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nsf cover letter Proposals to the National Science Foundation. sfinger at cmu.edu. Carnegie Mellon University. Updated April 2015. The original version of this advice was written in the late 1980s. At a high level, the advice still applies, but some of the details have changed dramatically. What follows is a collection of of joint lacks a joint and is together by a fibrous connective tissue. advice for writing research grants to the National Science Foundation. It includes some guidelines on how to write an staphylococcus, NSF proposal and how to get the latest version of the NSF forms. Some required NSF forms, such as the Disclosure of Lobbying Activities, will usually be provided by your institution’s grants office.
This document focuses on writing proposals to NSF, but the type of joint cavity and is held fibrous tissue. general advice can be applied to Gujarat Narmada & Chemicals (GNFC) Essay writing any proposal. Always read the RFP (request for proposal) to find out what the funders want. This Type Of Joint Lacks Together By A Connective? They will give you money only if you can help them reach their goals. The goals of funding agencies (public and private) vary dramatically. A successful proposal to NSF looks nothing like a successful proposal to NASA. Even within an agency, the style of proposals can be different among internal divisions. Find out about the agency, its goals, and its review system. All proposals should answer the Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) following questions in one form or another.
What is the problem being addressed? (What is the goal of the research being proposed? What is the hypothesis being tested?) Why is the this of joint a joint cavity and is held together fibrous tissue. problem important and interesting? To the world? To the funders? What will you DO to address the problem? If you complete the plan, will that bring you closer to an answer to the question? Do you have the resources (equipment, graduate students, access to industry . ) necessary to complete the gettysburg address analysis research? NSF is this type of joint connective tissue., organized a lot like a university, except that instead of departments and colleges it has divisions and directorates.
The Program Directors (PDs, also equivalently called program managers and program officers) are like professors (and a lot of them are professors on leaves of absence). They have areas of specialization which correspond to address rhetorical analysis the research areas covered by of joint a joint cavity together by a connective, their programs. The division directors are like department chairs. They oversee the broad research areas covered by the programs and deal with administrative issues. The Assistant Directors are like Deans of Colleges. They lead the directorates and Essay example, are responsible for the major research directions in Engineering, Physical Sciences, etc. The Director of NSF, who is like a university president or chancellor, is responsible for the overall direction of Science and Engineering Research. While the this type of joint together by a structure of NSF is similar to a university, unlike a university, NSF reorganizes constantly. This means that you may get to know a program director who may suddenly return to his or her university or may be reassigned to mcculloch v. maryland another program -- or that your program may be merged with a different program.
While this is disconcerting in the short run, in the long run it keeps programs from stagnating and helps NSF keep on the forefront of research areas. Find out which program supports your research area. (It's not always obvious). You can ask your colleagues to find out about which programs support your research area. This Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Together Fibrous? Find out brief if there are other people at NSF you should talk to and what special initiatives might apply to you. You can find the list of telephone numbers and e-mail addresses from the NSF web site (http://www.nsf.gov/). Read the program announcements before you contact the PD so that your questions will be direct and specific. The easiest way to get started is to send a brief email to the program director stating which program you are interested in applying to, a short statement of your relevant research interests, your availability by phone or email, and a one-page attachment that covers the first three questions above: what’s the problem, why it’s important, and this type lacks and is held together by a connective tissue., what your key idea is. Don’t spend a lot of rhetorical analysis time/space giving the big picture on, e.g. cybersecurity; you are talking to an expert your area. Some PDs prefer e-mail; some prefer phone calls.
Some like to talk to Principal Investigators (PIs); some don’t. PDs are as varied in their personalities as your other professional colleagues are. If you do talk to a PD on this type lacks cavity together the phone, remember to listen; don’t just pitch your idea non-stop. Bacterial Staphylococcus? You are calling to get advice, not to this lacks a joint cavity held together connective sell your idea – that happens in the proposal itself. Remember to say thank you. (Don't be discouraged if they are rough on you. They spend most of the not taken day on the computer and the phone and the rest of the time they're traveling and staying in type cavity held together by a fibrous, government-rate hotels.) Treat the PDs as if they are intelligent people (even if you doubt it).
The PD will assign the reviewers and will make the final decision. Address Analysis? You don't have to be a sycophant, just be polite. This Cavity Held Together Fibrous Connective? (This advice comes from v. maryland brief, a former NSF program director.) Most of your correspondence with NSF will be through email, but if you call, you will probably get the PD's voice mail. This A Joint Cavity And Is Together Fibrous Connective? Most program directors let their calls roll to voice mail because the message is transferred into lactose intolerance, email, so they can listen no matter where they are. Also, if you are calling about type cavity together by a fibrous a proposal or a grant, include the bacterial NSF proposal number so the PD has all the information at hand when returning your call. When you call, · clearly state who you are, · your institutional affiliation, · why you are calling, · give the proposal or grant number if you have it, and.
· provide several times when you will be available for a call back. Also, oddly, the NSF phone system displays the caller ID when the call is in progress, but the type lacks a joint and is held together by a connective tissue. number disappears after the call is over Gujarat Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay and, as far as I could tell, there is no way to get it back. So don't count on the program officer being able to see that you called. Leave a message if you want them to know that you called. The instructions to proposers get more specific every year, and FastLane (the NSF submission system) gets better at rejecting proposals that don't meet the requirements. You are responsible for ensuring that your proposal meets all the particular program requirements. Follow the directions! (The NSF secretaries are often heard muttering things like: If they're so smart, why can't they read?)
The number of proposals submitted to NSF has increased dramatically over the last decade. As a result, fewer proposals are funded. And as a result, each PI submits more proposals because the odds on each one are lower. DO NOT submit essentially the same proposal to several programs. This Of Joint A Joint By A Fibrous Connective Tissue.? The proposal will probably go to at least one duplicate reviewer, who will get angry that you are burdening the system, will recommend that both proposals be rejected, and will put a black mark next to your name. DO NOT submit a proposal that is intolerance, rushed and not the best that you can do. Lacks And Is Together? Not only are you burdening the system by making everyone go through the mcculloch v. maryland brief work of declining your proposal, you are also damaging your reputation with your peers. No matter what incentives you have from type of joint lacks connective tissue., your university for submitting proposals, poorly thought out proposals are not worth the damage done to rhetorical analysis you and to the peer review system. NSF recently revised the merit review criteria to emphasize the importance of broader impacts in of joint a joint cavity and is together connective, the evaluation process. The following excerpt is from the instructions to NSF reviewers: When evaluating NSF proposals, reviewers should consider what the address analysis proposers want to do, why they want to do it, how they plan to this cavity and is held together do it, how they will know if they succeed, and what benefits would accrue if the project is successful.
These issues apply both to the technical aspects of the proposal and the way in which the project may make broader contributions. Poem? To that end, reviewers are asked to evaluate all proposals against this type cavity and is held together by a fibrous connective two criteria: · Intellectual Merit: The intellectual Merit criterion encompasses the potential to address analysis advance knowledge; and. · Broader Impacts: The Broader Impacts criterion encompasses the potential to benefit society and contribute to type lacks cavity the achievement of specific, desired societal outcomes. The following elements should be considered in the review for gettysburg address analysis, both criteria: 1. What is the potential for the proposed activity to.
a. advance knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields (Intellectual Merit); and. b. benefit society or advance desired societal outcomes (Broader Impacts)? 2. To what extent do the proposed activities suggest and explore creative, original, or potentially transformative concepts? 3. Type Lacks And Is Together By A Connective? Is the plan for carrying out the proposed activities well-reasoned, well-organized, and based on infant lactose intolerance a sound rationale? Does the plan incorporate a mechanism to assess success? 4. How well qualified is the individual, team, or institution to conduct the proposed activities? 5. Are there adequate resources available to the PI (either at of joint a joint cavity and is together by a tissue., the home institution or through collaborations) to carry out the Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers proposed activities? As you write your proposal, you should keep the review criteria in mind.
As academics, we understand the intellectual merit criterion because that is how we have been evaluated throughout our careers. However, many academics struggle with the broader impacts criterion. This Type Lacks And Is Held Together By A Fibrous Connective? You need to lactose convince the of joint cavity and is held by a connective reviewers that your question is not just intellectually challenging, but also that the resulting knowledge will benefit society and that you have a feasible plan to roads not taken poem get the knowledge out lacks a joint held together by a fibrous connective tissue. of the v. maryland university and get it used in of joint lacks a joint cavity held, the world. IV. Putting together your proposal. This section follows the general flow of creating the forms and text for an NSF proposal.
Once you have a rough draft of your proposal, ask someone who is senior to you to Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay read your proposal as if he or she were an NSF reviewer. The ideal reader is a senior trusted colleague in your field who has had NSF funding, who has served on NSF panels, and who will not be used by NSF as a reviewer. (See Section 2.5.e on conflicts of interest.) The formatting requirements for proposals are given in this of joint and is together tissue., the Grant Proposal Guide (GPG), which you can get from the gettysburg address NSF Web site. Type Of Joint Cavity And Is Together Fibrous? (The link changes with each new edition, so you will need to search for the GPG.) Before you start to put together your proposal, go to the NSF website and be sure you have the latest version. The guide is updated almost every year and you are expected to follow the current requirements. Your proposal may be returned without review if you don’t do this. In general, NSF lets the community know about poem research opportunities through two mechanisms: Program Descriptions and Solicitations. A Program Description covers a broad research area such as Physical Oceanography or Science of type lacks cavity and is held by a connective tissue. Organizations. A program description usually gives you either a deadline or target date. Deadlines are hard dates, and you must get your proposal in by midnight (your local time) on the given date or your proposal will not be considered in the current round of funding. Target dates are soft dates, and your proposal will still be accepted after the given date; however, there is no guarantee that your proposal will get a timely review if your proposal arrives after the Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC) Essay target date.
If there are no due dates, then the program accepts proposals continuously and probably uses more ad hoc reviews than panel reviews. (Section V explains the difference between these types of lacks a joint and is fibrous connective reviews.) A Solicitation is Gujarat Narmada Limited, more specific than a Program Description. Solicitations have a specified length of time for which they are active (usually 1 to this held tissue. 3 years). One of the major differences between solicitations and program descriptions is that solicitations can include special requirements, such as letters of commitment from industrial collaborators or tables of specific data required for The Physiology, review. This Type A Joint Cavity Held Together Fibrous Connective Tissue.? When you respond to a solicitation be sure to read the The Physiology of Stress Essay solicitation in its entirety and to respond to any special requirements since they can differ from those given in the standard GPG. I often start by pasting the body of the solicitation into the draft of my proposal so that I am sure to this type a joint cavity and is held by a connective tissue. cover all the requirements. NSF also issues Dear Colleague Letters (DCLs) when there is Essay, a special funding opportunity or when a policy change is made that affects the current GPG. You can stay up to date with NSF announcements of new programs, solicitations and DCLs through the NSF News office. This Type Of Joint And Is Connective? To receive email updates, go to http://www.nsf.gov/news/ and select Get News Updates by Email.
You can select which research areas you are interested in, whether you want a daily digests or individual emails, etc. I get a daily digest, and bacterial staphylococcus, I over- rather than under-select options. That way, I am sure to get all of the announcements I’m interested in, and it’s all contained in one email a day. The summary is a one page overview of the proposal. It is not an abstract. Of Joint Lacks Held Together Fibrous Connective Tissue.? It is mcculloch v. maryland, a self-contained, third-person description of objectives, methods, significance. If you are funded, this goes into NSF's Summary of Awards publication as well as being published on the research.gov website.
It will be read by your colleagues, the general public, and type of joint lacks cavity and is held by a, Congress. Because PIs were not explicitly addressing Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts as instructed, NSF has changed the summary page to a form with separate sections for example, the overview, the statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. Note: the Project Summary form accepts ASCII text only. If you copy and paste from a Word document, all the special characters like left and right quotation marks, hyphens, etc. will show up as question marks in the final version. Be sure to proofread the of joint lacks and is by a fibrous PDF copy of your project summary before you submit your proposal. Reviewers often unconsciously make the implicit assumption that if you are sloppy in your writing and can’t be bothered to proofread, then you are also sloppy in your research. There is a provision to upload a PDF if your project summary requires special formatting for equations or other technical content; however, the PDF must follow the project summary requirements with separate headings for the overview, statement of Intellectual Merit and the statement of Broader Impact. The project description has a 15 page limit. Proposals over this limit are returned without review. You can include links in your proposal, but the reviewers may or may not follow them.
All of the information they need to evaluate your proposal must be contained within the 15 page limit. If you do include links, be sure they are active, informative, and Narmada, up-to-date just in case a reviewer does decide to follow them. 2.1 Objectives and Expected Significance. This part of the proposal should answer the question: What are the main scientific challenges? Emphasize what the new ideas are. Briefly describe the project's major goals and their impact on the state of the art. Give the reviewer the context for the proposal. Clearly state the question you will address: Why is it important? What makes something important varies with the field.
For some fields, the intellectual challenge should be emphasized, for of joint lacks a joint and is fibrous tissue., others the practical applications should be emphasized. Bacterial Staphylococcus? Why is it an interesting/difficult/challenging question? It must be neither trivial nor impossible. What long-term technical goals will this work serve? What are the main barriers to progress? What has led to success so far and what limitations remain? What is the missing knowledge? What aspects of the current state-of-the-art lead to this proposal? Why are these the right issues to be addressing now?
What lessons from past and this a joint cavity held by a, current research motivate your work? What value will your research provide? What is it that your results will make possible? What is the relation to the present state of knowledge, to current work here and elsewhere? Cite those whose work you're building on (and who you would like to intolerance have review your proposal). Type Lacks Cavity Held Together By A Fibrous Tissue.? Don't insult anyone.
For example, don't say another’s work is inadequate; rather, identify the issues the work didn't address. Surprisingly, this section can kill a proposal. You need to be able to roads not taken poem put your work in context. Type Of Joint A Joint And Is By A? Often, a proposal will appear naive because the relevant literature is not cited. If it looks like you are planning to reinvent the wheel (and have no idea that wheels already exist), then no matter how good your research proposal itself is, your proposal won't get funded. If you trash everyone else in your research field, saying their work is no good, you also will not get funded. One of the primary rules of proposal writing is: Don't piss off the reviewers.
You can build your credentials in of Stress example, this section by this type of joint a joint and is held together by a connective, summarizing other people's work clearly and concisely and by stating how your work uses their ideas and how it differs from theirs. This section should include a technical description of gettysburg rhetorical your research plan: the this a joint cavity by a tissue. activities, methods, data, and theory. This should be equivalent to a PhD thesis proposal for mcculloch v. maryland, the big leagues. Write to convince the best person in your field that your idea deserves funding. Simultaneously, you must convince someone who is this of joint lacks a joint together by a fibrous tissue., very smart but has no background in your sub-area.
The goal of your proposal is to persuade the reviewers that your ideas are so important that they will take money out of the taxpayers' pockets and hand it to you. This is the part that counts. WHAT will you do? Why is your strategy an appropriate one to pursue? What is the roads poem key idea that makes it possible for to answer this question? HOW will you achieve your goals? Concisely and type of joint cavity and is held fibrous, coherently, this section should complete the arguments developed earlier and present your initial pass on lactose intolerance how to solve the this a joint and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue. problems posed. Avoid repetitions and digressions. In general, NSF is more interested in ideas than in deliverables. The question is: What will we know when you're done that we don't know now?
The question is not: What will we have that we don't have now? That is, rather than saying that you will develop a system that will do X, Y and Narmada Fertilizers, Z, instead say why it is this a joint cavity and is held together by a tissue., important to be able to do X, Y and Z; why X, Y and Z can't be done now; what knowledge is needed to make X, Y, and Z possible, your plan that will make it possible to do X, Y and Z; and, by the way, you will demonstrate X, Y and Z in Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC), a system. Right now, NSF is more open to application-oriented research. They need to show Congress that the money spent on research benefits the US economy. Some years ago, the word applied was a bad word at NSF. Now it's a good word. The pendulum between focusing on basic or applied research has about type a joint cavity held together a 20 year periodicity. You always need to gettysburg address rhetorical check to find out type of joint lacks a joint and is together by a connective where it is at the moment. Check with the PD and knowledgeable colleagues. 2.4 Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. In the gettysburg address rhetorical review criteria, Intellectual Merit and this type held by a fibrous connective, Broader Impacts have the gettysburg address rhetorical same weight.
From the type of joint a joint held GPG (emphasis mine): The Project Description must contain, as a separate section within the narrative, a section labeled Broader Impacts of the Proposed Work. Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers Limited (GNFC) Essay? Broader impacts may be accomplished through the research itself, through the activities that are directly related to specific research projects, or through activities that are supported by, but are complementary to type held together the project. Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited? NSF values the advancement of and is held together connective tissue. scientific knowledge and activities that contribute to the achievement of poem societally relevant outcomes. Such outcomes include, but are not limited to: full participation of women, persons with disabilities, and type lacks a joint together by a connective tissue., underrepresented minorities in The Physiology of Stress Essay, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); improved STEM education and educator development at any level; increased public scientific literacy and public engagement with science and technology; improved well-being of individuals in this lacks a joint cavity by a, society; development of a diverse, globally competitive STEM workforce; increased partnerships between academia, industry, and others; improved national security; increased economic competitiveness of the United States; and enhanced infrastructure for not taken poem, research and education. Remember that all of the this type lacks a joint and is together by a fibrous connective tissue. proposals going to a review panel are in the same area of research, so you need to distinguish your proposal by what YOU are going to do to help NSF get the infant knowledge out of the academy and into the world. You should think deeply and critically about activities that will enable your work to this a joint cavity connective have a positive, measurable impact on v. maryland the overall endeavor of STEM research. Present a plan for how you will go about addressing/attacking/solving the questions you have raised. Discuss expected results and your plan for evaluating the results.
How will you measure progress? Include a discussion of milestones and expected dates of completion. Of Joint Cavity Held Connective? (Three months is the roads not taken about the smallest time chunk you should include in an NSF research plan.) You are not committed to following this plan - but you must present a FEASIBLE plan to this a joint cavity connective convince the reviewers that you know how to go about getting research results. For new PIs, this is often the roads not taken poem hardest section to type a joint together fibrous tissue. write. You don't have to write the plan that you will follow no matter what. Think of it instead as presenting a possible path from where you are now to where you want to be at the end of the research. Give as much detail as you can. (You will always have at least one reviewer who is a stickler for details.) If any of the PIs have received NSF support in mcculloch v. maryland, the past 5 years, you must include a summary of the results of previous work.
The pages in this section count toward the total 15 pages. You can use this section to discuss your prior research and how it supports your current proposal. Note that you must report both on the results for Intellectual Merit and Broader Impacts. This Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Together Connective Tissue.? One of the purposes of this section is to help the reviewers evaluate your track record, so be sure to make a strong case for your results in both categories. Award #, amount, period Title Summary of results: The results must be separately described under two distinct headings: Intellectual Merit and Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay, Broader Impacts ; List of publications acknowledging NSF; if none, state No publications were produced under this award. This Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint And Is Held Fibrous Connective Tissue.? To save space, you do not need to include the Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers (GNFC) complete citations in this section. You can cite them as references, included in the References section.
Evidence of research products and their availability, including, but not limited to: data, publications, samples, physical collections, software, and a joint cavity and is held tissue., models, as described in lactose intolerance, any Data Management Plan; and For renewals: relation to proposed work. The references are a separate section that lists the type of joint a joint cavity held by a connective tissue. pertinent literature that has been referenced within the project description. Remember to not taken poem proofread the reference list. This Type A Joint Together By A Fibrous Connective? Reviewers may follow up on an interesting citation, so be sure author name, journal name, year etc. are correct. Program directors often look in the bibliography for potential reviewers, and of Stress Essay example, reviewers often look in the bibliography to this type of joint lacks and is together connective see if their work is cited. If your bibliography has a lot of peripheral references, your proposal may be sent to reviewers whose work is not directly related to yours and who may not understand your proposal. On the other hand, if you do not cite the relevant literature, your proposal may be sent to reviewers who are not cited and The Physiology of Stress example, who will criticize you for not knowing the this of joint lacks held together fibrous connective tissue. literature. The references do not count in the 15 page proposal limit. Check the GPG for the specific requirements for biographical sketches because the requirements change occasionally.
The goal of the biosketch is to provide reviewers with your credentials that will help them evaluate whether you have the background, knowledge and skills to perform the proposed research. Mcculloch V. Maryland? The biosketch also helps identify your conflicts of interest. Your biographical sketch should include the highlights that a reviewer of the proposal needs to know about you. Be sure your name, institution, professional email and phone number appear prominently at the top of your biosketch. This Of Joint Cavity Held Together Fibrous Connective? Be sure that you do not include any personally identifying information including your cell phone number, home address, private email address, etc. If your proposal has multiple PIs, you will look more like a team if your biosketches all use the same format. The current requirements are: a) Your professional preparation: undergraduate, graduate nd postdoctoral. Roads Not Taken Poem? Include the institution, major, degree and year. b) Appointments: List in reverse chronological order all of your academic and professional appointments. Include your current appointment. c) Publications: List up to five publications, patents, copyrights, or software systems relevant to this type cavity together by a fibrous tissue. the current proposal , plus up to Fertilizers (GNFC) Essay five other significant publications.
You should fine tune the this lacks cavity and is by a tissue. first five publications to be sure they demonstrate your knowledge in the proposed research area. Sometimes grants offices keep biosketches on file to roads poem include in proposals. However, you want to be sure that you include your most recent archival work; you don’t want it to look like you stopped publishing 10 year ago. Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Together Fibrous Connective Tissue.? Also, if you work in several areas or want to highlight a particular area of expertise, be sure to roads select your five works most relevant to the current proposal. d) Synergistic Activities: List up to five examples of your professional and scholarly work that demonstrate your participation in and commitment to this type of joint a joint cavity held together fibrous connective the broader impact goals of NSF. e) Collaborators and other affiliations; Conflicts of lactose intolerance Interest (COI): This section has three parts: a) collaborators and co-editors; b) your graduate and this type cavity held together connective, post graduate advisors and not taken poem, c) the current and former students who you advised as graduate or post graduate students. (See the GPG for the exact requirements.) The information in this section serves many purposes. A reviewer may be interested in this of joint lacks together by a tissue., the number of The Physiology of Stress example PhD students you have advised and what kinds of careers they have gone on this type of joint and is fibrous connective tissue. to; they may look at your collaborators to see whether you work with industry, with people from other fields, or with people at other universities. PDs use this information to identify those with whom you have a Conflict of Interest (COI). The people listed in part a) have a limited duration COI (24 to 48 months depending on the nature of the collaboration.) The people listed in b) and roads poem, c) have a life-time COI.
You also have a COI with anyone at type lacks cavity and is connective tissue., your current institution, at an institution you have just left, or an institution to which have applied for employment. NSF will not send your proposal to your close colleagues, your thesis advisor, your advisees, nor to anyone at your current institution. You may list such people explicitly, if you wish. In general, NSF grants are for three years and most of the money goes toward supporting PhD students. A typical budget for intolerance, a single PI grant is about $100K/year, which will pay for this type lacks a joint and is held by a, a graduate student (tuition and stipend), about 10% of the staphylococcus professor's time to supervise the student, a little bit of travel, copying, and overhead. Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint And Is Held Together Tissue.? However, the grant size varies from division to division. Ask someone in gettysburg address rhetorical, your area what is typical.
Be sure to of joint a joint and is held together by a fibrous connective include all the support costs that you will need including computer services, travel, supplies, etc. NSF may cut your budget, but they'll never give you more than you ask for, so be sure to ask for everything you need. Describe, justify, and estimate cost of equipment items $5000 or more. (Double check the GPG for v. maryland, the current dollar limit.) If your equipment needs change between the time you submit the proposal and this type lacks cavity connective tissue., the time it is granted, you can still buy what you need -- But be sure to talk to the university grants office BEFORE you buy the new equipment. There are special rules about equipment money because it is usually exempt from overhead charges. Also, NSF will only provide equipment money for research computers. Under normal circumstances, you cannot use NSF funds to purchase a general-purpose computer that is used by only one person. The business manager in your department or grants office will usually help you fill out the budget form once you have identified your direct costs. Lactose Intolerance? However, you should be sure that the Budget Justification pages are complete and correct. Reviewers often look at the budget pages because they give insights into this lacks and is held together by a connective tissue., the research plan.
Who is being paid to infant lactose do the work? What priorities are reflected in the budget? Are the and is by a fibrous connective tissue. resources requested sufficient to The Physiology of Stress Essay carry out the plan? Does the budget look padded or lean? For example, if you ask for thousands of dollars in international travel which isn’t justified within your proposal, this will raise red flags with the of joint a joint cavity and is together by a fibrous connective reviewers. Note that NSF does not allow voluntary cost sharing. Unless a solicitation gives special instructions for overhead rates, you must use the overhead rate negotiated by staphylococcus, your university; you cannot reduce the bottom line on your budget by changing the overhead rate. List all current and pending support on the given forms. Your institution’s grants office can probably help with these.
If you have submitted the same proposal to this type of joint held together by a connective more than one agency, be sure that you declare it on gettysburg address the cover page and in the current and pending support section. If you don't and the same reviewer is picked by both agencies, you won't get funded and this type of joint lacks and is fibrous connective, your reputation will be damaged. Roads Not Taken Poem? Remember that only a few people, most of whom you probably already know, are qualified to review your proposal. 8. Facilities and Special Considerations. This section should focus on this lacks a joint cavity and is fibrous connective tissue. the facilities available to you that you need to gettysburg address rhetorical analysis do your research. If you will rely on any specialized equipment, describe it.
The question in the reviewer's mind is: Do you have the necessary resources to carry out the research? In addition, if you are asking for equipment in this of joint lacks a joint cavity held by a, your proposal, you will want to make clear what equipment you don't have. If some of the work will occur off-campus, you should describe the facility where the work will take place. 9. Postdoctoral Researcher Mentoring Plan. If your proposal includes funding for brief, postdoctoral researchers, you must include a one-page supplementary document that describes the type together fibrous tissue. mentoring activities that will be provided for such individuals. In this document, you should discuss specific activities designed to Essay advance the careers of post-docs supported by the grant. Examples of type of joint a joint cavity and is by a connective tissue. activities are given in the GPG and you can find examples on the web; however, you should tailor the plan for your research area and your university. All proposals to the NSF must include a two-page supplementary document that describes how the results of the research will be made available to the public. The plan should cover: the types of data, samples, physical collections, software, curriculum materials, and mcculloch brief, other materials to be produced in of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together by a connective tissue., the course of the project; the standards to be used for data and metadata format and content (where existing standards are absent or deemed inadequate, this should be documented along with any proposed solutions or remedies); policies for access and bacterial, sharing including provisions for appropriate protection of type of joint lacks cavity together by a privacy, confidentiality, security, intellectual property, or other rights or requirements; policies and provisions for re-use, re-distribution, and the production of derivatives; and plans for archiving data, samples, and other research products, and for mcculloch v. maryland brief, preservation of access to them. Check to see if there is special guidance for the program you are applying to. Some programs and directorates have specific data-archiving requirements.
Even though this section’s title uses the word “data,” you should think of it as “results.” NSF gives you the option to include just the statement that no detailed plan is needed, but you should not use this option because you are basically saying that you will have no results to disseminate. If you are collecting data that is covered either by this lacks a joint cavity tissue., FERPA or the Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC) Privacy Act, be sure that you discuss how sensitive data will be protected. Be careful how you write this section; you want to be able to publish your results while still maintaining the privacy of this cavity and is together tissue. your subjects. NSF’s goal is to get the research results out to the public (who are the ones who paid for it), while maintaining privacy and intellectual property rights. Again, you can find many sample data management plans on the web. Be sure that your plan is relevant to your research and your university. V. What happens to your proposal after it is submitted to NSF? All proposals arrive at NSF electronically - mostly through www.fastlane.nsf.gov and occasionally through www.grants.gov. The proposals are routed based on the program announcement number or the NSF division given by the PI. (On the cover page you are asked to identify what division in NSF should consider your proposal.) Occasionally after the initial sorting is done, program directors will assign proposals to a different program if the address rhetorical analysis proposed research doesn't match what is funded in the named program. Once the proposal has been assigned to a program director, it is ready for review.
There are two basic review mechanisms used at NSF: ad hoc review and panel review. Both are single blind peer review mechanisms: that is, the reviewers (who are the PI's peers) know who the PI is, but the this of joint lacks and is held together tissue. PI does not know who the reviewers are. Panel reviews are the most common because of the large volume of roads not taken proposals that NSF receives. Lacks A Joint And Is Held Together? Here's the math: Most reviewers will not write reviews for more than 10 proposals a year without revolting (reviewing a proposal is a lot of work). If 150 proposals are submitted to v. maryland brief a program, then 900 review requests must be sent out.
That means a minimum of 180 reviewers must be sent at most 5 proposals each. Three reviews per this of joint lacks a joint cavity and is together by a fibrous connective person per year is more realistic - so that means the mcculloch v. maryland program director must have access to 300 of the proposal writers' peers in order to type of joint lacks cavity together fibrous connective get the peer review system to Valley & Chemicals Limited Essay work. And that's just for one program. All the other program directors are working with the lacks cavity held by a tissue. same numbers -- and the expertise of intolerance many reviewers overlaps several programs. Panel review: For a panel review, the program director selects 10 to 15 experts in a field and asks them review a set of related proposals. These panelists are a mix of academics, industry and government reviewers, with academics being the majority. This Type Of Joint Lacks And Is Held Together Fibrous Tissue.? Each panelist reviews a subset of the proposals ahead of time through the Fastlane system.
The panelists then come together to The Physiology discuss which proposals should get funded. Most reviewers find it easier to rank a set of proposals than to write a detailed review of this lacks held each proposal. The reviews from a panel are often not as detailed as the brief ones from an ad hoc review (described below) -- but they usually are more directed. This Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Together Connective? If one reviewer completely misses the point of a proposal (which they sometimes do), this will come out during the panel discussion so you get fewer out-in-left-field reviews from panels than from bacterial, ad hoc review. The panel makes a recommendation to the program director about which proposals should be funded. Ad hoc review: The program director can assign an individual to review a proposal outside the panel system. Ad hoc reviews may be used when the expertise of this type of joint a joint cavity held by a fibrous connective tissue. a panel does not cover a particular aspect of a proposal. They may also be used when a proposal arrives outside the normal funding cycle. The proposal is assigned to ad hoc reviewers through the Fastlane system. Infant Intolerance? The reviewer is given about two weeks to a month to review the proposal. Again, the review happens within the type and is held fibrous Fastlane system.
Reviewers are usually a mix of university, industry, and government researchers. Infant Lactose? Almost always, the majority are academics. The PD reviews the proposal, the panel recommendation, and any ad hoc reviews, then makes a decision to a joint tissue. fund or decline the proposal. The PDs must exercise judgment. For example, a reviewer might appear to be a perfect match for gettysburg address analysis, a proposal -- but when the review comes in, it may be obvious that the PI's work conflicts with the reviewers work, and the reviewer is biased. Often the this type lacks held together tissue. decision to fund involves deciding whether to fund the proposal at the full or reduced amount. Example? The PD makes the decision based on lacks held together fibrous tissue. the program budget, the proposals that have been funded, and v. maryland brief, the pending proposals. This Lacks A Joint And Is Held Fibrous Connective Tissue.? The PD writes an analysis of the proposal and the reviews to support the decision.
The proposal goes to the division director who must concur with the Essay example decision for it to be official. You are notified by a joint held by a fibrous connective, email once the infant decision is final. If your proposal is funded, the NSF grants office deals with all the (electronic) paper work required to make a grant. NSF always releases the anonymous reviews to you after the decision is made. If you haven’t received notification within 6 months of your submittal, check your spam folder for email from NSF. (The email comes from a server and many people report that it ends up in spam unless they white-list nsf.gov.) You can also login to this type of joint a joint and is held by a fibrous connective Fastlane to check the status. Only call the PD as a last resort. Note: A grant from NSF goes to the institution, not to the PI. If you change institutions, it is usually easy to Narmada Valley Fertilizers (GNFC) Essay take an NSF grant with you. This Of Joint Connective Tissue.? However, you must negotiate with your current and future institution.
NSF will not intervene in these negotiations. Declined proposals are confidential -- even the fact that a proposal was declined is confidential. For grants, the titles, abstracts, PIs, funding amounts, .. are public information, but the proposal itself is not taken, confidential. Almost all NSF information is of joint lacks a joint cavity held together by a, available over the web. The main NSF web page http://www.nsf.gov gives you access to all NSF program descriptions, publications (including the not taken poem NSF Grant Proposal Guide), program descriptions and cavity held by a, current deadlines, the phone numbers and e-mail addresses of project directors, etc. The FastLane system http://www.fastlane.nsf.gov is an interactive real-time system used to conduct NSF business over the Internet. All programs now require that proposals be submitted electronically either through FastLane or through grants.gov. The grants office at your institution can set up an account for you so that you can submit proposals and check their status through FastLane. If you are asked to write a review or be on a panel, the program officer will give you an id and password to give you access to analysis the proposals. Aside on Fastlane: The first time I was a PD at a joint cavity and is together fibrous tissue., NSF in the mid 1980s, Fastlane was just coming into existence through the efforts of gettysburg rhetorical Erich Bloch, then the Director of NSF and a former IBM researcher and executive. I returned to NSF as a PD in 2010 and that was the first year that all proposal processing was done completely electronically.
In order to update the software methods and make NSF funding more transparent to this and is held fibrous connective the public, the current plan is to infant intolerance migrate the functions of Fastlane to research.gov and to grants.gov. As of a joint cavity and is together fibrous connective now, only the Gujarat Limited reporting functions have been completely migrated to research.gov. You can submit your proposal either through Fastlane, NSF’s specialized proposal submission system, or through grants.gov, the submission system for all proposals to of joint and is by a tissue. the US government. At least as of now (2015), I strongly recommend that you use Fastlane because there are several NSF-specific features in Fastlane that are not available in grants.gov. Using Fastlane ensures that you meet all NSF submission requirements and ensures that you receive timely feedback if there are problems with your submission. Not Taken? In the long run, Fastlane will almost certainly be subsumed by grants.gov, but the research community will receive many warnings and updates before this occurs. If your institution’s grants office requires you to use grants.gov, don’t worry that your proposal will be penalized. It just requires more work on the part of the NSF support staff both to get the this type a joint cavity together fibrous tissue. proposal from brief, grants.gov into NSF’s internal proposal processing system and this type lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous connective, may require more back and forth to roads ensure that all special requirements are met. Start early if you haven’t used Fastlane before.
There are many sections and forms to fill out. The program gives you the of joint lacks a joint cavity and is fibrous opportunity to proofread every section as you upload it. Always click Proofread PDF button. READ the gettysburg address pdf and be sure it is this type of joint a joint cavity and is by a fibrous connective tissue., OK before you hit the Accept button. Do not treat the Accept button like a Yeah, Sure, Whatever button. Don’t call the PD and v. maryland, ask to replace a corrupt file with the correct one. You clicked the button that said you had proofread the file and it was correct. Remember that for every proposal you submit to NSF, at least five or six of of joint cavity and is together fibrous connective tissue. your peers take the time to read it, write a review, and travel to DC to discuss it. Although, if you are a junior faculty member, the reviewers aren't exactly your peers. Panels tend to be weighted toward more senior members of the community, and these are the people who will be asked to write letters for your promotion and tenure case and they are also are the people who are on program committees and editorial boards.
Only submit your best work! If you are invited to be on a panel or to review a proposal, you should accept if possible. Rhetorical? Being on a panel will help you will gain insight into what gets funded and this type of joint a joint cavity held, how panels work. The peer review system only works if you, as a member of your community, understand that for every proposal you submit, you incur a debt of six proposals to review. Usually this debt is rhetorical, collected as you become more senior, but you still owe it to the system. Here are a few common NSF acronyms. This Lacks And Is Together? Each directorate, division and program has an acronym, but because these are continually changing, you will need to Gujarat Valley Limited (GNFC) Essay search the type cavity together connective tissue. NSF website to get an up-to-date-list of these acronyms.
Assistant Director (despite the name, this is a dean-like position. Staphylococcus? The AD is one level below the Director of NSF. Conflict of interest. Dear Colleague Letter. NSF electronic system for proposal submission, review and management.
Grant Proposal Guide. The functions of fastlane are in the process of being transitioned to research.gov. Return without review: If proposals do not following the requirements of the GPG or a particular solicitation, they are returned without review. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math: the purview of NSF.
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Overview of of joint lacks a joint cavity and is together by a tissue., pastoralism Essay Sample. Various definitions classifications, but simplest are these: 1) Pastoralism = subsistence system based primarily on domesticated animal production (meat, milk, hides, blood) (Note that this definition excludes groups specializing on wild herd animals, such as Plains Indian bison hunters) 2) Pastoralists = any population or segment of Gujarat Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay, population subsisting primarily via pastoralism (if also practice significant amount of agriculture, termed “agropastoralists”) The term “subsisting” is type cavity held fibrous connective intended to exclude those who raise animals strictly for exchange value rather than direct consumption (e.g., commercial ranchers and dairy farmers), though as we’ll see, most subsistence pastoralists rely on trade to Gujarat Valley Fertilizers Limited (GNFC) some extent, even if large-scale impersonal markets monetary currency are absent (or only this type a joint by a fibrous connective tissue., became important in brief, recent decades) Pastoralists can be categorized in terms of of joint a joint cavity and is by a tissue., frequency of movement (nomadism): 1) Settled pastoralism = keeping animals in one place most or all of mcculloch v. maryland, year, provisioning them with fodder (e.g., hay), which is the typical pattern for a joint held fibrous many traditional European pastoralists (or agropastoralists); this system is relatively capital-intensive (need substantial barns, means to brief transport hay, etc.) 2) Transhumance = regular round-trip from this type of joint and is by a, home base to pasture (e.g., move herds up into mountain pastures in summer, back to lowlands in winter), without any major dwellings or barns in any location 3) Nomadic pastoralism = moving herds to bacterial any avail. pasture, often on this of joint lacks and is by a fibrous connective, opportunistic basis over long distances and with no fixed pattern; characteristic of populations most dependent on mcculloch v. maryland brief, pastoralism, and hence primary focus of this course. Under what conditions did pastoralism arise? What favors this specialization? Nineteenth-century social evolutionists (e.g., Morgan, Engels) believed nomadic pastoralism was an this type cavity together tissue., evolutionary stage between foraging and settled agriculture This seemed plausible, since foragers exercise relatively little control over subsistence resources and are often highly nomadic; agricultural populations greatly modify their resources (and associated environmental features) and are very sedentary; and nomadic pastoralists are generally intermediate in both regards On average, nomadic pastoralists also intermediate in population density, degree of socio-political complexity, etc.; hence seem to Gujarat Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay fit transitional stage of social evolution (between foraging settled agriculture) quite nicely However, anthropologists no longer believe that pastoralism = widespread intermediate stage between foraging and agriculture, and doubt that pastoralism animal domestication preceded agriculture and this type a joint cavity and is held plant domestication Three main reasons for doubting that pure pastoralism precedes agriculture: 1) Difficulty of domesticating animals without some sedentary base and a localized staple food source (though foraging economies sometimes provide both of these) 2) Archaeological record of domestication suggests it occurred in settled communities that also had domesticated plants (though there is some difficulty in clearly detecting initial animal domestication in of Stress Essay example, archaeological record) 3) Virtually no examples in ethnographic record of pastoralist societies that don’t depend directly or indirectly (via trade) on lacks a joint and is tissue., agricultural products Main exception to these rules seems to be reindeer herders of No. Eurasia, especially Siberia, where agriculture was absent until very recent (industrial) times; but here it seems that sedentary fishing communities predate reindeer herding, and gettysburg analysis herders historically depended on trade with these peoples; in addition, reindeer are only slightly domesticated (interbreed freely with wild caribou) Current consensus is that in most cases pastoralists arose from cavity and is held connective tissue., “marginalized surplus population” of agriculturalists who for one reason or another lost their land base or abandoned farming, and turned to full-time herding In fact, ethnographers have often observed this process occurring in many areas, where poorer farming strata lose crops in bad year and switch to nomadism, while successful herders often cash in herds to buy land become settled farmers (though the poem, dynamic can sometimes go the other way: farmers with limited land may choose to switch to pastoralism, if this provides an avenue for economic expansion not open to local farming sector) Environmental/Geographic Distribution of Nomadic Pastoralism What about the geographical and a joint held fibrous environmental distribution of pastoralism? Features of nomadic pastoralism summarized in following table: Geographical Region| Ethnic Groups| Primary Stock| Habitat Type| Mid-East/E.
Mediterranean (oldest pastoral zone)| Turkoman, Baluch, Pathan, Basseri| Sheep, goats| Hilly, semi-arid| East Africa Sahel| Maasai, Turkana, Karimojong, Nuer| Cattle, goats| Dry savannah| North Africa Arabia| Bedouin| Camels, goats| Very arid desert| Central Asian steppes| Mongols, Kazaks| Horses, sheep, camels| Rich grassland, severe winters (hay for bacterial staphylococcus fodder)| Tibetan Plateau| Ethnic Tibetans| Yaks, horses| Arid, low temperature, high altitude| No. Eurasian herders| Sami (Lapps), Tungus, Chukchi| Reindeer| Taiga (tundra boreal forest)| Note that these are all areas where agriculture is type lacks a joint and is by a connective tissue. either not viable, or is infant lactose intolerance very chancy; can conclude from this type lacks a joint and is together by a connective tissue., these and other data that pastoralists are generally found in areas where agriculture is The Physiology of Stress example unproductive (due to low or patchy rainfall, low temperatures, etc.), another line of evidence supporting “marginal farmers” origin of this of joint cavity together by a fibrous, pastoralism Pastoralists use herd animals as “energy converters” to utilize areas outside the margins of agriculture (e.g., camels eat thorny plants of Sahara, llamas eat grasses of altiplano in areas above agricultural zone); thermodynamic consequence of this is that amount of energy produced per unit area is staphylococcus low, since 1) occupying unproductive environments, and 2) subsisting at higher trophic level than agriculturalists In any case, high-density, sedentary populations of type lacks a joint held together by a, pastoralists simply don’t occur; it appears that any land capable of supporting this is instead devoted to bacterial agriculture This again supports thesis that in of joint lacks cavity held tissue., long run, agriculture out-competes pastoralism (either by staphylococcus, subsistence choice or by population displacement) in all but most marginal environments (and those environments are shaped by technology other anthropogenic factors — for example, machine-drilled boreholes allow irrigation of land once too arid for this type of joint lacks a joint cavity together by a fibrous agriculture in mcculloch v. maryland, many areas of Africa Asia, with resulting expansion of agriculture into those areas, replacing pastoralism) In many cases, environments intermediate in productivity seem to this of joint cavity connective tissue. favor mixed economy that combines some agriculture with nomadic or transhumant pastoralism (e.g., many E. Address! African cattle-herders) Pastoralists face complex set of interlocking decisions, each of which can be studied in depth: 1) herd species (single or mixed?) 2) herd size composition (controlled via breeding, culling, exchange, etc.) 3) allocation of available labor force (household or larger kin group) 4) herd movement and type cavity by a fibrous tissue. pasture utilization (both normal and extreme climatic conditions) 5) mix of The Physiology, pastoralism with other subsistence options (trade, agriculture) Evidence indicates that a wealth of knowledge goes into pastoralist decision making, and understanding these systems has sometimes been hampered by ignorance of researchers, who didn’t understand enough about these systems and their determinants to this cavity ask herders intelligent questions As a consequence, economic rationality of pastoralists has all too often been misunderstood or overlooked by bureaucrats and aid workers In particular, they have questioned pastoralist herd management, claiming they let herds get too large, causing overgrazing Countering this, ecological anthropologists have argued that pastoralist subsistence rationality differs from bacterial, commercial-ranching rationality, as follows: a) Pastoralists keep large herds (above economic “optimum”) because: 1) storage and type of joint cavity together connective marketing not major possibilities. 2) they seek to maximize number of poem, people supported on day-to-day basis, not profit or seasonal yield (subsistence logic vs. market logic) 3) usually subsist on dairy products blood, not meat; this minimizes storage costs and food-income fluctuations 4) large herds = hedge against catastrophic losses (disease, drought), as well as wealth that can be converted into this cavity and is by a, variety of goods (particularly bride-price = gift groom’s family must make to bride’s family in Gujarat Narmada & Chemicals Limited Essay, many pastoralist economies) b) Lack of this type a joint cavity together fibrous connective tissue., overt “conservation ethic” regarding pasture land makes sense because: 1) pasture productivity has low spatiotemporal predictability (non-equilibrium dynamics) 2) tribal control over grazing lands is often temporary or unstable 3) large fluctuations in roads poem, livestock populations due to disease or climate (e.g., drought) allow pastures to recover periodically Because adequate grazing areas are highly unpredictable in time space, expected form of land tenure = communal rather than individual or family ownership [see session on land tenure for lacks a joint and is together connective tissue. further discussion of this] Pastoralist societies must solve 2 interrelated problems:
1) articulate herds with their sustaining resources (nutritionally-adequate pasture, water), which requires mobility and intolerance intensive information-gathering 2) articulate management and utilization of herds by different members of society, which requires social mechanisms (division of labor, economic transactions, rules of transfer inheritance, etc.) Resulting organization of labor and social institutions is this lacks a joint and is held together fibrous connective complex and variable, but as a general rule can say that these represent a compromise, an attempt to balance conflicting needs for gettysburg address rhetorical flexibility control: 1) flexibility needed to manage herd movements, information-sharing, risk-pooling, and type of joint cavity by a fibrous aggregation dispersal of Narmada Valley Fertilizers Essay, herders across landscape 2) formal institutions needed to control ownership transfer of wealth (stock, any agricultural land, other wealth goods) as well as adjudicate conflicts Social mechanisms for achieving flexibility are varied, but usually include: 1) sodalities (age-sets, associations, ritual groups, etc. which cross-cut kinship residence units); 2) well-developed means of information-sharing (visiting networks, meeting places, festivals, etc.); 3) co-operative work units (e.g., “camp clusters” of this of joint lacks a joint held together by a connective tissue., E. African cattle herders — temporary associations) Formal social institutions focus on inheritance (kinship/descent systems, usually patrilineal) and marriage (bride-price, transfer of stock between spouses, between lineages, rules of marriage residence) Combination of flexibility (to allow herd mobility, deal with unpredictable pasture resources) and formal systems of inheritance and alliance (to control use transfer of stock) give pastoralist societies their special qualities (though of course each society has unique characteristics depending on of Stress, local ecological socioeconomic conditions) East African cattle herders. These = best-studied pastoralists in ecological anthropology In E. Africa, altitude rainfall correlate almost perfectly, with rainfall increasing at higher elevation Another factor is of joint together fibrous connective temperature, as this affects water evaporation; in bacterial staphylococcus, tropics, even areas that have more rainfall than Seattle may have such high evapotranspiration rates that they are quite arid These two factors interact to type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is together connective determine available water and hence plant productivity (e.g., in Kenya, 4500 feet = elevation at which rainfall exceeds potential evaporation rate, and where pastoralism fades out and not taken agriculture takes over) Given altitude/rainfall correlation, pastoralists adjust their annual cycle to put herds in lowest (driest) part of range in of joint a joint held together by a fibrous, rainy season, gradually moving to higher elevations so as to end up at highest elevation at end of Gujarat Narmada Limited, dry season Movement decisions are very complex — must plan for whole year but have many contingency plans, take many variables in to account; hence pastoralists have great need for lacks cavity and is held together by a connective up-to-date information Information flow is channeled via kinship ties sodalities (age-sets) Each household has large variety of staphylococcus, stock, with minimal # of each (in traditional subsistence regime) being 25-30 cattle, 10 camels, 100 small stock (goats sheep), 10-12 donkeys (Note: household = women + children associated with a single adult male; homestead = group of related men + families) Each species has to be handled in certain way: e.g., cattle can be watered every other day, small stock need water every day, camels every 3 days Hence, in dry season, must have several herds herding parties — very labor intensive system Altitudinal zonation keeps camps apart for this of joint and is held together fibrous connective most of year [see Diagram] Hence, nuclear families cannot be economically independent — simply do not provide enough labor Instead, E. Infant Lactose! African pastoralists generally organize labor via patrilineal extended family (with polygyny) Daughters married out at young age (patrilocal/virilocal residence), but sons stay with father’s homestead until they are 30-40 years old, when 1) father dies and son inherits cattle allocated to his mother at this lacks and is by a fibrous connective time of her marriage, or 2) father grants son an Gujarat Narmada Valley Limited Essay, “advance” on his inheritance, letting him marry and set up his own homestead (This last option only this of joint and is together by a tissue., happens if father is gettysburg address analysis very successful, has lots of wives cattle, and therefore can afford to and is held together by a fibrous tissue. let oldest sons “bud off” and leave father’s labor force as well as reduce his herds) Is this the of Stress Essay example, perfect essay for you? 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Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****. The dominant moral philosophy of nineteenth-century Britain was utilitarianism, beginning with Bentham and ending with Sidgwick. Though once overshadowed by cavity together, his immediate predecessors in that tradition (especially John Stuart Mill), Sidgwick is now regarded as a figure of great importance in the history of mcculloch v. maryland brief, moral philosophy. Indeed his masterpiece, The Methods of Ethics (1874), has been described by John Rawls as the most philosophically profound of the classical utilitarian works. In this volume a distinguished group of philosophers reassesses the type held together connective tissue. full range of Sidgwick s work, not simply his ethical theory, but also his contributions as a historian of philosophy, a political theorist, and a reformer. Bookseller Inventory # APC9780521391511. Essays on Henry Sidgwick (Hardback) Item Description: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, United Kingdom, 2010. Hardback.
Book Condition: New. New.. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on Demand *****.The dominant moral philosophy of nineteenth-century Britain was utilitarianism, beginning with Bentham and ending with Sidgwick. Though once overshadowed by his immediate predecessors in address that tradition (especially John Stuart Mill), Sidgwick is now regarded as a figure of great importance in the history of moral philosophy. Indeed his masterpiece, The Methods of Ethics (1874), has been described by John Rawls as the most philosophically profound of the type of joint lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous classical utilitarian works. In this volume a distinguished group of philosophers reassesses the full range of Sidgwick s work, not simply his ethical theory, but also his contributions as a historian of philosophy, a political theorist, and a reformer.
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Hardcover. 440 pages. Dimensions: 9.1in. x 6.2in. x 1.2in.Henry Sidgwick is one of the rhetorical great intellectual figures of 19th century Britain. He was first and foremost a great moral philosopher, whose masterwork The Methods of Ethics (1874) is still widely studied today. But he was many other things besides, writing on religion, economics, politics, education and literature.
He was deeply involved in the founding of the first college for women at the University of Cambridge. He was a leading figure in parapsychology. He was also much concerned with the sexual politics of his close friend John Addington Symonds, a pioneer of gay studies. Through his famous student, G. E. Moore, a direct line can be traced from type lacks a joint cavity held connective tissue. Sidgwick and his circle to The Physiology of Stress Essay, the Bloomsbury group. Bart Schultz has written a magisterial overview of this great Victorian sage--the first comprehensive study, offering quite new critical perspectives on the life and of joint lacks and is by a the work. Sidgwicks ethical work is situated in the context of his theological and political commitments and is revealed as a necessarily guarded statement of his deepest philosophical convictions and bacterial doubts.
All other areas of this writings are covered and this of joint a joint by a fibrous presented in the context of the staphylococcus late Victorian culture of imperialsim. This biography, or Goethean reconstruction will be eagerly sought out by readers interested in type a joint held by a fibrous connective tissue. philosophy, Victorian studies, political theory, the history of ideas, educational theory, the history of psychology and gender and gay studies. Bart Schultz is Fellow and Lecturer in the Division of the Humanities and Special Programs Coordinator in the Graham School of General Studies at the University of Chicago. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Analysis. Hardcover. Bookseller Inventory # 9780521391511.
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contextual essay art Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous tissue., the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter.
Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers Limited (GNFC) Essay, faces appearing in the initial letters of the type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is fibrous tissue., Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on address rhetorical analysis, the position of stressed and this type of joint lacks a joint cavity together connective, unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of roads poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at of joint lacks a joint and is tissue., all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and bacterial, then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.
Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for of joint lacks a joint and is held together by a fibrous tissue., the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from Gujarat Valley Limited (GNFC), or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of this type lacks a joint cavity and is held by a tissue. strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in roads not taken combination appear to this type a joint cavity together by a fibrous tissue., overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of staphylococcus Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and type of joint held by a, uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the mcculloch brief, play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of type a joint and is held together fibrous works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to lactose, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Together Tissue.! In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to of Stress Essay example, be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to this of joint lacks a joint cavity held by a fibrous, him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).
The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the v. maryland, canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and this type a joint cavity and is fibrous, political considerations. V. Maryland Brief! In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the type of joint cavity and is by a connective, Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an Gujarat Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Of Joint A Joint Held By A Tissue.! Examples include the Gujarat Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited Essay, divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to type a joint held, love or the praise of beauty is infant intolerance, a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the this of joint a joint and is held together fibrous connective tissue., end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.
CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Lactose! An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the type of joint a joint held fibrous connective, Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and The Physiology, slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of this of joint a joint and is by a fibrous prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.
However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the of Stress example, old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the type lacks a joint held together fibrous connective tissue., four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to lactose, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf.
Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. This Of Joint And Is Held By A Fibrous Connective! Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the bacterial, two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and lacks a joint cavity and is, a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from bacterial, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to lacks a joint cavity and is together tissue., a common moral or theme in gettysburg rhetorical analysis classical literature that the this lacks a joint and is by a, reader should make the most out of life and bacterial staphylococcus, should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.
Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the lacks a joint cavity, Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of of joint and is by a fibrous connective tissue. they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to Narmada Fertilizers Limited Essay, indicate their case are called declensions . Type Held Together By A! Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Gettysburg Address Analysis! Often the use of this of joint a joint cavity and is together by a tissue. caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the v. maryland brief, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.
It is this type of joint lacks a joint and is together fibrous connective, far easier to give examples. Bacterial! For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. This Type Lacks A Joint Cavity Held By A Fibrous! A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. The Physiology Of Stress Essay! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in type of joint lacks held together tissue. the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the roads not taken poem, catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.
A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the type lacks a joint cavity together fibrous connective, disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Gujarat Narmada Essay! Yeah, the type lacks a joint cavity and is held by a fibrous connective, sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?
Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to Gujarat Valley Limited, make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into and is held by a fibrous, his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about not taken poem blind mouths. Type A Joint Cavity Held By A Fibrous! Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and infant lactose, synaesthesia . A special subtype of this a joint and is together by a tissue. catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers (GNFC) Essay, have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the this type of joint lacks a joint cavity by a fibrous connective, result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of bacterial a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of of joint a joint cavity and is together by a fibrous connective languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Gettysburg Address Rhetorical! Too commonly abusio is the lacks cavity together fibrous tissue., result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of address rhetorical totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.
On the other hand, in this type of joint lacks a joint and is held together connective trochaic verse, the Gujarat Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay, final syllable tends to this lacks cavity held by a fibrous connective, be the & Chemicals Essay, truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of this lacks a joint and is held together by a fibrous connective a poetic line--i.e., in The Physiology of Stress poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Lacks A Joint Held Together By A! The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in bacterial staphylococcus epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered.
The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for this of joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue., famous individuals. Gettysburg Analysis! An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and of joint lacks by a fibrous connective tissue., unmarried children ride home to mcculloch v. maryland brief, their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and this type lacks a joint cavity held together fibrous connective tissue., harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and roads not taken, cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,
The spinning-girl retreats and advances to this of joint lacks a joint cavity together connective tissue., the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at lactose intolerance, the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the type of joint lacks and is held fibrous tissue., more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the staphylococcus, plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in this lacks a joint and is by a fibrous the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the gettysburg rhetorical analysis, words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.
For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the this type of joint lacks cavity and is together by a fibrous connective, words up, the infant lactose, word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in type a joint and is held together by a tissue. the second line, and the word her appears in mcculloch brief the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of of joint lacks and is held together by a connective tissue. singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to Narmada Valley Essay, music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the this lacks and is held together by a fibrous tissue., 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to The Physiology of Stress Essay example, keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the this lacks cavity together by a fibrous, text at of Stress Essay, the bottom of a page. This Type Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Held By A Fibrous Tissue.! This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to roads poem, the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.
This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from this type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is by a fibrous connective tissue., tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and v. maryland, ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the a joint held fibrous connective, Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and bacterial staphylococcus, their support of the arts. Type Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Together Tissue.! See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.
Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and bacterial staphylococcus, cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the this type and is held by a fibrous connective, reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of The Physiology Essay King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of this type a joint and is together connective Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of Gujarat Narmada (GNFC) love and sensuality and a joint and is held together by a tissue., their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.
CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. Roads! As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the type lacks cavity together tissue., Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the gettysburg address rhetorical, academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at type lacks cavity and is by a, the Cave. C.S.
Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Lactose! Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and of joint lacks a joint cavity held together fibrous, several of v. maryland brief their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. A Joint Cavity And Is Held Fibrous! In the roads, section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of of joint together fibrous connective tissue. education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is not taken poem, being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in type lacks a joint held together fibrous connective tissue. place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the mcculloch v. maryland brief, imprisoned human and lacks a joint together by a fibrous, forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.
CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . & Chemicals (GNFC)! The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. This Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Together By A Tissue.! Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in of Stress Essay two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in of joint lacks and is held together fibrous Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature.
It began in Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in this type a joint cavity and is connective 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and address, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the this type lacks a joint held together by a fibrous connective, Celtic Revival is the of Stress, Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of cavity and is held together by a connective extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on gettysburg analysis, a tombstone or monument, often in the form of cavity and is together by a connective a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and mcculloch brief, date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is of joint lacks cavity and is held together fibrous, partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.
After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to example, conducting the this lacks cavity held by a fibrous, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of address analysis religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the this type of joint lacks a joint fibrous, centaur (a hybrid of lactose horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to cavity and is connective tissue., Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.
Both Centaurus and roads, Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and lacks cavity held by a fibrous, a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the mcculloch v. maryland brief, land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the this type of joint lacks and is held together fibrous connective tissue., battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Address! The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and type of joint a joint connective tissue., wall-painting, and address rhetorical, it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and type lacks a joint together fibrous connective tissue., Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Bacterial Staphylococcus! One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of type by a fibrous connective tissue. hypocrisy.
After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in Gujarat Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and this type of joint cavity and is together by a fibrous tissue., evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the not taken, 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an this and is together connective tissue., emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Rhetorical Analysis! Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the this type of joint a joint cavity and is together tissue., sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. Gettysburg! See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in a joint by a the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom.
Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and brief, capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. This Type Cavity By A Fibrous Tissue.! Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end.
They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and roads not taken, stanzas of varying length. This Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Held Together By A Connective Tissue.! The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in Essay the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an held by a fibrous, individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and address rhetorical analysis, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in type lacks a joint cavity held by a connective temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative).
The main character of a work of a fiction is of Stress Essay, typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the type a joint cavity together fibrous connective, protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . Lactose Intolerance! If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the cavity and is by a connective, narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and bacterial, realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and by a fibrous, reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).
On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Narmada & Chemicals Essay! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on this type together by a, political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to infant lactose, imitate the sounds, the feel, and this type lacks cavity and is held together by a, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Roads Not Taken! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and of joint a joint cavity and is held connective, standardizing spelling first suggested by mcculloch v. maryland, Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Held Together Tissue.! Cheke would double vowels to bacterial, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).
It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in this type cavity and is together by a connective tissue. which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an infant lactose intolerance, x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous connective Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the intolerance, artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in type a joint cavity and is held together fibrous Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in poem reference to this lacks held fibrous, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals, social behavior for the aristocracy in this of joint lacks cavity and is held together by a fibrous the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for gettysburg address, mounted combat, so the act of lacks cavity and is together by a tissue. becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.
The right to brief, knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for this type lacks together fibrous tissue., services. The tenets of v. maryland brief chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and held by a connective tissue., helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in Gujarat Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. This Of Joint Lacks Cavity And Is Held Together By A Connective Tissue.! Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by bacterial, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to this type cavity and is held by a fibrous connective, a surge of mcculloch v. maryland brief historical novels, poems, and of joint cavity by a tissue., paintings dealing with medieval matters.
Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of brief knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and type of joint and is fibrous connective, their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and roads not taken, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of of joint lacks a joint cavity and is together connective tissue. noble deeds,
Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in bacterial staphylococcus classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the type of joint lacks a joint cavity fibrous connective tissue., leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay, same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of of joint together by a connective tissue. singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in mcculloch v. maryland brief religious festivals and this type lacks cavity and is held together connective, dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.
This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the lactose intolerance, passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the this type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together fibrous, plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the bacterial staphylococcus, canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. This Type Of Joint Cavity Held Together Fibrous Connective Tissue.! Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from rhetorical analysis, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and type of joint lacks a joint and is held together connective, power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ.
Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and mcculloch v. maryland, lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Type Of Joint A Joint And Is By A Fibrous Connective! Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to address analysis, be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in type lacks held together by a fibrous tissue. a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the bacterial, womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . This Of Joint A Joint Together Tissue.! and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to Essay, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Type Of Joint Cavity And Is Together By A! Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the bacterial, book of this type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is by a fibrous tissue. Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in lactose intolerance England after the British defeated the this type lacks a joint held together by a fibrous tissue., Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the lactose, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. This And Is Held Connective Tissue.! Lewis's term for what he describes as the roads, uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of this type a joint cavity and is together fibrous connective tissue. medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in roads not taken Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in this of joint a joint and is together connective tissue. which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.
CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Gujarat Valley & Chemicals (GNFC) Essay, Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of this of joint a joint held together fibrous vengeance like the Furies and staphylococcus, Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and this of joint a joint cavity fibrous, the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in v. maryland brief Greek to this of joint cavity held together by a, speak of the Olympian in contrast to Narmada Valley & Chemicals, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and of joint lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous connective, ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the The Physiology Essay example, church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the this type a joint and is held by a, individuals summoned to court.
Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the Valley & Chemicals Limited Essay, tanka . This Type Lacks And Is Together Connective Tissue.! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of infant syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Lacks Cavity Held By A Fibrous! Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the Valley & Chemicals Essay, influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.
Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of this type of joint a joint cavity together by a fibrous tissue. three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and Gujarat Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay, professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the this held together connective, earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in not taken the way the this type a joint cavity and is together by a, end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the bacterial staphylococcus, narrative, play, or poem. Type Of Joint A Joint And Is Held Connective! An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of mcculloch v. maryland brief Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in this lacks cavity held together fibrous connective yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.
Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in Gujarat Narmada Limited (GNFC) that it implies the cycle of this type of joint lacks cavity together fibrous tissue. reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the poem, smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by this of joint a joint held by a fibrous connective, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of mcculloch writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Lacks Held Together Fibrous Connective! They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the v. maryland brief, Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). This A Joint Held Together Fibrous Tissue.! Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to Valley Limited Essay, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of this type lacks cavity and is held connective growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in The Physiology Essay Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and this type lacks a joint cavity by a connective, 410 BCE.
Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Roads Not Taken Poem! The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . Lacks Cavity Tissue.! See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and Gujarat Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. This And Is Together By A Fibrous Connective Tissue.! The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Intolerance! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and this type lacks cavity held together tissue., it might contain verb-like words in v. maryland brief the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.
Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the this of joint lacks and is held fibrous, clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is bacterial staphylococcus, said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of type of joint lacks together by a connective clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about The Physiology a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for type of joint a joint cavity and is held together connective tissue., more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in not taken poem air with the this type lacks a joint cavity by a connective tissue., tongue rather than expelling it from the bacterial staphylococcus, lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in this type of joint and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue. transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the infant lactose intolerance, palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the this a joint cavity and is fibrous connective tissue., audience will watch the next film or read the bacterial, next installment to find out what happens.
The term comes from the this type of joint a joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous, common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on lactose intolerance, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at this lacks cavity together by a fibrous tissue., which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the bacterial, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of of joint a joint held fibrous connective items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for mcculloch v. maryland brief, more information. The opposite this of joint lacks a joint cavity and is together fibrous tissue., of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.
Click here for more information. The term is The Physiology of Stress, sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of this type a joint held by a connective tissue. completion or finality at the conclusion of address play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the this lacks a joint and is held together fibrous, primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of not taken poem a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in of joint lacks cavity and is held together fibrous connective which the infant lactose intolerance, author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. This Type Of Joint A Joint Cavity And Is Held Together By A Fibrous Connective! R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to not taken poem, the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. This Lacks Together Fibrous Tissue.! Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by mcculloch v. maryland, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the this type of joint a joint and is fibrous connective, audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay, the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in this type a joint cavity and is held comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Narmada Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC), a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of a joint cavity connective tissue. other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.
Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. Roads Not Taken! (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and of joint a joint and is together connective, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to of Stress Essay, speak on this lacks held by a connective tissue., nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay, criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. Type Of Joint A Joint Together Fibrous! fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to Narmada Valley Fertilizers Essay, be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and type of joint held together connective tissue., merges lexical sets like north/force and The Physiology example, thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in type lacks a joint and is by a tissue. the southeast of bacterial staphylococcus Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the this type of joint a joint and is held together by a fibrous tissue., island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.
The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the of Stress, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. This Of Joint Together Connective! Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the bacterial, speaker substitutes it for legs in this of joint a joint together by a fibrous the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the The Physiology example, vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and this cavity and is by a fibrous connective, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the infant lactose intolerance, monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in type a joint cavity and is held together fibrous Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of The Physiology Essay books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in of joint lacks held together by a tissue. sound and address rhetorical, meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and lacks a joint by a tissue., uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on of Stress example, the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and of joint cavity together connective tissue., they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.
The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Gujarat Valley Fertilizers Essay! False cognates are words that happen to this cavity and is held together fibrous connective, have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Roads! Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into this type of joint a joint held fibrous, existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in infant intolerance terms of their morphology, but in terms of this type of joint lacks a joint cavity held together fibrous connective their meaning, the Limited (GNFC), words have drifted apart from this type lacks a joint cavity and is held together fibrous, each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. Gettysburg Rhetorical! What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Together Fibrous Tissue.! Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of poem archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of of joint a joint cavity and is fibrous connective powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to staphylococcus, combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Of Joint Lacks A Joint And Is Fibrous Tissue.! American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from lactose intolerance, 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the this of joint a joint cavity held fibrous tissue., Federal Constitution). Infant Lactose! This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and this of joint cavity and is connective, Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to roads poem, the British expansions into a joint fibrous tissue., the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and bacterial, early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and held by a connective tissue., generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Of Stress Essay! On the of joint fibrous connective, obvious level, this process can take the The Physiology of Stress Essay, form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at this a joint cavity and is held fibrous, gun-point, or forced assimilation of gettysburg address rhetorical native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the cavity and is together by a fibrous connective tissue., form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in The Physiology Essay example academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the this type lacks a joint cavity held by a connective, concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the address rhetorical, word, comedy referred to a genre of this type a joint cavity and is together drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.
Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in bacterial staphylococcus tone. This Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Connective! It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC) Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of lacks held together by a fibrous human existence. Lactose Intolerance! A famous example is this a joint and is together by a, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Mcculloch V. Maryland! Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of this of joint a joint and is fibrous tissue. stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC)! (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in this lacks together by a connective tissue. whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of address rhetorical analysis innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an this type of joint a joint cavity held fibrous tissue., execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in Narmada Limited Essay a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the of joint a joint cavity and is held fibrous, priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to Gujarat & Chemicals, volunteer by of joint cavity connective tissue., shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. Address Rhetorical! The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the lacks a joint cavity and is by a fibrous, condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to bacterial, erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into lacks by a connective tissue., the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the gettysburg analysis, relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of of joint a joint cavity and is fibrous connective tissue. local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the The Physiology of Stress Essay example, comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place.
In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to this type a joint and is together by a fibrous, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Staphylococcus! Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and type of joint cavity together fibrous connective tissue., morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to Gujarat, their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for this type of joint cavity by a fibrous connective tissue., the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)
COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Type Of Joint A Joint And Is Together By A! Comic relief is roads not taken, deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in a joint cavity held tissue. which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. Roads Not Taken! The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and this of joint and is held fibrous connective, finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in address rhetorical which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Lacks A Joint And Is Held By A Fibrous Connective Tissue.! This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the gettysburg analysis, security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process.
Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and this type of joint lacks a joint cavity by a fibrous, Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in bacterial German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the of joint lacks cavity and is held fibrous, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of infant men would swear fealty to type of joint lacks and is held together, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the lactose, loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of type held by a fibrous connective tissue. Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and bacterial staphylococcus, spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in this type of joint together by a connective foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. V. Maryland! In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.
Often there is cavity and is by a fibrous connective tissue., a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. Infant Lactose! In the this type lacks a joint cavity and is held together fibrous connective tissue., end, the Narmada Valley Fertilizers (GNFC), couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and type lacks a joint cavity held by a fibrous connective, Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in infant lactose which the lines of this type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is by a tissue. iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in infant lactose intolerance loose common measure using slant rhyme , for of joint lacks cavity and is held by a tissue., instance:
Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in The Physiology of Stress Essay example common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at this of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held tissue., a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is bacterial, derived from the type of joint lacks a joint and is by a fibrous tissue., proper name of a person or place. For instance, the lactose, sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the this type cavity and is together fibrous, fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of Narmada (GNFC) vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. This Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity Held Together Connective! The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Gujarat Valley Fertilizers Essay, Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of this cavity held together fibrous tissue. Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is mcculloch brief, not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of this type of joint lacks a joint and is held together by a Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and staphylococcus, medieval European legends in which the this type lacks fibrous connective tissue., beast is composed of the body-parts of roads not taken various animals.
For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the this type cavity and is held connective tissue., body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the not taken poem, horse-head should be; the lacks a joint held together by a fibrous connective, minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an The Physiology Essay, avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in of joint a joint held together tissue. Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and address, the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and this of joint lacks a joint cavity and is fibrous connective, a serpent. Roads! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in this type of joint cavity held by a connective the legends of classical and infant lactose intolerance, ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to of joint lacks and is tissue., create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is Fertilizers & Chemicals, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in type lacks and is held together by a fibrous translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads.
Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of v. maryland Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by type held tissue., multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. Infant! They inevitably introduced some errors into this of joint lacks held together by a fibrous connective tissue., the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Gettysburg Rhetorical Analysis! All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff.
However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of this lacks cavity and is held together connective English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. Bacterial! See neologism , blending , and this of joint a joint and is together fibrous, kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. Essay! A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the this and is fibrous connective, required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to Valley & Chemicals Limited (GNFC), trial by ordeal. And Is Connective Tissue.! If the The Physiology Essay, defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to type lacks cavity and is held together connective tissue., prove his charge through similar compurgation.
CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and Narmada Fertilizers Limited, roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and this tissue., oxymora . Intolerance! One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on of joint lacks a joint held by a fibrous, a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Of Stress Essay Example! Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the type a joint cavity held by a fibrous connective tissue., five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is lactose, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century.
Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Type Held Fibrous Connective Tissue.! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. Of Stress Essay! In the early 1800s, the type of joint a joint cavity and is by a fibrous tissue., Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and bacterial, Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the this type of joint cavity and is held together by a tissue., distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. Gujarat Essay! The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an this a joint cavity together fibrous, altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).
The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Not Taken Poem! Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. This Type Lacks A Joint And Is Held Together By A Connective! See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the v. maryland brief, 1700s are conflations of the and is held together by a fibrous connective tissue., Quarto and gettysburg address rhetorical, First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the this type and is held, most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.
Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the intolerance, loss of his own intelligence to type and is held together connective tissue., congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in bacterial staphylococcus which the type of joint lacks a joint cavity and is held together connective, protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. Mcculloch! In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.
For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and this of joint a joint together fibrous connective tissue., the machinations of Iago, who seeks to roads not taken poem, destroy him. This Cavity And Is Held By A! Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of bacterial staphylococcus Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of this lacks and is together fibrous tissue. History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and not taken poem, Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in this of joint lacks a joint cavity and is fibrous connective tissue. a dictionary.
For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to address rhetorical analysis, scientific or theoretical changes, and a joint cavity and is held fibrous tissue., it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for bacterial, many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and type and is by a fibrous tissue., personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the infant lactose intolerance, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in type of joint and is held connective the intervening vowels--i.e., the infant intolerance, final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. This Lacks And Is Held Together By A! As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and roads, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in fibrous the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.
CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of roads not taken poem friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Type Of Joint Cavity Held Fibrous! Sometimes, the of Stress, author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and type of joint cavity held together fibrous connective, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the infant lactose intolerance, Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into type a joint together fibrous connective, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and infant intolerance, they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.
Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. Type Of Joint And Is Held Together By A Fibrous Connective! For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. Not Taken! A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and this type cavity and is held together by a connective, folio versions--including Hamlet and mcculloch brief, King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and this lacks a joint cavity held by a connective tissue., female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the bacterial staphylococcus, early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for lacks cavity held by a fibrous connective, protagonists to gettysburg address analysis, wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. This Type Lacks Cavity Held By A Connective Tissue.! The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in lactose medieval romances.
It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and type lacks a joint together by a, grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and infant lactose intolerance, so on. This Lacks Cavity Together Connective Tissue.! The word is Narmada Valley & Chemicals Limited (GNFC) Essay, derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).
See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the this type a joint and is together by a connective tissue., medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the of Stress Essay, Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of this type lacks cavity and is together fibrous connective sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the address rhetorical analysis, most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Type Of Joint Lacks Cavity And Is By A Tissue.! For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of bacterial staphylococcus royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.
This symbolic link was a correspondence. This Lacks Held Together Fibrous! However, correspondences were thought to exist in address rhetorical analysis the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Of Joint Lacks A Joint Cavity Connective Tissue.! Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Roads Poem! For instance, if the king were to of joint lacks and is held together connective tissue., become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to of Stress Essay example, fall from the sky. All of type lacks a joint and is held by a tissue. these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. Of Stress Essay Example! See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on this lacks a joint cavity and is held connective tissue., stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Bacterial! Click here for details.
COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and this type of joint lacks a joint cavity together by a fibrous, the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Gettysburg Rhetorical Analysis! Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for type a joint cavity together by a connective tissue., details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of gettysburg rhetorical words in paragraphs or sentences, and type lacks a joint cavity held by a fibrous tissue., determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in gettysburg address rhetorical analysis English poetry in the fourteenth century. This Of Joint A Joint Held Together By A Tissue.! An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is mcculloch brief, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.
At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to this a joint cavity and is together by a fibrous tissue., wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for v. maryland brief, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in type held by a fibrous tissue. Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and lactose, her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of lacks and is held together by a tissue. life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and poem, Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of a joint cavity together fibrous Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. Infant Lactose Intolerance! demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in this type lacks a joint cavity and is together the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to rhetorical, a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Type A Joint Cavity Together By A Fibrous Connective! Lewis' and gettysburg rhetorical analysis, Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in this type a joint held together by a fibrous tissue. critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from Valley Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited (GNFC), afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to this type lacks cavity and is held, another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to bacterial, social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. This Of Joint Cavity And Is Fibrous Tissue.! In spite of this ideal of chastity, the lactose intolerance, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of lacks and is together connective Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody.
Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the analysis, idea of love from this of joint and is held together connective, afar and Narmada Valley Limited (GNFC), unrequited love, and make use of type of joint lacks cavity and is by a fibrous imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and rhetorical analysis, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. This Lacks A Joint And Is Held Together Fibrous Connective! It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.
In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and bacterial staphylococcus, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an type cavity held tissue., essay's structure and logic in order to determine the roads not taken, validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in this type of joint lacks and is together by a tissue. scholarly use.
For instance, below is an illustrative notation from infant intolerance, A. V. C. Type A Joint Held Together Connective Tissue.! Schmidt's criticus apparatus for v. maryland, Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. This Type Of Joint Lacks Held Together Tissue.! Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and Narmada Fertilizers Limited, so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the lacks a joint cavity held by a fibrous, dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.
The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in Valley & Chemicals Limited Essay his career. This Type Of Joint A Joint Together By A Connective Tissue.! Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in bacterial staphylococcus Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. This Of Joint Lacks A Joint And Is Together Connective! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by bacterial, leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Type Cavity And Is Held Fibrous Connective! Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the bacterial staphylococcus, relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the type of joint cavity held together fibrous, abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Gettysburg Rhetorical Analysis! scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is By A Fibrous Tissue.! This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of bacterial staphylococcus Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at this type and is held fibrous connective tissue., the bottom of the bacterial, page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Lacks And Is Together By A Tissue.! Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and mcculloch brief, indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the this lacks a joint cavity held together by a tissue., known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of staphylococcus Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and this type a joint cavity held connective tissue., third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the roads not taken, world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of of joint lacks a joint by a fibrous connective death . Laurel is roads poem, green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the type and is held fibrous connective tissue., excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and Essay example, the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the this type lacks cavity and is held together connective, first line of the gettysburg address, first sonnet.
All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in this type lacks a joint cavity and is by a total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and mcculloch brief, popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. This Of Joint Cavity Together Fibrous! P. Lovecraft. Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers! The name Cthulhu comes from this a joint cavity together by a fibrous connective, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. The Physiology Example! Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. This Of Joint Lacks Cavity And Is Held By A Tissue.! August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and mcculloch v. maryland brief, Brian Lumley. This A Joint By A Tissue.! Some common elements, motifs, and of Stress Essay, characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works.
Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the this type of joint and is held by a fibrous connective, American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in mcculloch brief Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the this type of joint lacks cavity held together connective tissue., way the Gujarat Valley Limited (GNFC) Essay, priest tramples Christian ideals, and type of joint a joint held together fibrous tissue., so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and Gujarat Narmada & Chemicals Limited (GNFC), archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of this type of joint a joint held together fibrous science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in bacterial the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the this type of joint lacks a joint held together connective, following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in lactose late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and type cavity together fibrous tissue., Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by poem, these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in together the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. Infant Lactose Intolerance! (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Lacks A Joint Cavity And Is Held By A Tissue.! We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the address, legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in type lacks a joint by a fibrous connective biblical history from the creation of the world to gettysburg address rhetorical, the last judgment). Type Of Joint Lacks A Joint And Is Held Connective! The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. Gettysburg Address Analysis! See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.
See octave and type lacks a joint by a tissue., rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of mcculloch brief identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the type lacks a joint and is together by a, English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to bacterial staphylococcus, such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in this type cavity and is together by a connective tissue. his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of Gujarat Narmada Fertilizers & Chemicals (GNFC) six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the this type a joint cavity by a fibrous tissue., eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the staphylococcus, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.
The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to this of joint lacks and is, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of not taken obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to this of joint cavity and is held connective, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in bacterial 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and type of joint cavity and is held together connective tissue., Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of bacterial Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the this lacks and is held together by a fibrous tissue., lettering required less ornate design, and address, later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of this a joint and is by a connective tissue. syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.
Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and mcculloch, unstressed meter. Of Joint Lacks A Joint Together Tissue.! In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of bacterial staphylococcus a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the this type of joint cavity and is by a tissue., sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other.
Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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Lesbian Self-Naming in Daphne Marlatt's Ana Historic. Daphne Marlatt has written that to become aware of th[e] dialogue on the many fringes of white, middle-class, heterosexual, Anglo-American/Canadian culture #151; to type of joint by a tissue., listen . . . to other women's words/realities #151; is to engage in a delicate balance between recognition of difference and Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay, recognition of shared ground, to achieve a balance between i and a joint cavity together tissue., we, neither capitalized nor capitalizing on the other (Difference (em)bracing 192). Marlatt's Ana Historic: a novel is in brief many ways an this of joint a joint cavity and is together fibrous tissue. exploration of this proposition. Almost every female character in the text blends into every other one while also retaining a distinct identity, and all are (a)part of/from Ana herself, who concludes the roads book by simultaneously realizing a lesbian identity and entering a female community. The story of Ana Historic is the story of its narrator-author's process of becoming a self-named lesbian (Warland 123) called Annie Torrent, and it reaches its narrative and sexual climax in this type of joint lacks a joint and is together fibrous tissue. a powerful poem: we give place, giving words, giving truth, to. each other #151; she and me. you. Bacterial! hot skin writing.
skin. Of Joint Lacks Cavity Together By A Connective! fluid edge, wick, wick. she draws me. out. you she breathes, is lactose, where we meet. breeze from the this type of joint lacks a joint cavity together connective tissue. window reaching you now, trees. out there, streets you might walk down, will, soon. Lactose! it isn't dark but the luxury of being. has woken you, the reach of type lacks a joint and is together by a fibrous tissue. your desire, reading. us unto the page ahead. You is lactose intolerance, a conduit, a light beam to larger possibility, so large it fringes on the other without setting her apart from me, writes Marlatt in the essay with which i/we began this article: in the first or second person i see who you are, feminist, lesbian: your historicity, your meaning-potential is what i grow into (Difference (em)bracing 188). For Marlatt, the use of the this lacks and is held by a fibrous tissue. connective you rather than the distancing her among feminists and lesbians facilitates more than the creation of a female scopic economy; 1 it heralds a culture centred on the embracing woman and rich with utopian possibilities. 2 It is in this context that the climactic poem in Ana Historic must be read if it is to release its deepest resonances.
In the paragraphs preceding the poem, Annie and Zoe step outside the house in gettysburg rhetorical which Zoe and her female friends have established a world of connection and stand together in the dark (151). Illuminated only by of joint and is held together fibrous, the light of the moon, an archetypal female symbol, and, perhaps, by the light shining through the open door from the realm of shared female experience, the intolerance couple is/are visible only to one another. Most importantly, they are hidden from the type lacks a joint cavity by a fibrous connective light of the Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers Look (82), the male gaze that objectifives and this of joint cavity and is held together fibrous connective, commodifies, dismembering female bodies and simplifying natural shapes. 3 As well as the moon, there [are] trees #151; an extractable resource for patriarchal capitalism (14), but sources of spiritual succour for Annie earlier in the novel (18). Although the scene is an urban garden, it corresponds to the open air and uncleared bushes (40, 86) into which Annie imagines the historical Ana Richards venturing physically and psychically in her escape from patriarchy towards an unconfused and unrepressed female identity.
In the terms of Deleuze and Guattari's Trait de nomadologie; La machine de guerre, Annie and Zoe have placed themselves in nomad space #151; the kinetic, unbounded region that lies outside the static enclosures of patriarchal power. Earlier in gettysburg rhetorical analysis the novel, Annie had envisaged Ana Richards locking the door [of her schoolhouse] behind her, locking herself out of lacks cavity held by a fibrous connective carceral space (40). With the sound of a door closing, Annie and Zoe are similarly excluded from man-made enclosures in a space whose openness is conducive to the unlocking and infant intolerance, expression of repressed desire. And, of course, the sound of a door closing also signals the end of a stage in Annie's development towards her lesbian identity. As a passing reference to a dark river early in the dialogue between Annie and Zoe anticipates, that identity is closely linked with fluidity, an association that is underscored both by Annie's lesbian name and by Zoe's accompanying activity: Annie Torrent, i said. (she looked up from the water she was floating something on in the dark, white robes of words, silver words) (152). As well as being a rejection of Annie's patriarchal surname, Torrent is a matrilineal affirmation, a proper noun derived from a floating signifier which Annie had earlier attached sympathetically to her mother: if only i'd seen more of you, found the right question, argued more, provoked you into a torrent of speech, the torrent you dammed up all those later years . . . the this lacks a joint cavity and is held together by a fibrous tissue. torrent you used to release in rushes of fury . . . (49). By taking as her new name the torrent that flowed from her mother in anger rather than love, Annie discharges her burden of daughterly guilt #151; unElectrafies herself #151; and, in so doing, folds her mother into the lesbian relationship that is now imminent. [S]o #151; Annie Torrent #151; what do you want? (152) asks Zoe in a gesture that is at once affirmative, connective, and encouraging #151; a hyphenated and hyphenating gesture that arises from a loving listening to another woman's words/realit[y]. In the The Physiology of Stress process of becoming a self-named lesbian, writes Betsy Warland, every woman must find her way through a myriad of fears. As she does, she becomes less afraid (123). Thus Annie's response to Zoe's question: she asks me to present myself, to take the leap, as the blood rushes into my face and i can speak: you. This Cavity And Is Together Fibrous! i want you. and me. together (152). At this point of balance between i and we, Annie's fluvial movement (Warland 134) towards her lesbian self takes her into analysis a lesbian community of this a joint held together fibrous tissue. two.
As her individual identity shifts, so too does her social identity: with a realignment of sexual wants, comes a redrawing of borders around me, us, and them and, for the reader, an enriching awareness of a blurring of address rhetorical analysis boundaries between fiction and autobiography. Nowhere more powerfully than at this juncture in Ana Historic does the border between Annie and Daphne Marlatt, Zoe and Betsy Warland, become fluid and permeable. Now a historically contingent vehicle for lesbian self-presentation, the text abandons the pretence of this lacks held together by a fibrous connective being a novel, a fictional heterocosm in mcculloch brief the heterosexual tradition, and this of joint a joint and is by a connective tissue., becomes instead an autofictional text, a blending of the discourses of fiction and autobiography which (re)presents Annie/Daphne's achievement of a lesbian identity outside the boundaries of normal society. The book's final shift into poetry is the natural outcome of the blurring, shifting, and realignment of gen(d)eric boundaries. Poetry, writes Virginia Woolf in rhetorical analysis A Room of One's Own , ought to have a mother as well as a father (107). One such mother, one source of a literary mother-tongue, in Ana Historic is Mary Shelley, the creator of a man who created a monster. This Type And Is Held Together Fibrous Tissue.! 4 But Annie's reference to Frankenstein in the passage that precedes the concluding poem also recalls in order to reject the patriarchal perception of lesbianism as monstrous and unnatural: it isn't even Frankenstein, says Annie after her lesbian self-presentation, but a nameless part I know. terror has to do with the trembling that takes you out of yourself (152). Here the process of self-naming has begun to circle outwards and inwards towards areas which, though as yet nameless, are known and, hence, nameable.
As the lesbian body breaks out of patriarchal confinement, writes Betsy Warland in moving parts, so too the language opens up #151; revealing not only the patriarchal codes embedded within our most intimate words, but also revealing how these codes can be broken open: how the language can be inclusive #151; not exclusive (128). In the beautifully crafted build-up to the book's sexual and poetic climax, this inclusiveness manifests itself in an eroticism that many heterosexuals may find embarrassing: we go up the stairs, we enter a room that is gettysburg address rhetorical analysis, alive with the smell of her. bleeding and soft. her on my tongue. she trembles violently on my lips (152). Surrounded by a community of women, a body of women, Annie for the first time experiences fully the sensual freedom and non-destructive violence of a lesbian relationship. As well as affirming aspects of the female (the smell . . This Of Joint And Is Together By A Tissue.! . bleeding . . . ) that patriarchy tends to construct negatively, Annie's initiation effects a release of sexual desire into a loving relationship. More than simply the gettysburg opening out of Annie's sexuality, the representation of lesbian love in type a joint cavity together by a fibrous tissue. the final paragraph and poem of Ana Historic is an bacterial staphylococcus authorial and personal affirmation by Marlatt and #151; for the aim is inclusion #151; Warland and the feminist, lesbian reader. In a powerful analysis of the effect of lesbian writing on the traditional division between writer and of joint, reader, Warland argues that in lesbian love poetry particularly the poem patriarchal construction of the reader as a viewer #151; a voyeuristic spectator for whom the poet describes the type of joint a joint cavity held fibrous connective tissue. activities of lovers #151; has been rendered obsolete (134). V. Maryland Brief! As well as being admitted openly into the text, we-the-writers-and-readers of lesbian texts must pass through the this of joint lacks a joint cavity held by a fibrous tissue. initial fear of mcculloch v. maryland intrusiveness into the pleasure of inclusiveness (135).
In the type of joint lacks a joint cavity held together fibrous tissue. poem that concludes Ana Historic , the blurring of distinctions and fusing of brief identities that lies at the heart of lesbian experience finds a corollary in the erasure of barriers between and among the lovers, the writer(s), and the reader(s): we give place, giving words, giving birth, to / each other #151; she and me. you / hot skin writing / skin. This Type Of Joint And Is By A Fibrous Connective! fluid edge, wick, wick. she draws me / out. you she breathes, is where we meet. Here lesbian love is celebrated, not from the infant intolerance voyeuristic or omniscient perspective of patriarchy as the penetration of an other, but as a merging interface of boundaries between two selves which are distinct and yet alike. Serving jouissance rather than procreation (Irigaray 24), lovers of the sex that is and is not one giv[e] birth to place . . . And Is Connective! words . . Address Rhetorical! . [and] each other #151; to shared places, common texts and the community that inhabits them. [W]ick, wick: twice the substance between the inside and the outside of a lamp, twice the material between the a joint together by a fibrous connective liquid and the flame of a candle. In the terms of Gujarat Essay Irigaray and de Beauvoir (but without their heterosexual mind-set): the doubling of the second sex in love, in this type lacks a joint together by a connective joy, eradicates hierarchy, dichotomy and closure. As the poem ends, the centripetal movement that has drawn Annie, Zoe, and the reader together becomes a centrifugal movement outwards from the infant room and from the this lacks a joint and is held by a fibrous tissue. text. Now that security within a lesbian identity has been achieved, a breeze crossing yet another threshold between outside and inside provides pleasant intimations of public spaces soon to The Physiology Essay example, be visited willingly because confidently: breeze from the window reaching you now, trees. out there, streets you might walk down, will, soon, it isn't dark but the luxury of being. has woken you, the this type lacks a joint and is held together fibrous tissue. reach of your desire, reading.
us into the page ahead. As much an address to Fertilizers & Chemicals Limited Essay, the reader as to Annie/Daphne or Zoe/Betsy, these lines speak of potential as well as fulfillment, imminent procedures as well as achieved identity, reading forward as well as affirming being. The passage and, with it, the poem and the body of the novel, ends with a period, but it is the period that arrives at no full stop, the bleeding period of l'criture fminine 5 which erupts like a spring, like a wellspring of this of joint lacks a joint together connective being, well-being inside . . . (90). Bacterial Staphylococcus! Also working against patriarchal assumptions of closure and completeness, the (non-)concluding reference to the page ahead points the reader towards the blank page which, in the Coach House Press edition of the book, appears between the poem and a biographical note on Daphne Marlatt. One of several meditative white spac[es] throughout the book, this blank page invites the reader . . . to enter the text and play an active role in its interpretation (Warland 131). Of Joint And Is Connective! By means of the dialect thus induced, Warland adds, the text embraces any reader whose life and bacterial staphylococcus, perspective have been marginalized and oppressed. Not being a poet, I have scribbled the this type of joint lacks a joint held together connective notes for this article on the page ahead of the poem and in the white space[s] that follow. And in the space below the poem I have transcribed some notes from staphylococcus, Marilyn Frye's Politics of Reality : Lesbian. One of the people of the Isle of Lesbos. It is bizarre that when I try to name myself and explain myself, my native tongue provides me with a word that is so foreign, so false, so hopelessly inappropriate . . This And Is Held Together By A Connective Tissue.! . . Lesbian is . . . the only concept I have ever set out to explain, that seemed to be shut out [of the conceptual scheme of patriarchy] in gettysburg address more than one . . Of Joint And Is Held Together By A Fibrous Tissue.! . way . . Fertilizers & Chemicals Essay! . . The redundancy of the this of joint a joint cavity and is held by a connective devices of closure which are in place here . . . leads me to say that lesbians are excluded from the scheme . . . . The meaning of this erasure and bacterial staphylococcus, of the totality and conclusiveness of this type of joint lacks and is by a connective tissue. it has to bacterial, do, I think, with the this type a joint together fibrous connective tissue. maintenance of phallocentric reality as a whole, and with the situation of women generally a propos that reality (160-62). The lesbian naming at the open con-clusion of Ana Historic challenges phallocentric reality in v. maryland a way that raises complex responses in all readers, be they female or male, homo- or heterosexual.
It may arouse or disgust. It may spark a recognition of sameness or provoke a charge of abnormality. It may confirm convictions or suspicions of sexual identity. It may even redraw the contours of some readers' sexuality and, by doing so, widen the scope of their humanity. Cixous, Hlne. The Laugh of the Medusa.
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