bring today’s Indie authors financial success. Kudos to those who find success in this field. Agreed! Look forward to definition marx finding other ways to cover this issue. […] Note from Jane: Last year, I wrote and reported the following article for Scratch magazine; it has been edited and updated for my site. Madeline Iva is rostand her pen name, and you won’t find a trace of her real-life identity anywhere. […] This is a great article – thanks.
I must admit, as a ‘serious’ graduate of english and history courses at Uni, it is hard sometimes to admit that I am now writing romances – and loving it. There is definitely a stigma attached from the perspective of some of my friends/colleagues/family. Oh well. Analyze In A! At least I am having fun. I find that stigma fades quickly when you end up earning a living. #128521; This was a great article, thanks for sharing it! I’ve enjoyed so much of the information you have shared on edmond de bergerac, your blog. I just signed contract for my first contemporary romance written with a pen name. Analyze In A Sentence! I’ve been writing for years in different areas and when I heard that romance was a hot market, I thought I’d give it a try. I have already found an amazing community of other writers who have been so supportive. I’ve just started writing a romantic suspense and look forward to seeing how things go.
[…] The Lure of edmond rostand, Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set by @janefriedman […] This IS a great article and I really enjoyed it, although I wondered why you “spoke” only to why was the nile writing erotic romance when the genre is cyrano de bergerac so much wider. I write sweet, so of and simnett, course I feel left out edmond rostand , but I do appreciate the and simnett respect with which you presented this. And, being attentive as I am, I didn’t even realize this was a year old! Hi Liz – Thanks for commenting. Have you seen more opportunity with sweet romance with the growth of digital publishing and self-publishing?
[…] a recognition that this market segment is growing at a fast clip with no end in sight. In “The Lure of Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set,” one of my favorite publishing experts Jane Friedman chronicles the rostand de bergerac developments of this […] […] article “The Lure of and simnett, Romance Writing (and Earnings) for edmond rostand cyrano the Literary Set” (2015) also did not do anything to clarify for me what’s going on in the genre. […] […] because publishers don’t need to take the the balcony time to print anything. Edmond Cyrano De Bergerac! However, there is a downside, according to Brenner, in terms of quality: “The books are getting worse when they’re coming out closer […] Daily edition: Receive emails that include the full text of each new post Weekly digest: Receive a Sunday weekly e-mail digest of new blog posts.
I have more than 20 years of experience in the book and magazine publishing industry, with expertise in digital media and egypt the future of authorship. I speak around the world at events such as BookExpo America, Frankfurt Book Fair, and Digital Book World, and have keynoted writing conferences such as The Muse The Marketplace. Edmond Rostand! Read more. I write and publish The Hot Sheet, the essential industry newsletter for authors.
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5 paragrph essay Have you ever made an awesome chocolate cake without looking at a recipe first? Unless you are an extremely talented baker, most likely the answer is “no.” Just one cup of flour too many and edmond rostand cyrano your chocolate dessert will be a chocolate mess! The same goes for about vs. Fiction writing a 5-paragraph essay. If you are an extremely talented writer, you may be able to intuitively create a compelling essay with all the de bergerac components needed to be both persuasive and easy to swallow…or follow. Alienation Marx! However, if writing doesn’t come easily to edmond cyrano you, you can benefit from about vs. Fiction creating a 5-paragraph essay outline before jumping into your writing assignment.
I always make an rostand cyrano de bergerac outline first, no matter what writing project I’m working on. There are endless, different ways to Drama vs. Fiction write a compelling essay. But, if your teacher is demanding that you sum up your argument in five succinct paragraphs, follow this easy tutorial on how to create a 5-paragraph essay outline. Structure of the 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. Rostand! The 5-paragraph essay is made of…you guessed it…five paragraphs. And Juliet! Each paragraph serves a specific purpose: Paragraph 1: Amazing introduction (hook) and the all-important thesis statement Paragraph 2: Argument A and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 3: Argument B and rostand cyrano de bergerac supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 4: Argument C and supporting facts or quotes Paragraph 5: Conclusion, made up of your restated thesis and the broader significance of your argument.
Here’s how this outline would look if you sketched it out: A Note on Formatting Your 5-Paragraph Essay Outline. Now, I’m not saying that you must put your outline into a diagram like the one above—using a simple pen and paper or word processor will suffice. River Egypt! If you like technology though, there are several digital outlining tools that can help you out—some of them more sophisticated and user-friendly than others. It’s not really about making a perfect 5-paragraph essay outline, rather, it’s about developing an outline that makes the most sense to you. Edmond Cyrano De Bergerac! An outline ensures that you have the necessary components to write an awesome essay. Without further delay, let’s jump into more detail about each of the outline components. First we need a topic. Typically, your instructor will give you a subject to marx write about, or at least parameters for a topic. Always follow your teacher’s specific instructions when embarking on your 5-paragraph essay journey. After all, you don’t want the wrath of your instructor to come down upon edmond rostand you for why was the nile important to ancient egypt completely ignoring instructions. For our sample topic, we’re going to edmond cyrano de bergerac use the following prompt: What are the arguments for or against writing a 5-paragraph essay?
Should teachers continue requesting this writing method from students? Step Two: Take a Stance on Your Topic. We need to take a stance for or against teachers asking students to write 5-paragraph essays, so we can argue for or against alienation marx it in edmond cyrano, our thesis statement. Don’t make the mistake of not taking a stance —without taking a position, your essay (five paragraphs or twenty) will have no direction at all. When deciding on your position, you have to choose one that can be backed with valid and supportable arguments, either from alienation marx your research or from the course materials provided in edmond rostand, your class. For our sample essay outline, I’m going to take a stance against the 5-paragraph essay . Step Three: Write a Clear Thesis Statement. Based on my chosen stance against 5-paragraph essays, my thesis statement will be “Teachers should stop teaching students to write 5-paragraph essays.” Notice the why was word “should” in the thesis statement?
More power can be added to your position by creating a statement about what should or shouldn’t be done. This is a much stronger and more defensible stance than if I simply wrote “5-paragraph essays are boring,” or something similar. Step Four: Develop Three Arguments to rostand de bergerac Underscore Your Thesis. Drama Vs. Fiction! Now you need to come up with three arguments that will back your thesis statement. Here are mine: The 5-paragraph essay is too basic.
There are myriad other ways to write essays, many of which are more thought-provoking and creative than the 5-paragraph essay. The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula. Step Five: Develop Three Supports for edmond Each of Your Arguments. Your evidence, or supports, should include facts, quotes, and data that substantiate your thesis. This is a great place to include quotes directly from your research sources. For example, to support argument A (“The 5-paragraph essay is too basic”), I might offer the 2003 following evidence: Support 1A : Chicago teacher Ray Salazar says, “The five-paragraph essay is edmond rudimentary, unengaging, and analyze in a useless.” Support 2A: Elizabeth Guzik of California State University, Long Beach says, “The five paragraph essay encourages students to engage only on the surface level without attaining the level of cogency demanded by college writing.” Similarly, in regards to argument C (“The 5-paragraph essay does not allow for analytical thinking, rather, it confines students to following a restrictive formula”), I might support it with this quote: Support 1C: According to an article in cyrano, Education Week , “There is a consensus among college writing professors that ‘students are coming [to college] prepared to do five-paragraph themes and why was important to ancient arguments but [are] radically unprepared in thinking analytically.’” Remember, for de bergerac the 5-paragraph essay structure, you typically need to come up with three supports for each of your three arguments. In our example, I only 2003 show three of the total nine supports needed to rostand round out the argument. Once you have your thesis and the balcony scene romeo and juliet arguments sorted, you can work on developing your introduction. (*Hint* it’s an exercise in edmond rostand de bergerac, futility to develop your introduction first, because you won’t really know what you’re introducing yet.) For example, my hook could be, “English teachers across the alienation nation have been teaching students to become ineffective writers.” This hook makes a bold statement that will encourage readers to continue on to find out why I would say such a thing… especially if the reader is your English teacher. Rostand De Bergerac! Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion.
After you have your paper outlined, figuring out a concluding paragraph should be a breeze. In a traditional 5-paragraph essay, the in a first step in writing your conclusion is to edmond cyrano de bergerac restate your thesis using different words. For example, I might write, “The 5-paragraph essay is an outdated and and simnett 2003 useless writing tool that should be phased out of the classroom.” To close out the paper, I would open a discussion on the broader significance of this argument. For example, I might write, “Teachers should teach other methods of essay writing that help students stay organized and also allow them to think analytically.” Now that you’ve established all the components of your 5-paragraph essay outline, you’ll need to actually sit down, avoid social media for rostand cyrano a while (I know, it’s hard), and write your 5-paragraph essay. Believe me, it will be much easier to do now that your thoughts are organized and abroad you have somewhere to start. Ask any writer. There is nothing more frightening than the pure white of an empty page. Edmond Rostand De Bergerac! An outline is a great remedy for this. Essay About Drama! Oh, and a couple more things: As you start writing, you’ll want to be sure to connect all the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac pieces of your essay together with strong transition sentences. Don’t just line up the notes from your outline and call it done.
And always, always be sure to edit; if you need help with that, you can use Kibin’s essay editing services. Spend a little extra time adding those finishing touches that will elevate your essay from ewles and simnett 2003 good to great. Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac! How about you? Do you work from an outline? Or are you more accustomed to and simnett writing by edmond cyrano the seat of your pants? Let us know in the comments. Psst. Analyze Sentence! 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the cyrano de bergerac Author. Naomi Tepper is romeo a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. Excellent post. Love the paradoxical example. Edmond Rostand De Bergerac! I#8217;ll try this with my blog posts. Scene! We#8217;re not huge fans of the 5-paragraph essay, but we realize it#8217;s still a widely taught and utilized writing method. The paradoxical example was the perfect way for us to express our own view while still writing a valuable and useful article. I#8217;m glad you appreciate it #128521; I liked it so much I created a Mind map for it at Xmind. http://www.xmind.net/m/bjGj/ Hope that#8217;s okay. Very cool!
Thanks for doing and sharing this, @sganpat:disqus. this is cyrano de bergerac completely helpful. Awesome! Glad it helped you. #128578; What a very useful tips that is so applicable in all writer#8217;s on how to write well written paragraph. I think these are all very efficient and effective things that everyone should learned. Thank you for the good tips and definition methods of writing you have putted here. It was all useful and helpful stuffs. Thank you for your comment!
I#8217;m so glad you found this post to be useful and helpful. Edmond Rostand Cyrano! Well explained about river to ancient how to construct an edmond argument. Wow nice post ! Will definitely use it when I write again #128578; Fantastic! Glad you found it useful. #128578; Wow nice post ! Thank you for sharing this #128578; Very nice article. Thank for sharing this.
You#8217;re welcome! Glad you found it useful. The Benefits Abroad! I really appreciate your post. Edmond Cyrano! Structure is the soul of any essay and you describe it in a great way. Why Was The Nile To Ancient! Thanks for your kind comments! Great question!
Here is a good blog post that covers alternative structures: http://thelamppost.ca/alternatives-to-the-five-paragraph-essay/ Thank you very much for the article is very important information! I especially liked the rostand point Step Seven: Step Seven: Develop Your Conclusion clearly we need to develop this part of the Essenes.
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Point/Counterpoint: Paying College Athletes. The notion of paying college football players has been an ongoing debate since the de bergerac early 1900’s. The Balcony Scene. With current television revenue resulting from edmond cyrano de bergerac NCAA football bowl games and March Madness in basketball, there is now a clamoring for compensating both football and basketball players beyond that of an athletic scholarship. This article takes a point/counterpoint approach to scene romeo, the topic of paying athletes and may have potential implications/consequences for edmond rostand cyrano college administrators, athletes, and coaches. The Benefits Of Studying Abroad. Dr. John Acquaviva defends the current system in which colleges provide an athletic scholarship that provides a “free college education” in return for playing on the university team. Dr.
Dennis Johnson follows with a counterpoint making the case that athletes in these sports should receive compensation beyond that of edmond cyrano de bergerac a college scholarship and forwards five proposals to pay the athletes. Key words: pay for play, athletic scholarships. Introduction: History of the Essay Drama National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) The idea of paying college athletes to compete dates back to what is considered to be the first intercollegiate competition. In a regatta between Harvard and edmond Yale Universities, Harvard used a coxswain who was not even a student enrolled at the Ivy League school (5). Ewles And Simnett 2003. Much like today’s universities whose appetites for appearances in corporate-sponsored “big money” football bowl events; Harvard may have used the non-student to rostand de bergerac, please regatta sponsor Elkins Railroad (23). In the late 1800’s, football played by college teams was a brutal sport but enjoyed by many fans. However, from 1900 to 1905, there were 45 players who died playing the about sport (22).
This prompted President Theodore Roosevelt to summon the rostand presidents of of studying Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, and edmond de bergerac threaten them with a ban unless the sport was modified. As a result of that meeting, a group of 62 university presidents convened to form the Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906. This group evolved into analyze in a sentence, the NCAA in 1910, but as a group it only possessed supervisory power (22). College football became even more popular in the period of 1920-1940. This was a time when commercialism in the educational system was being questioned on a variety of levels. Edmond Rostand De Bergerac. One such fundamental question was posed in 1929 by Howard Savage, a staff member of the analyze in a sentence Carnegie Foundation. He raised a question in an article entitled Athletics in American College (originally published in 1930 but reprinted in 1999) “whether an edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, institution in the social order whose primary purpose is the development of the intellectual life can at of studying abroad, the same time serve an edmond rostand, agency to promote business, industry, journalism, and organized athletics on an extensive commercial basis? More importantly, the report asked “can it (the university) concentrate its attention on securing teams that win, without impairing the sincerity and the nile river to ancient egypt vigor of its intellectual purpose” (9, p.495)?
Savage also states that “alumni devices for cyrano recruiting winning teams constitutes the most disgraceful phase of vs. Fiction recent intercollegiate athletics” (9, p. 495). Edmond Rostand De Bergerac. In sum, the in a sentence original 1929 report claimed that “big time” college sports were not educational, but were entirely financial and cyrano de bergerac commercial. Athletes during the early and mid-1900’s were routinely recruited and paid to play; and why was the nile to ancient there were several instances where individuals representing the schools were not enrolled as students. For example, there is one report of a Midwestern university using seven members of its team that included the town blacksmith, a lawyer, a livery man, and four railroad employees (5). Other athletes at colleges were given high paying jobs for which they did little or no work. In 1948, the NCAA adopted a “Sanity Code” that limited financial aid for athletes to tuition and fees, and required that aid otherwise be given based on need (5). In the early 1950’s, with the threat of several southern schools bolting from the NCAA, the code was revised to allow athletic scholarships to cover tuition, fees, and a living stipend. However, by the mid-1950’s many schools were still struggling with the issue of offering athletic scholarships.
Some university presidents ultimately decided to maintain the principles of amateurism and further serve the mission of higher education. Those were presidents of universities that today make up the Ivy League. They concluded that it was not in the best interest of their universities to award athletic scholarships, and edmond have remained steadfast even today. After passing Title IX in the mid 1970’s, the NCAA absorbed the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and analyze sentence began to govern women’s sport at the collegiate level. Over the edmond rostand cyrano past 50 years, the NCAA has also expanded into three divisions with a multitude of championship events on a yearly basis (20). There are more than 1,300 member institutions that represent an estimated 400,000 student athletes who participate in sport (21). The result of this growth and in a development are enormous increases in revenue. NCAA President Mark Emmert reports the NCAA revenues for the 2010-11 fiscal year is projected at $757 million, of which $452.2 million will go to Division I members (14). While seemingly operating in a purely capitalistic/professional atmosphere, the NCAA continues to endorse an amateurism concept in college athletics.
These competing, and often contradictory, values lead some college athletes in big time football and edmond rostand basketball programs to question the status quo of the present system through their words and actions. For example, many athletes are still attempting to get their “piece of the pie,” albeit under the table. And so it leads to our point-counterpoint. Point: College Athletes Should Not Be Paid. The intensity of the argument to pay college athletes has escalated in marx the past few years. Perhaps it’s because of the current economic climate and everyone, including amateur athletes is looking for ways to make money? Or maybe it’s because many higher learning institutions have given the public access to their annual budget and readers focus on the profit of select athletic programs? Or maybe it is rostand due to to ancient egypt, the absurd coaches’ salaries and the money that colleges make from football bowl games and basketball tournaments? Regardless, this has magnified the fact that the athletes see none of these profits and edmond cyrano de bergerac thus begs the the balcony romeo simple question: “Where’s my share?” Perhaps a fair question, but to understand this argument better, a healthy debate is needed.
So, here are some points to edmond, consider. Colleges and universities provide an invaluable and vital service to Essay about Drama vs. Fiction, our communities: education. A now-famous bumper sticker once read: “If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.” To address that very slogan, the U.S. Rostand De Bergerac. census bureau, as reported by Cheesman-Day and Newberger (7), expressed this best when they reported that the the balcony romeo and juliet lifetime earnings for those with a college degree are over $1 million dollars more than non-graduates. Despite such a statistic, essays and rostand cyrano de bergerac op-ed columns continue to marx, pour in from those who favor paying student-athletes while simultaneously refusing to acknowledge or accept the value of edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac a college education. Is a college education priceless or not? A sports-journalist in a recent national radio interview proposed that any argument against paying college athletes based on the sole reason that education is the prize is “antiquated”. But what seems antiquated and the benefits of studying even shortsighted is the belief that paying a college athlete some (or even a lot of) money will solve all or even some of student’s long-term issues.
The fear of the NCAA, as it should be, is that the mere notion of rostand cyrano paying college athletes undermines the ewles and simnett university’s primary purpose – education, something far more valuable than a modest annual stipend proposed by many. If it currently appears that the universities “don’t really care” about the athlete, paying them would intensify that belief, not dissolve it. The irony in this dispute is that student-athletes do cost the university a substantial amount of money each year. For example, a full scholarship over edmond rostand de bergerac four years can range between $30,000 and ewles $200,000 depending if the institution is public or private (29). But let’s address this main point head on: There is an obvious lack of appreciation of a college degree from those in rostand favor of to ancient paying athletes, and until a genuine gratitude for this concept develops, this argument will probably continue to linger. Point #2: There Are Problems with Payment. Despite the well-documented scandals and corruption in college athletics (30), many would probably agree that paying athletes would exponentially increase the need for intense NCAA oversight – an enormous task by all accounts. Plus, there are the practical issues to consider. For example, how much should the athletes get paid and will payments be based on performance? What if the athlete gets hurt?
What if the athlete is a bust and despite remaining on the team, doesn’t start or even play at edmond cyrano, all? – Issues that seem to raise far more questions than answers. But perhaps most important – What will happen to marx, the non-revenue sports at the colleges who lose money from cyrano all of alienation definition their sports programs – including football and basketball? It has been shown that only a fraction of Division I football and men’s basketball programs turn a profit (24, 20). The other Division I football and basketball programs as well as sports such as baseball, softball, golf, hockey, women’s basketball (minus a couple of edmond notable programs), and the balcony scene and juliet just about all Division II sports not only de bergerac fail to make money, but actually drain their athletic budgets. The outcome here would be inevitable: Forcing athletic departments to pay its football and ewles 2003 basketball players would result in the eventual elimination of most, if not all, of the non-revenue sports. Is that what we want? We cannot afford to be myopic on this issue. That is, there are only a limited number of programs that make big money, but yet there are hundreds of rostand cyrano schools who absorb big losses at the cost of providing athletes a place to compete and earn a degree. The purpose of the NCAA, along with Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), Little League, and dozens of other organized forms of amateur sport is to provide a venue to play these sports – something we should not take for granted. The problem is alienation marx that some have shifted in thinking that playing an organized sport is a right, whereas it still stands as a privilege. Point #3: The University Offers More Than an Education.
Concerts, lecture series by prominent people, on-stage productions, movies, intramural sports, fitness facilities, and a variety of clubs are all part of the typical university experience. Most students agree that colleges are self-contained acres of learning and socializing, all which takes place in a safe environment. It’s common for schools to subsidize the above-mentioned on-campus activities by adding fees to edmond rostand de bergerac, the tuition – which means that it’s free to analyze in a sentence, a full-scholarship athlete. Edmond Cyrano. Other benefits to the athlete include the regular use of pristine gyms, well-manicured fields, athlete-only (and often team-only) workout facilities, sports medicine care, the sentence opportunity to travel via away games, specialized meal plans and free foot gear and rostand athletic attire. In addition, athletes are improving their trade from the the nile important best coaching minds in edmond rostand de bergerac the sport; not to mention having access to some of the abroad best nutrition and edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac strength/conditioning personnel. And perhaps the most overlooked benefits are that the school provides the the benefits of studying player with high-profile name recognition, a dedicated fan base, media exposure, and a competitive atmosphere with proven rivals, all of which took decades, effort and money for each institution to establish. Point #4: The Athletic Department Has Its Role. Keep in mind that student-athletes are not employees of the university, rather they are students first and athletes second. The university can indeed make money from the cyrano sports programs; however, for those that do, the money simply goes back into the athletic program to fund the alienation definition marx non-revenue sports (24). In fact, every year the NCAA sponsors over 80 national championships in three divisions, demonstrating the rostand cyrano de bergerac range and depth of their organization (20).
While it is true that the champion in football and men’s basketball (and most other sports for that matter) seem to come from a relatively small pool of universities, it might be safe to assume that paying athletes would create an even bigger disparity since so few universities actually make money. Let’s face it, we are an about Drama vs. Fiction, underdog-loving country, and paying athletes would all but ensure that teams like Butler University, who made it to the Final Four in consecutive tournaments (2010 and 2011), will never do it again. From the moment the full-scholarship papers are signed, each participant’s role is cyrano de bergerac very clear: Schools accept the responsibility of the student’s tuition, meal plan, and boarding, while the athlete is provided with the opportunity to earn a degree, engage in college life and play their favorite sport in a well-organized, and the balcony often high profile fashion. The document signed by each student-athlete describes this agreement in an unmistakable manner. Although wordy and at times complex – a necessity due to the nature of the agreement – there’s no vagueness in edmond cyrano de bergerac the general arrangement or a hidden agenda from either party (10). A failure to why was the nile, honor the basic premise of cyrano de bergerac any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to crumble. If for some reason the university could be held liable for entrapment or some other form of definition marx dishonesty, then their athlete’s argument would stand on firmer ground. But frankly, the edmond rostand cyrano details of this agreement are well known by all involved, and rather strangely, no one seems to mind when signing them.
In conclusion, it should be noted that any NCAA improprieties or blatant corruption may have a carry-over effect into empathizing with the position given here. While corruption and other related-concerns are legitimate and need investigation, paying college athletes still remains a separate debate. It is vital to this process to alienation definition marx, view each NCAA issue independently and avoid making judgments on them as a whole. The position here is that, like many organizations, the NCAA should not be dismissed or discredited on one issue due to the mishandling of rostand de bergerac others. About Drama. Further, if the rostand cyrano de bergerac contention is that many student athletes enter college unprepared or that athletics takes up too much time to excel (or even earn a degree), those are separate, but much needed arguments, and are not related to the issue of paying athletes. Now more than ever, we live in in a sentence an era of entitlement. Edmond Rostand Cyrano. At one time our country viewed the analyze chance at higher education as a priceless commodity. Edmond De Bergerac. However, it now seems that a college education is not held in analyze the same esteem and worse yet, some see it as simply an opportunity to earn money.
Although it is now evident that there has been a failure to convince much of the public of the true value of an education, keeping college athletes as pure amateurs remains the right thing to edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, do. Counter Point: Athletes in “Big-Time” Sports Should Be Paid. The argument that a college athletic scholarship is an equal quid pro quo for a college education has been utilized since athletic scholarships were approved by the NCAA in 1950’s. My colleague makes one point that is sentence totally accurate – a college graduate can in fact make a great deal more money over a lifetime when compared to non-graduates. Edmond Rostand Cyrano. However, the remainder of the author’s points are half-truths and in of studying reality just plain falsehoods.
For instance, a “full athletic scholarships” do not provide a “free” education (as it does not cover all costs incurred from matriculation to graduation. In many cases, the rostand cyrano university does not live up to about vs. Fiction, its end of the bargain of de bergerac providing an education; as evidenced by the dismal number in the graduation rates, especially among African Americans. Furthermore, the athletic scholarship is ewles 2003 only a one-year (renewable) agreement that can be terminated by the coach or university in any given year for edmond de bergerac any reason. In debating the pay-for-play issue in the benefits of studying college athletics, the history of the governing body (i.e., currently the de bergerac NCAA), their mission and view of amateurism, the past history of alienation college athletes benefitting financially, and the degree to which athletes benefit from the university experience must all be examined. Rostand De Bergerac. The counter point section of definition marx this paper addresses each point made by my colleague. Edmond Rostand Cyrano. Using the Eitzen (12) analogy comparing the NCAA and big-time athletic programs to the balcony romeo, the old southern plantation system will be the underpinning wellspring for the subject of athlete exploitation and the financial benefits enjoyed by the university derived from that plantation-like exploitation. An economic viewpoint will be presented to rostand cyrano de bergerac, demonstrate the cartel-like atmosphere held by the NCAA while maintaining the illusion of amateurism. Finally, five proposals that outline means to promote pay-for-play in NCAA Division I football and men’s basketball will be presented. The arguments that follow are specifically tailored for those two sports at schools who receive bonus money from the NCAA, as those universities and their coaches enjoy considerable revenue from TV contracts and sponsorships generated by bowl games and “March Madness” appearances.
Point #1: Athletic Scholarships Provide a “Free Education” is not correct. As mentioned, in and simnett 2003 the 1950’s the NCAA approved adding living stipends to athletic scholarships that previously included only tuition and fees. Today, the “full ride” scholarship can only include tuition, fees, room, board, and books. And as mentioned in the previous section, in some cases, depending on the school attended, that scholarship can be worth anywhere from $30,000 to $200,000, although the figures $20,000 to $100,000 over a four year period might be more accurate. In any case, that still does not cover the edmond rostand cyrano full cost of attending college. The Collegiate Athletes Coalition (CAC) estimates that NCAA scholarships are worth about $2000 less than the cost of attending a university, as it does not account for expenses such as travel and ewles sundries. Edmond Cyrano. Former Nebraska head football coach and about Drama vs. Fiction United States Congressman, Tom Osborne (R-NE), calculates the gap between scholarship funding and the actual cost of attendance to be closer to $3,000. Even former NCAA President, Myles Brand, indicated that he favored increasing scholarship limits: “Ideally, the value of an athletically related scholarship would be increased to cover the full-cost of attendance, calculated at between $2,000 to $3000 more per year than is currently provided, I favor this approach of providing the full cost of attendance” (23, p.232).
So yes, the rostand cyrano de bergerac scholarship can be seen as pay for play, or at the very least, a quid pro quo for services rendered during a four year period. However, even with a full scholarship, an athlete will have to pay somewhere between $8,000 and Essay about Drama vs. Fiction $12,000 out of pocket to bridge the cost-of-living gap. Therefore, the full athletic scholarship does not provide a “free” education. Edmond Rostand Cyrano. Thus question remains: is the full scholarship a fair and equitable deal for the balcony scene and juliet the athlete? Athlete Exploitation-The Plantation System. Eitzen (12) among others (27) makes the analogy that the NCAA operates like the de bergerac “plantation system” of the old south. Marx. The coaches are the overseers who get work from the laborers (players) who provide riches for cyrano de bergerac the masters (universities) while receiving little for their efforts. Perhaps slightly over-stated (obviously the athlete is not a slave, but maybe an indentured servant), the student–athlete is dominated, managed, and controlled, and they don’t receive a wage commensurate to their contribution as expressed in dollars earned by the university. Eitzen notes that athletes are sometimes mistreated physically and mentally and are often denied the rights and freedoms of ewles other citizens.
Ultimately, they have no real democratic recourse in an unjust system. There are other similarities to the plantation analogy. Slaves were not free to leave the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac plantation much like an athlete cannot get out of a letter of ewles 2003 intent (without penalty) and/or transfer without the penalty of sitting out a year. Much like the edmond rostand de bergerac slaves who had no right to the benefits of studying abroad, privacy, athletes are subject to mandatory drug testing (even though their coaches/masters are not tested), room checks, and de bergerac limits on where they can and about Drama vs. Fiction cannot go in the community. The athletes can be prohibited from rostand de bergerac political protests and the right to of studying abroad, assemble. Edmond Cyrano. And finally, they can be subjected to mental cruelty and physical abuse (e.g., early morning torture sessions), all in order to Essay Drama vs. Fiction, create obedient slaves; student athletes. Furthermore, collegiate athletics is often the only game in town for many of these athletes.
For instance, football players must be in their third year of college or over the age of 21 to enter the National Football League (NFL). Basketball players, on the other hand, must attend college for one year or ultimately sit out a year before they can enter the National Basketball Association (NBA). Thus, the college game has become a “feeder system” similar to a minor professional league and it is in rostand cyrano reality, “the only game in town.” Point #2: Athletes Don’t Know the “Real” Deal. My colleague is partially correct in that most student athletes know that they are getting a scholarship that will allow them to go to school and play a sport. However, many don’t know the “real deal” as they generally have very little understanding they are about to enter a “plantation-like” system in why was the nile egypt which their scholarship in not guaranteed (i.e., renewable yearly) and can be terminated at any time. Student-athletes are also a led to believe that they will play and receive a college degree while possibly picking up a few fringe benefits along the way.
Take, for example, the recent stories regarding players like Reggie Bush, Cam Newton, or the players at Ohio State who received money and/or other benefits as a result of playing football. Even though student athletes know they will not get directly paid for rostand de bergerac playing, many desire and even expect some form of compensation. Slack (25) surveyed 3,500 current and retired football players in Essay about 1989 only to find that 31% had received under the table money during their college careers and 48% knew of others who had received payments. Rostand Cyrano De Bergerac. This seems to imply that while many recruits may indeed know “the deal”, they display their discontent by analyze in a sentence accepting payments or other benefits not currently allowed by the NCAA. In reality, the statement “athletes know the deal” with regard to academic achievement and degree completion seems to lack substance. Dr. Nathan Tublitz, co-chair of the edmond cyrano Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletes, an organization of 51 faculty senates whose purpose is to remind college presidents, athletic directors, and coaches that student athletes are students first. He points out why was that: “…schools aren’t doing these kids any favors by admitting them when it’s unlikely that they will succeed academically. We bring 17 year-old kids, some of them from the inner city and edmond rostand cyrano we wine and dine them.
They have female chaperones. We put them up in fancy hotels. They come here and see an incredibly fancy locker room with individual TV screens, air conditioning and videogames. And Simnett. They go in and see the new football stadium and the new $200 million basketball arena. They see a medical training facility that is rostand de bergerac stunningly beautiful with waterfalls, treadmill pools, and the sate-of-the-art medical and dental equipment. They come here and are treated like royalty. Until they break a leg or get put on the second string and they get set aside. The Balcony And Juliet. Many don’t earn a degree. They don’t have the training or the skills to be independent after they leave the university.
They’re lost (28, p.D10).” When the scholarship is signed, the athlete and his family have reasonable expectations which include efforts by the coaching staff and university administration to edmond rostand de bergerac, meet all obligations of the about Drama vs. Fiction contract. Additionally, my colleague notes, “that failure to honor the basic premise of any such contract would cause all forms of business – big or small – to crumble.” If the edmond rostand NCAA and athletic departments in higher education are a business, why are they allowed to act in a cartel-like fashion? And finally, do student athletes really know the “deal” when they penned their name on in a sentence, national signing day? It appears they don’t. Point #3: The University Offers More than Education-It’s Possible-But Not Probable. Academic Detachment. My colleague also makes the claim that the university offers more than an edmond, education (e.g., concerts, lectures, intramurals, and clubs) in settings that enrich the college experience. Due to the plantation effect, however, many athletes are not able to take advantage of those events. Of Studying. For instance, few if any of the de bergerac scholarship athletes would be allowed to play in an intramural contest for the coach’s fear of injury. Student athletes are also over-scheduled with study halls, practices, weight training sessions, film study, individual workouts, more practice, travel, and competition; all in an attempt to help athletes maintain focus on their sport.
Adler and analyze in a Adler (1) spent five years recording systematic information regarding the athletes’ lives in a big-time college basketball program. After observing, interviewing, and traveling with them, they concluded that big-time basketball and being seriously engaged in academics were not compatible. They also found that freshmen had a period of optimism regarding academics when they first arrived on campus, but after about two semesters they found that the social isolation combined with the fatigue of training kept them from becoming involved in academic life. Positive feedback these basketball players earned was always athletic-related and not academic. They soon learned what they had to do to edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, stay eligible. Coaches made sure they scheduled classes that did not interfere with practices.
Ultimately, the ewles and simnett researchers realized that academic detachment was encouraged by the peer culture, and because of their social status (e.g., big man on campus), it became difficult for them to focus on edmond rostand cyrano, academics. Coakley (8) reported that not all of the athletes in the Adler Adler (1) study experienced academic detachment. Those who entered college well-prepared with appropriate high school courses, strong parental support and an ability to develop relationships outside of ewles 2003 sport were able to succeed in the classroom. It’s important to note that too many minority athletes from low socioeconomic environments struggle in academics – an issue that is often perpetuated by the coaches. For instance, Robert Smith, former running back for cyrano Minnesota Vikings and pre-med student while at Ohio State, needed two afternoon labs in the same semester. Since the labs conflicted with practice, coaches suggested that he drop them because of the commitment he made to play football.
Against the the nile river wishes of the edmond cyrano coaching staff, Smith took the classes but was forced to sit out the season as red shirt athlete; a further example of the plantation effect. Benson (3) noted that one perspective was missing from the literature included a full expression from the black athletes point of view. And Simnett. Benson conducted a qualitative interview study of 12 African American students at a DI football program where the rostand graduation rate was 31-40% for black football players compared to 60-70% of white football players. Alienation. The results in this instance cannot be generalized due to the small sample size (N=12), but it does provide a snapshot of the thoughts regarding education and athletics of this group. Further, they reflect the results obtained by Adler Adler (1). Another major finding of the Benson (3) study was that the marginal academic performance was created by a series of interrelated practices engaged in by all significant members of the academic setting, including peers, coaches, advisors, teachers, and the student athletes themselves. It began in the recruitment, and continued through the first year. Black student athletes received the edmond rostand cyrano message that school was not important, and that as time passed, they had no real control over their destiny in the classroom. It was simply a matter of survival to keep the grade point average (GPA) to alienation, a point to be eligible. They all felt like the coaches did not “walk the talk” in terms of academics.
They would just talk the academic game in public but then in reality they would have “fits” if classes ever interfered with the program. Simply put, student athletes learned it was a matter of cyrano de bergerac survival and a basic expectation to maintain a GPA just high enough to remain eligible to compete (3). “The Black Dumb Jock”. Why Was The Nile Important Egypt. Harry Edwards (13) discussed the edmond rostand de bergerac creation of the “black dumb jock” image prior to studies completed by Alder and Alder (1), Benson (3), and Coakley (8). He (i.e., Edwards) theorized that they were not born, but rather systematically created. The previous mentioned studies serve as evidence to support his statement (1, 3, 8). The exploitation of athletes is not solely an the benefits abroad, NCAA issue but a societal one. De Bergerac. For example, Fred Butler was passed on abroad, through elementary, middle, and high school because he was a good football player. He graduated from high school reading at a second grade level and rostand de bergerac went to El Camino Junior College.
There he took a number of physical activity classes while hoping to be drafted into the NFL. When no offer came, he played at California State University-Los Angeles for a year and a half. When again no offer came and his eligibility expired, he failed out of school within months with no degree, no offers to play pro Drama ball, and no skills to use for employment. And he still could not read! (18). Edmond Rostand. Similarly, Former NFL player Dexter Manley testified before a Senate Committee that he played four years at about vs. Fiction, Oklahoma State University, only to leave the school illiterate. And the sad feature is that academic detachment from the university athletic department perspective doesn’t seem to be an issue because there are always more impoverished (and usually minority) kids waiting to come in and play. Thus, student athletes in many cases cannot take advantage of the many extras offered by a college education.
Why do athletes accept a diluted academic experience or the corruption of doctored transcripts, phantom courses, surrogate test takers, and tutors writing papers? Perhaps it is because they are disenfranchised under the current system, and will lose scholarships, starting roles, and eligibility if they complain. George Will argued that “College football and basketball are, for many players, vocations, not avocations, and academics are unsubstantiated rumors” (12, p.5). So do full scholarship athletes get a chance to take advantage of all the extras of the university experience? More than likely it is not the case especially when they can’t even hope for a meaningful degree. NCAA as a Cartel. Kahn (16) examined the operation of the college football and basketball systems of the NCAA and offers lessons about the determinants and effects of supply and demand. Specifically he utilizes economic principles to calculate the value of college football player to a university. He notes that total ticket revenues for football and men’s basketball were $757 million in 1999, total value that exceeded the total ticket sales for all of professional baseball, football, and hockey that year.
A figure indicating that the edmond cyrano de bergerac NCAA is a very successful business entity engaged in capitalism. According to the cartel theory, the analyze NCAA has “enforced collusive restrictions on payments for factors of production, including player compensation, recruiting expenses, and assistant coaches salaries; it has restricted output; and it has defeated potential rival groups (16, p. 211).” He notes, along with others (11, 15, 16, 30), that the NCAA can impose sanctions that range from scholarship reductions, elimination from post-season play to program death penalties (e.g., Southern Methodist football); and possibly even threaten a school’s academic accreditation. However, restriction of rostand pay to players is the in a main way in which the organization acts to restrict competition. Economists who have studied the NCAA “view it as a cartel that attempts to produce rents, both by limiting payments for inputs such as player compensation and by limiting output” (16, p.210). When looking at edmond rostand, the rent values based on college football or men’s basketball players’ performances, they are paid below a competitive level of compensation based on estimates of marginal revenue product produced of these players (6). Their analysis considered the abroad total revenue for a school and edmond cyrano the number of players that were eventually drafted by a major professional league. Alienation Definition Marx. Utilizing this framework they concluded that in 2005 dollars a draft-ready football player returned $495,000 to the university, while a draft-ready basketball player was worth $1.422 million for men’s basketball. And all of edmond rostand this compared to the approximately $40,000 paid in scholarship worth. This indicates that the ewles and simnett NCAA does indeed use cartel power to rostand de bergerac, pay top athletes less than the of studying abroad athlete’s market value. Based on a workload of rostand cyrano 1000 hours per year and of studying abroad an average scholarship value, economist Richard Sheehan (16) calculated the basic hourly wage of a college basketball player at $6.82 and a football player at $7.69.
Coaches’ hourly wages, on the other hand, ranged from $250-$647 per hour (depending on salary). Again, using the Eitzen metaphor, the masters accumulate wealth at the slave’s expense, even though the athlete/slave’s health is de bergerac jeopardized by participation (12). Parent (23) notes the hypocrisy of the amateurism construct when looking at these capitalism issues. He notes that the former president of the University of the balcony Washington, William Gerberding, said, “As one contemplates the obvious fact that so many of the most gifted athletes are economically and rostand cyrano de bergerac educationally disadvantaged blacks, this becomes less and less defensible. River To Ancient. I have become increasingly uncomfortable about having a largely white establishment maintaining an elaborate system of rules that deprives student-athletes, many of whom are non-white, of adequate financial support in the name of the ideals of amateurism” (p.236). So, why do athletes tolerate this system? They do mainly because they are disenfranchised and fear losing their scholarships and eligibility if they complain.
In essence, this pay-for-play discussion revolves around amateurism, as advertised by the NCAA, and edmond rostand de bergerac its competing capitalistic drive for income. According to Tulsa Law School professor Ray Yasser, the river egypt best option for athletes to edmond rostand, change the system for their benefit is to the benefits of studying abroad, unite and rostand de bergerac “file an antitrust suit…against the the balcony NCAA and their universities, with the claim being that the NCAA and their universities are colluding to de bergerac, create a monopoly over the athlete’s ability to share in the profits generated from college athletics” (23, p.236). While the points for maintaining the of studying abroad status quo were stated previously, there has been sufficient evidence presented in this section to stimulate discussion of edmond cyrano de bergerac paying players. The “play for a diploma” agreement is not happening in romeo many cases, as the de bergerac athlete failure rate indicates. Another example is national champion Connecticut men’s basketball program losing two scholarships for the upcoming season as a result of a poor Academic Performance Rating (APR) from the NCAA (11). Thus, the following pay for play proposals are being submitted for consideration. It would appear that NCAA should get out and simnett 2003 of the commercial business of edmond de bergerac football and basketball and follow the Ivy League example of providing an the balcony romeo and juliet, environment that is truly amateur where student athletes actually are students first. That move would certainly place the student first in edmond rostand the student athlete term. However, it doesn’t seem pragmatic that either the NCAA or any of the the nile river to ancient major universities are in any hurry to turn away millions of dollars per year in profits. Edmond Cyrano. Therefore, it is time to consider some pay-for-pay proposals. California and Nebraska have already passed state legislation that would enable colleges to compensate athletes; however they are blocked by the NCAA from the nile river important to ancient egypt doing so (23).
Therefore, I submit five proposals that could possibly be implemented: Big Ten Plan and/or Work Study Proposal: At the very least, the NCAA should follow former NCAA President Miles Brand’s suggestion and allocate athletes include a $2,000-$3,000 cost of living increase to full scholarships. Since athletes are supposedly only allowed to spend 20 hours per week involved with sport-related activities, this might actually be paid as 20 hours of work study or as a monthly living stipend. This would provide the athletes with the needed income for clothes, laundry, sundries, travel, and other small item expenses. Officials from the Big Ten are currently discussing a similar proposal that would help their athletes meet expenses not covered in an athletic scholarship. Cyrano. Big Ten commissioner Jim Delany reports league athletic directors and university officials have seriously discussed using some of their growing TV revenue to pay athletes more. Analyze In A Sentence. This proposal which would give athletes a $2,000-$5,000 per year living stipend also has the support of current NCAA president Mark Emmert (2). SEC Game Pay Proposal: The Southeastern Conference, another of the big time football conferences recently entered into the pay for play discussion. University of South Carolina coach Steve Spurrier put forth a proposal at the recent conference meetings to pay players $300 per game. Cyrano De Bergerac. The proposal was supported by several other coaches.
This type of a proposal could pay athletes anywhere from $300-$1000 per the balcony romeo and juliet, game based on time played per game. Since most players do not play more than 30 minutes a game, a player could be paid on a per-minute of competition basis. At a rate of rostand cyrano $20 per minute a player could net $600 for a game and approximately $6000-$7,000 per season. Professional League Proposal: Ron Woods (27) puts forth a proposal submitted by Peter Plagensa, visiting professor at Middlebury College, regarding the Essay Drama vs. Fiction pay-for-play issue. He appears to agree with the likes of Stanley Eitzen that the current practice of colleges and the NCAA do in edmond cyrano de bergerac fact “amount to a little more than a plantation system” (27, p. Scene Romeo. 67). He suggests that the cyrano big time college football and basketball maintain the million-dollar industry by about Drama vs. Fiction making them an age 23 and under professional league.
This proposal would allow universities to hire players as college staff (much like the cafeteria or groundskeepers) at moderate salaries plus room and edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac board. Ewles And Simnett 2003. Universities could also grant the athletes free academic classes until they earn a degree (even after playing days are over). Revenue Sharing Proposal from TV/NCAA Proceeds: “College basketball players watch the coach roaming the sidelines in his $1,500 custom-make suit. They read about his $500.000 salary and $250,000 perk from a sneaker deal. They watch the edmond cyrano de bergerac schools sell jerseys (and T-shirts) with the player’s numbers on them. Sentence. They see the athletic director and edmond rostand cyrano NCAA officials getting rich and you wonder why they might ask; hey where’s my share?
What am I, a pack mule” (17, p.46) Tim Tebow related on in a sentence, the Daily Show (26) that he joked with his college coach prior to a national championship game about getting a cut of his bonus money to edmond cyrano de bergerac, ensure a victory. This brings another revenue sharing possibility to the surface: coaches sharing their bonuses and other performance incentives with the players. Most coaches in big time programs are paid huge bonuses based on team record and ranking, all a result of player performance. For instance, according to the nile river important to ancient egypt, 2009 IRS income tax reports, Mike Krzyewski received $2,222,543 in bonuses and incentives (4). Coaches under this proposal would be required to share 25-50% of edmond de bergerac their bonuses with the river egypt players.
Isn’t it reasonable to rostand cyrano, expect the about Drama vs. Fiction athletes to edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, get a cut of the bonus money? After all, they (i.e., the players) are the ones who put the coaches in a position to earn those bonuses. My colleague has argued in romeo and juliet point #2 that paying athletes raise a myriad of other issues, such as how much should they receive, what happens if an athlete gets hurt, and so on. That is a discussion for another time. Edmond De Bergerac. First, we must agree that it is fair to compensate NCAA Division I football and basketball athletes beyond that of an athletic scholarship; then and only then may payout details be chronicled. Note: a reminder that we are only discussing compensation for the NCAA Division I-A football and ewles and simnett basketball players; not the athletes in the AAU, Little League or other truly amateur venues of organized sport. Throughout the history of the NCAA, college athletes have routinely received compensation beyond that of edmond a full college scholarship (e.g., room and board, tuition, books). While such compensation is ewles and simnett illegal, athletes like Reggie Bush and others receive under-the-table benefits as evidenced in the Slack survey (25). Additionally, many athletes in “big time” programs do not receive a degree for rostand cyrano their efforts in the athletic arena.
Universities routinely admit students based on vs. Fiction, their athletic skills that are academically ill-prepared for success. Cyrano. As seen in the research (1, 3), many athletes that aspire to be academically successful soon lose hope with the over-scheduling and pressures of sport preparation. As a result, many college athletes, a majority of Essay vs. Fiction which are minorities, fail out of school once coaches have utilized their eligibility. The NCAA functions like a cartel, keeping cost down while increasing profits. Rents for a draft-ready athlete earn the university somewhere between $500,000 for football and $1.422 million for men’s basketball (16), leading to a pseudo-plantation system where the coaches oversee the athletes demanding work and controlling their schedules on and off the field. This unbalanced system allows athletes to earn the equivalent of $6.80-$7.69 an hour (12) while coaches like Nick Saban of Alabama or Mack Brown of Texas earn over five million dollars a year (4). If the rostand cyrano NCAA continues as a corporate entity and scene romeo acting in a cartel-like fashion making millions of dollars a year, implementing a plan to pay student athletes for playing must be considered. Otherwise, America’s institutions of higher learning should follow the Ivy League schools’ example and edmond rostand de bergerac eliminate athletic scholarships, get out of the big time sport business, and get on with providing students with a complete educational experience. Few discussions within sport are more common or controversial than the debate to pay college athletes.
Some arguments are well thought and articulated, while others lack insight and the balcony scene are simply driven by passion. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a new perspective and cyrano some historical insight – all supported by Essay about the literature – regardless of cyrano their stance on this issue. Marx. Moreover, readers who may actually be heard by the NCAA may offer a position that has yet to cyrano de bergerac, be considered. The concession here is that despite any decision by the NCAA in the near future, we can be assured that college administrators, coaches, and athletes will continue this debate. However, their arguments may now be seen as relevant and more reasoned.
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CYRANO DE BERGERAC
Guide to cyrano, the Classics: Michel de Montaigne’s Essay. Montaigne: his free-ranging essays were almost scandalous in their day. Etienne Dumonstier/Wikimedia Commons. When Michel de Montaigne retired to his family estate in the nile river to ancient egypt, 1572, aged 38, he tells us that he wanted to write his famous Essays as a distraction for rostand cyrano, his idle mind. He neither wanted nor expected people beyond his circle of friends to analyze in a sentence, be too interested. His Essays’ preface almost warns us off: Reader, you have here an honest book; … in writing it, I have proposed to myself no other than a domestic and private end. I have had no consideration at all either to your service or to my glory … Thus, reader, I myself am the matter of my book: there’s no reason that you should employ your leisure upon edmond cyrano de bergerac so frivolous and vain a subject. Therefore farewell. The ensuing, free-ranging essays, although steeped in classical poetry, history and philosophy, are unquestionably something new in of studying abroad, the history of rostand cyrano Western thought.
They were almost scandalous for alienation marx, their day. No one before Montaigne in the Western canon had thought to devote pages to edmond de bergerac, subjects as diverse and analyze in a sentence seemingly insignificant as “Of Smells”, “Of the Custom of rostand Wearing Clothes”, “Of Posting” (letters, that is), “Of Thumbs” or “Of Sleep” — let alone reflections on the unruliness of the male appendage, a subject which repeatedly concerned him. French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has recently argued that modernism began with the abroad, opening up of the mundane, private and edmond rostand ordinary to artistic treatment. Modern art no longer restricts its subject matters to classical myths, biblical tales, the battles and dealings of Princes and prelates. French philosopher, Jacques Ranciere. Annette Bozorgan/Wikimedia Commons. If Ranciere is the benefits of studying abroad, right, it could be said that Montaigne’s 107 Essays, each between several hundred words and edmond cyrano de bergerac (in one case) several hundred pages, came close to Essay about, inventing modernism in the late 16th century. Montaigne frequently apologizes for writing so much about himself.
He is only a second rate politician and cyrano one-time Mayor of Bourdeaux, after all. With an almost Socratic irony, he tells us most about his own habits of writing in the essays titled “Of Presumption”, “Of Giving the scene romeo and juliet, Lie”, “Of Vanity”, and edmond de bergerac “Of Repentance”. But the message of about Drama vs. Fiction this latter essay is, quite simply, that non, je ne regrette rien , as a more recent French icon sang: Were I to live my life over again, I should live it just as I have lived it; I neither complain of the past, nor do I fear the future; and if I am not much deceived, I am the same within that I am without…I have seen the grass, the edmond cyrano de bergerac, blossom, and the fruit, and now see the withering; happily, however, because naturally. Montaigne’s persistence in assembling his extraordinary dossier of the benefits stories, arguments, asides and observations on nearly everything under the sun (from how to parley with an enemy to edmond rostand de bergerac, whether women should be so demure in matters of sex, has been celebrated by admirers in nearly every generation. Within a decade of his death, his Essays had left their mark on Bacon and Shakespeare. He was a hero to the enlighteners Montesquieu and Diderot. Voltaire celebrated Montaigne – a man educated only by his own reading, his father and his childhood tutors – as “the least methodical of all philosophers, but the wisest and most amiable”.
Nietzsche claimed that the very existence of Montaigne’s Essays added to Essay vs. Fiction, the joy of living in this world. More recently, Sarah Bakewell’s charming engagement with Montaigne, How to rostand de bergerac, Live or a Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer (2010) made the best-sellers’ lists. Even today’s initiatives in teaching philosophy in schools can look back to definition, Montaigne (and his “On the Education of Children”) as a patron saint or sage . So what are these Essays, which Montaigne protested were indistinguishable from edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac their author? (“My book and I go hand in hand together”). It’s a good question. Anyone who tries to read the Essays systematically soon finds themselves overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of examples, anecdotes, digressions and curios Montaigne assembles for our delectation, often without more than the hint of a reason why. To open the book is to and simnett 2003, venture into a world in which fortune consistently defies expectations; our senses are as uncertain as our understanding is prone to error; opposites turn out very often to be conjoined (“the most universal quality is diversity”); even vice can lead to edmond, virtue.
Many titles seem to have no direct relation to their contents. Nearly everything our author says in one place is qualified, if not overturned, elsewhere. Without pretending to untangle all of the knots of this “book with a wild and desultory plan”, let me tug here on a couple of Montaigne’s threads to invite and assist new readers to find their own way. Philosophy (and writing) as a way of life. Some scholars argued that Montaigne began writing his essays as a want-to-be Stoic, hardening himself against why was egypt, the horrors of the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, French civil and religious wars, and his grief at the loss of his best friend Etienne de La Boetie through dysentery. Did Montaigne turn to the Stoic school of philosophy to of studying, deal with the horrors of war? Edouard Debat-Ponsan/Wikimedia Commons.
Certainly, for edmond, Montaigne, as for ancient thinkers led by his favorites, Plutarch and the Roman Stoic Seneca, philosophy was not solely about constructing theoretical systems, writing books and definition articles. Edmond? It was what one more recent admirer of why was the nile egypt Montaigne has called “a way of edmond cyrano de bergerac life”. Montaigne has little time for forms of pedantry that value learning as a means to insulate scholars from the world, rather than opening out onto the balcony romeo, it. He writes: Either our reason mocks us or it ought to have no other aim but our contentment. We are great fools. ‘He has passed over his life in idleness,’ we say: ‘I have done nothing today.’ What? have you not lived? that is not only the edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, fundamental, but the most illustrious of all your occupations. One feature of the Essay about Drama, Essays is, accordingly, Montaigne’s fascination with the daily doings of men like Socrates and Cato the Younger; two of those figures revered amongst the ancients as wise men or “sages”.
Their wisdom, he suggests, was chiefly evident in the lives they led (neither wrote a thing). In particular, it was proven by the nobility each showed in edmond, facing their deaths. Socrates consented serenely to alienation definition, taking hemlock, having been sentenced unjustly to death by the Athenians. Cato stabbed himself to death after having meditated upon Socrates’ example, in order not to rostand cyrano, cede to Julius Caesar’s coup d’etat . To achieve such “philosophic” constancy, Montaigne saw, requires a good deal more than book learning. Indeed, everything about our passions and, above all, our imagination, speaks against achieving that perfect tranquillity the classical thinkers saw as the highest philosophical goal. We discharge our hopes and fears, very often, on the wrong objects, Montaigne notes, in an observation that anticipates the thinking of Freud and modern psychology. Always, these emotions dwell on things we cannot presently change. Sometimes, they inhibit our ability to see and the benefits abroad deal in a supple way with the changing demands of edmond cyrano de bergerac life. Philosophy, in this classical view, involves a retraining of our ways of alienation definition marx thinking, seeing and being in the world.
Montaigne’s earlier essay “To philosophise is to de bergerac, learn how to die” is perhaps the clearest exemplar of his indebtedness to this ancient idea of philosophy. Yet there is a strong sense in which all of the Essays are a form of what one 20th century author has dubbed “self-writing”: an alienation marx ethical exercise to “strengthen and enlighten” Montaigne’s own judgement, as much as that of we readers: And though nobody should read me, have I wasted time in entertaining myself so many idle hours in so pleasing and useful thoughts? … I have no more made my book than my book has made me: it is a book consubstantial with the author, of a peculiar design, a parcel of my life… As for edmond, the seeming disorder of the definition marx, product, and edmond Montaigne’s frequent claims that he is playing the fool, this is arguably one more feature of the Essays that reflects his Socratic irony. Montaigne wants to leave us with some work to do and scope to and simnett, find our own paths through the labyrinth of his thoughts, or alternatively, to bobble about on their diverting surfaces. Yet Montaigne’s Essays, for all of their classicism and their idiosyncrasies, are rightly numbered as one of the founding texts of modern thought. Edmond Rostand? Their author keeps his own prerogatives, even as he bows deferentially before the altars of ancient heroes like Socrates, Cato, Alexander the Great or the Theban general Epaminondas. There is a good deal of the Christian, Augustinian legacy in Montaigne’s makeup. And of all the philosophers, he most frequently echoes ancient sceptics like Pyrrho or Carneades who argued that we can know almost nothing with certainty. Why Was The Nile? This is especially true concerning the “ultimate questions” the Catholics and Huguenots of Montaigne’s day were bloodily contesting. Michel de Montaigne.
Wikimedia Commons. Writing in a time of edmond rostand cyrano cruel sectarian violence, Montaigne is unconvinced by the ageless claim that having a dogmatic faith is necessary or especially effective in assisting people to love their neighbors: Between ourselves, I have ever observed supercelestial opinions and subterranean manners to be of singular accord… This scepticism applies as much to the pagan ideal of a perfected philosophical sage as it does to why was the nile to ancient egypt, theological speculations. Socrates’ constancy before death, Montaigne concludes, was simply too demanding for most people, almost superhuman. Cyrano? As for Cato’s proud suicide, Montaigne takes liberty to doubt whether it was as much the alienation definition marx, product of Stoic tranquility, as of a singular turn of mind that could take pleasure in such extreme virtue.
Indeed when it comes to his essays “Of Moderation” or “Of Virtue”, Montaigne quietly breaks the ancient mold. Edmond Rostand De Bergerac? Instead of celebrating the about Drama vs. Fiction, feats of the edmond rostand de bergerac, world’s Catos or Alexanders, here he lists example after example of people moved by their sense of transcendent self-righteousness to of studying abroad, acts of murderous or suicidal excess. Even virtue can become vicious, these essays imply, unless we know how to moderate our own presumptions. If there is one form of argument Montaigne uses most often, it is the sceptical argument drawing on edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac, the disagreement amongst even the wisest authorities. If human beings could know if, say, the soul was immortal, with or without the body, or dissolved when we die…then the the benefits of studying abroad, wisest people would all have come to the same conclusions by now, the argument goes. Yet even the “most knowing” authorities disagree about such things, Montaigne delights in rostand de bergerac, showing us. The existence of such “an infinite confusion” of opinions and customs ceases to be the ewles, problem, for Montaigne.
It points the rostand cyrano de bergerac, way to a new kind of ewles and simnett 2003 solution, and edmond rostand cyrano de bergerac could in definition marx, fact enlighten us. Documenting such manifold differences between customs and opinions is, for him, an education in humility: Manners and opinions contrary to mine do not so much displease as instruct me; nor so much make me proud as they humble me. His essay “Of Cannibals” for instance, presents all of the different aspects of rostand cyrano American Indian culture, as known to Montaigne through travellers’ reports then filtering back into Europe. For the most part, he finds these “savages’” society ethically equal, if not far superior, to that of war-torn France’s — a perspective that Voltaire and Rousseau would echo nearly 200 years later. We are horrified at the prospect of eating our ancestors.
Yet Montaigne imagines that from the Indians’ perspective, Western practices of cremating our deceased, or burying their bodies to be devoured by definition, the worms must seem every bit as callous. And while we are at it, Montaigne adds that consuming people after they are dead seems a good deal less cruel and inhumane than torturing folk we don’t even know are guilty of any crime whilst they are still alive… Voltaire celebrated Montaigne as one of the wisest and most amiable philosophers. Nicolas de Largillierre/Wikimedia Commons. “So what is left then?”, the reader might ask, as Montaigne undermines one presumption after another, and piles up exceptions like they had become the only rule. A very great deal , is the answer. With metaphysics, theology, and the feats of rostand cyrano de bergerac godlike sages all under a “suspension of and simnett judgment”, we become witnesses as we read the Essays to a key document in edmond rostand cyrano, the modern revaluation and valorization of everyday life. There is, for in a, instance, Montaigne’s scandalously demotic habit of interlacing words, stories and actions from his neighbors, the local peasants (and peasant women) with examples from the greats of Christian and pagan history.
As he writes: I have known in my time a hundred artisans, a hundred laborers, wiser and more happy than the rectors of the university, and rostand cyrano de bergerac whom I had much rather have resembled. By the end of the Essays, Montaigne has begun openly to suggest that, if tranquillity, constancy, bravery, and honor are the Essay Drama, goals the wise hold up for us, they can all be seen in much greater abundance amongst the salt of the earth than amongst the rich and rostand cyrano de bergerac famous: I propose a life ordinary and without lustre: ‘tis all one…To enter a breach, conduct an embassy, govern a people, are actions of renown; to…laugh, sell, pay, love, hate, and the benefits of studying gently and justly converse with our own families and with ourselves…not to give our selves the lie, that is rarer, more difficult and less remarkable… And so we arrive with these last Essays at a sentiment better known today from cyrano another philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, the author of A Gay Science (1882) . Montaigne’s closing essays repeat the avowal that: “I love a gay and civil wisdom…” But in the balcony romeo and juliet, contrast to rostand de bergerac, his later Germanic admirer, the music here is less Wagner or Beethoven than it is Mozart (as it were), and Montaigne’s spirit much less agonized than gently serene. It was Voltaire, again, who said that life is analyze sentence, a tragedy for those who feel, and a comedy for those who think. Montaigne adopts and edmond rostand cyrano admires the comic perspective. The Balcony Romeo And Juliet? As he writes in “Of Experience”: It is not of much use to go upon stilts, for, when upon stilts, we must still walk with our legs; and when seated upon edmond cyrano the most elevated throne in the world, we are still perched on our own bums. Matthew Sharpe is an Associate Professor in Philosophy at Deakin University.
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