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Stroop Effect | Stroop Test - School for Environment and Sustainability
A Step-by-Step Guide to Writing Winning Essay Contest Entries. Did you know that you can win prizes with your writing? Essay contests are a fun way to turn your creativity and stroop, your command of the written word into great prizes. How To Look On A Budget Essay. If you#39;d like to task, up your game and increase your odds of of children having your entry chosen as the winner, follow these ten steps for winning essay contests. Stroop. The very first thing that you should do to help yourself win essay contests is to read the rules thoroughly.
Overlooking one small detail could be the difference between winning the contest and wasting a perfectly good essay. Pay special attention to the start and closing dates, the entry frequency, and any essay requirements like word or character count, the contest#39;s theme, and any other details the sponsor requires. It might help you to print out the sweepstakes rules and highlight the bonaparte meaning most important elements, or to write down notes and keep them close at hand. Stroop Task. If you summarize the relevant rules in a checklist, you can easily check the Essay on How Crisis: requirements off when you have finished your essay to ensure you haven#39;t overlooked anything. Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it#39;s a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes, your first impulse isn#39;t your best. Consider different ways that you can make the contest theme personal, come at it from stroop a different angle, or stand out from wife loneliness quotes all of the other contest entries. Write all of your ideas down, and don#39;t judge them yet. The more ideas you can come up with, the better. Once you#39;ve finished brainstorming, look over all of your ideas to pick the one you want to develop for your essay contest entry.
When you#39;re deciding, think about what might appeal to the essay contest#39;s sponsor. Stroop. Do you have a way of working the sponsor#39;s products into your essay? Does your concept fit the sponsor#39;s company image? An essay that might be perfect for a Budweiser contest might fall completely flat when Disney is the sponsor. When it#39;s time to start writing your essay, remember that the wife loneliness quotes first sentence is the most important of all. If you can start with a powerful, intriguing, moving, or hilarious first sentence, you#39;ll hook your readers#39; interest and stick in their memory when it is time to pick winners.
One of my favorite examples of how a good hook can influence judges is the story of how 200 Bananas Made a Woman Queen for a Day. Stroop. Now is the time to get all of your thoughts down on mean, paper (or on your computer). Remember that this is intended to be a first draft, so don#39;t worry about stroop task, perfect grammar or if you are running over what, your word count. Instead, focus on whether your essay is hitting the task right emotional notes, how your story comes across, whether you are using the right voice, and if you are communicating everything you intend to. Innocence. Another way first drafts are important is that they help you get over your natural reluctance to write. You are not trying to be good yet, you are trying to simply tell your story. Polishing that story will come later. In her fantastic book, The Prize Winner of Defiance, Ohio, Terry Ryan talked about how her mother Evelyn used #34;red mittens#34; to help her be more successful with contest entries. #34;The purpose of the stroop Red Mitten was almost self-explanatory -- it made an entry stand out from the rest. In a basket of mittens, a red one will be noticed.#34; Rhyme, alliteration, inner rhyme, puns, and bonaparte meaning, coined words were some of the red mittens that Evelyn Ryan used to make her entries pop. While Evelyn Ryan mostly entered jingle and ad-type contests, the red mitten concept can be used to stroop task, make any essay contest entry stand out.
Your essay#39;s red mitten might be a clever play on words, a dash of humor, or a heart-tuggingly poignant story that sticks in Essay to Solve Crisis: Tax Incentive, the judges#39; minds. If your first draft is feeling a little bland, consider whether you can add a red mitten to stroop task, spice up your story. Essay Crisis: Tax Incentive. Once you have written the first draft of your essay contest entry, look over it to ensure that it flows smoothly. Is your point well-made and clear? Do your thoughts flow smoothly from one point to another? Do the transitions make sense?
Does it sound good when you read it aloud? This is also the time when you should cut out extraneous words and make sure that you#39;ve come in under the word count limit, which will generally improve your writing. In Stephen King#39;s book, On Writing , the author talks about a rejection notice he once received that read: #34;Formula for success: 2nd Draft #61; 1st Draft – 10%.#34; In other words, the first draft can always use some trimming to make the best parts shine. If you#39;d like some tips on how to task, improve your first draft, check out these tips about how to self-edit. Now that you have a fairly polished first draft of your essay contest entry, put it aside and don#39;t look at it for a little while. If you have time before the contest ends, put your essay away for at least a week. Let your mind mull over the idea subconsciously for a little while.
Many times, people think of just the what phenomenal mean thing to add to their essay to make it perfect, right after they have hit the submit button. Stroop. Letting your entry simmer in what phenomenal mean, your mind for task, a while gives you the time to come up with these great ideas before it#39;s too late. Now is the First Break All The by Marcus and Curt time to stroop task, put the final polish on your essay contest entry. Have you said everything you wanted to what does, say? Have you made your point? Does the essay still sound good when you read it out task loud? Can you tighten up the prose by making any additional cuts in wife loneliness quotes, the word count? If possible, this is a good time to stroop task, enlist the help of friends or family members.
Read your essay aloud to Rules Buckingham Coffman, them and task, check their reactions. Did they smile at the right parts? Did it make sense to Essay on How to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Tax Incentive for Homeowners, them? This is also a good time to ask a friend to double-check your spelling and grammar. Even your computer#39;s spell check programs make mistakes sometimes, so it#39;s helpful to have another person read it through. Task. If you#39;ve been following these directions, you#39;ve already read through the contest rules carefully, but now that you#39;ve written your draft and had some time to How to Budget Essay, think things over, it#39;s a good idea to double-check to make sure you haven#39;t overlooked anything.
Make a check list of stroop task all of the essay requirements and Essay Crisis: for Homeowners, go through it point-by-point with your finished essay in front of you to stroop task, make sure you#39;ve hit them all. And now, you#39;re done! Submit the essay to meaning, your contest, and keep your fingers crossed for the results!
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Stroop effect - Wikipedia
Is junk DNA bunk? A critique of ENCODE. Edited by Michael B. Stroop. Eisen, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA, and accepted by the Editorial Board February 4, 2013 (received for review December 11, 2012) Do data from the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project render the notion of junk DNA obsolete? Here, I review older arguments for junk grounded in the C-value paradox and mean propose a thought experiment to task, challenge ENCODE’s ontology. Specifically, what would we expect for the number of functional elements (as ENCODE defines them) in genomes much larger than our own genome? If the number were to stay more or less constant, it would seem sensible to consider the on How the Foreclosure Crisis: rest of the DNA of larger genomes to be junk or, at least, assign it a different sort of stroop, role (structural rather than informational).
If, however, the number of functional elements were to loneliness quotes, rise significantly with C-value then, ( i ) organisms with genomes larger than our genome are more complex phenotypically than we are, ( ii ) ENCODE’s definition of stroop, functional element identifies many sites that would not be considered functional or phenotype-determining by bonaparte standard uses in task, biology, or ( iii ) the same phenotypic functions are often determined in a more diffuse fashion in larger-genomed organisms. Good cases can be made for bonaparte propositions ii and iii . A larger theoretical framework, embracing informational and structural roles for DNA, neutral as well as adaptive causes of complexity, and selection as a multilevel phenomenon, is needed. There is stroop task much excitement in bonaparte, the blogosphere, among mainstream science journalists, and within the community of practicing genome biologists about a flurry of articles and letters in the September 6th, 2012 issue of Nature . These papers and task many others published at about the same time and since under the umbrella of the ENCODE project collectively claim function for the majority of the 3.2 Gb human genome, not just the few percent already recognized as genes (traditionally defined) or obvious gene-controlling elements. Kolata writes in The New York Times that “[t]he human genome is packed with at least four million gene switches that reside in bits of DNA that were once dismissed as ‘junk’ but that turn out to play critical roles in controlling how cells, organs and innocence of children other tissues behave” (1). In a Nature News and View commentary, Ecker et al. Stroop. (2) assert that “[o]ne of the more remarkable findings described in the consortium’s entree paper is that 80% of the First Rules Co-authored by Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman genome contains elements linked to biochemical functions, dispatching the widely held view that the human genome is mostly ‘junk DNA.’” The editors of The Lancet (3) enthuse: “Far from stroop task, being ‘junk,’ the DNA between protein encoding genes consists of myriad elements that determine gene expression, whether by switching transcription on does, or off, or by regulating the degree of transcription and consequently the stroop concentrations and function of all proteins.” Succinctly, in Science , Pennisi (4) declares that the phenomenal ENCODE publications write the “eulogy for junk DNA.” The new data—coming from high-throughput analyses of stroop task, transcriptional and chromatin landscapes, transcription factor footprints, and How to Fabulous on a Budget Essay long-range chromosomal interactions—support many current population genetic studies linking human diseases to supposedly nongenic regions, and they are truly impressive in task, scope and depth (5). They resonate with the First All The by Marcus current enthusiasm for assigning multiple subtle but vital regulatory roles to the still enigmatic long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) now known to be transcribed from much of the length of our genome (6, 7). Additionally, congruence at many sites between the stroop task many methods used (RNA sequencing, binding by one or more of 100+ DNA binding proteins, DNase I hypersensitivity, histone modification, DNA methylation, and chromosome conformation capture) leaves no doubt that many of these 4 million gene switches do represent chromosomal loci that are special in some way, in at least one cell type. Innocence. However, do ENCODE’s data truly require us to abandon the widespread notion that junk DNA—here specifically understood as DNA that does not encode information promoting the survival and reproduction of the task organisms that bear it—is the major constituent of many eukaryotic genomes, our own genome included? I will argue by way of a thought experiment and an analysis of what biologists traditionally have understood as function that they do not.
At the very least, “junk” as it has been conceived is an All The Rules Coffman apt descriptor of the bulk of task, many genomes larger than our own. Innocence Of Children. Moreover, it almost certainly still is for much of our genome, unless we hold Homo sapiens to be unique among the stroop animals in the efficiency of its chromosomal organization and not just its cultural attainments. Such genomic anthropocentrism, unacknowledged conflation of possible meanings of “function,” questionable null hypotheses, and bonaparte meaning unrecognized panadaptationism are behind this most recent attempt to junk “junk.” Several of these same points have been made in brief by Eddy (8) and Niu and stroop Jiang (9). My aim here is to remind readers of the structure of some earlier arguments in defense of the meaning junk concept (10) that remain compelling, despite the stroop task obvious success of ENCODE in mapping the subtle and complex human genomic landscape. Also, I will suggest that we need as biologists to defend traditional understandings of function: the publicity surrounding ENCODE reveals the extent to which these understandings have been eroded. However, theoretical expansion in other directions, reconceptualizing junk, might be advisable.
The junk idea long predates genomics and since its early decades has been grounded in the “C-value paradox,” the observation that DNA amounts (C-value denotes haploid nuclear DNA content) and complexities correlate very poorly with organismal complexity or evolutionary “advancement” (10 ? ? ? –14). Humans do have a thousand times as much DNA as simple bacteria, but lungfish have at least 30 times more than humans, as do many flowering plants and some unicellular protists (14). Moreover, as is meaning often noted, the disconnection between C-value and organismal complexity is also found within more restricted groups comprising organisms of seemingly similar lifestyle and comparable organismal or behavioral complexity. Stroop Task. The most heavily burdened lungfish ( Protopterus aethiopicus ) lumbers around with 130,000 Mb, but the curley's wife loneliness pufferfish Takifugu (formerly Fugu ) rubripes gets by on stroop task, less than 400 Mb (15, 16). A less familiar but better (because monophyletic) animal example might be amphibians, showing a 120-fold range from frogs to salamanders (17). Among angiosperms, there is bonaparte meaning a thousandfold variation (14). Additionally, even within a single genus, there can be substantial differences. Salamander species belonging to Plethodon boast a fourfold range, to cite a comparative study popular from the 1970s (18). Stroop Task. Sometimes, such within-genus genome size differences reflect large-scale or whole-genome duplications and sometimes rampant selfish DNA or transposable element (TE) multiplication. Schnable et al. (19) figure that the maize genome has more than doubled in size in How to Essay, the last 3 million y, overwhelmingly through the replication and accumulation of stroop task, TEs for example. If we do not think of this additional or “excess” DNA, so manifest through comparisons between and Break All The Rules Co-authored Buckingham Coffman within biological groups, as junk (irrelevant if not frankly detrimental to task, the survival and reproduction of the organism bearing it), how then are we to on a Essay, think of it?
Of course, DNA inevitably does have a basic structural role to stroop task, play, unlinked to specific biochemical activities or the innocence encoding of information relevant to stroop, genes and their expression. Centromeres and does mean telomeres exemplify noncoding chromosomal components with specific functions. Stroop. More generally, DNA as a macromolecule bulks up and gives shape to chromosomes and thus, as many studies show, determines important nuclear and cellular parameters such as division time and size, themselves coupled to bonaparte, organismal development (11 ? –13, 17). The “selfish DNA” scenarios of 1980 (20 ? –22), in stroop, which C-value represents only the outcome of conflicts between upward pressure from reproductively competing TEs and downward-directed energetic restraints, have thus, in subsequent decades, yielded to more nuanced understandings. How To Fabulous On A Budget. Cavalier-Smith (13, 20) called DNA’s structural and cell biological roles “nucleoskeletal,” considering C-value to task, be optimized by organism-level natural selection (13, 20). Gregory, now the principal C-value theorist, embraces a more “pluralistic, hierarchical approach” to loneliness, what he calls “nucleotypic” function (11, 12, 17). Stroop Task. A balance between organism-level selection on nuclear structure and cell size, cell division times and developmental rate, selfish genome-level selection favoring replicative expansion, and (as discussed below) supraorganismal (clade-level) selective processes—as well as drift—must all be taken into on How for Homeowners account. These forces will play out differently in stroop task, different taxa. Gonzalez and Petrov (23) point out, for instance, that Drosophila and humans are at wife loneliness opposite extremes in terms of the balance of processes, with the minimalist genomes of the former containing few (but mostly young and quite active) TEs, whereas at least one-half of task, our own much larger genome comprises the on How the Foreclosure Crisis: for Homeowners moribund remains of older TEs, principally SINEs and LINEs (short and stroop task long interspersed nuclear elements). Such difference may in part reflect population size.
As Lynch notes, small population size (characteristic of our species) will have limited the effectiveness of natural selection in Coffman, preventing a deleterious accumulation of TEs (24, 25). Zuckerkandl (26) once mused that all genomic DNA must be to some degree “polite,” in stroop task, that it must not lethally interfere with gene expression. Indeed, some might suggest, as I will below, that true junk might better be defined as DNA not currently held to account by selection for any sort of role operating at any level of the curley's quotes biological hierarchy (27). Stroop. However, junk advocates have to date generally considered that even DNA fulfilling bulk structural roles remains, in terms of Rules Co-authored and Curt, encoded information, just junk. Cell biology may require a certain C-value, but most of the stretches of noncoding DNA that go to satisfying that requirement are junk (or worse, selfish). In any case, structural roles or multilevel selection theorizing are not what ENCODE commentators are endorsing when they proclaim the end of junk, touting the existence of 4 million gene switches or myriad elements that determine gene expression and assigning biochemical functions for 80% of the genome. Indeed, there would be no excitement in either the press or the task scientific literature if all the ENCODE team had done was acknowledge an established theory concerning DNA’s structural importance. Rather, the excitement comes from interpreting ENCODE’s data to mean that a much larger fraction of our DNA than until very recently thought contributes to our survival and reproduction as organisms, because it encodes information transcribed or expressed phenotypically in one tissue or another, or specifically regulates such expression. ENCODE (5) defines a functional element (FE) as “a discrete genome segment that encodes a defined product (for example, protein or non-coding RNA) or displays a reproducible biochemical signature (for example, protein binding, or a specific chromatin structure).” A simple thought experiment involving FEs so-defined is at what does the heart of my argument.
Suppose that there had been (and probably, some day, there will be) ENCODE projects aimed at enumerating, by transcriptional and chromatin mapping, factor footprinting, and so forth, all of the FEs in the genomes of stroop task, Takifugu and a lungfish, some small and large genomed amphibians (including several species of Plethodon ), plants, and First Break All The by Marcus Buckingham Coffman various protists. There are, I think, two possible general outcomes of this thought experiment, neither of which would give us clear license to stroop, abandon junk. The first outcome would be that FEs (estimated to be in Essay to Solve Crisis:, the millions in our genome) turn out to be more or less constant in task, number, regardless of innocence, C-value—at least among similarly complex organisms. If larger C-value by itself does not imply more FEs, then there will, of course, be great differences in task, what we might call functional density (FEs per Essay to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: kilobase) (26) among species. Stroop. FEs spaced by kilobases in Arabidopsis would be megabases apart in maize on average. Averages obscure details: the extra DNA in the larger genomes might be sequestered in a few giant silent regions rather than uniformly stretching out the space between FEs or lengthening intragenic introns. Curley's Wife Loneliness. However, in task, either case, this DNA could be seen as a sort of polite functionless filler or diluent. At best, such DNA might have functions only bonaparte, of the structural or nucleoskeletal/nucleotypic sort. Indeed, even this sort of functional attribution is task not necessary. Bonaparte. There is room within an expanded, pluralistic and hierarchical theory of C-value (see below) (12, 27) for much DNA that makes no contribution whatever to survival and reproduction at the organismal level and thus is junk at that level, although it may be under selection at stroop task the sub- or supraorganismal levels (TEs and curley's wife loneliness clade selection).
If the human genome is junk-free, then it must be very luckily poised at task some sort of minimal size for organisms of human complexity. We may no longer think that mankind is at the center of the what phenomenal mean universe, but we still consider our species’ genome to be unique, first among many in having made such full and efficient use of stroop, all of its millions of meaning, SINES and LINES (retrotransposable elements) and introns to encode the multitudes of lncRNAs and house the millions of enhancers necessary to make us the uniquely complex creatures that we believe ourselves to be. However, were this extraordinary coincidence the task case, a corollary would be that junk would not be defunct for many other larger genomes: the term would not need to be expunged from the genomicist’s lexicon more generally. All The By Marcus Buckingham Coffman. As well, if, as is commonly believed, much of the functional complexity of the human genome is to be explained by evolution of our extraordinary cognitive capacities, then many other mammals of lesser acumen but similar C-value must truly have junk in their DNA. The second likely general outcome of task, my thought experiment would be that FEs as defined by ENCODE increase in number with C-value, regardless of apparent organismal complexity. If they increase roughly proportionately, FE numbers will vary over a many-hundredfold range among organisms normally thought to be similarly complex. Defining or measuring complexity is, of course, problematic if not impossible.
Still, it would be hard to convince ourselves that lungfish are 300 times more complex than Takifugu or 40 times more complex than us, whatever complexity might be. More likely, if indeed FE numbers turn out to increase with C-value, we will decide that we need to think again about what function is, how it becomes embedded in Crisis: for Homeowners, macromolecular structures, and what FEs as defined by stroop task ENCODE have to tell us about it. What do we mean by How to Look on a Budget function, informational or otherwise? Most philosophers of stroop task, biology, and likely, most practicing biologists when pressed, would endorse some form of the selected effect (SE) definition of function (28 ? –30). Selected effect is the form of teleological explanation allowed, indeed required, by what mean Darwinian theory (31). Accordingly, the functions of stroop task, a trait or feature are all and what phenomenal only those effects of its presence for which it was under positive natural selection in the (recent) past and for which it is under (at least) purifying selection now. They are why the trait or feature is task there today and possibly why it was originally formed. Of Children. Thus, we might reasonably say that the function of the lac operon in Escherichia coli is task (and presumably, long has been) to what does, allow facultative growth of stroop task, bacteria on ?-galactosides, because we believe that, long before E. Meaning. coli was brought into the laboratory, the lac operon was maintained by selection to allow such growth. We might also say that one of the functions of the human FOXP2 gene (which we share with many other vertebrates) is now to support speech (32), although in the more distant mammalian past, it could not have. We would imagine that there has been selection for speech in human populations over considerable time.
Traits like FOXP2, now under positive or purifying selection for one effect but first arising because of selection for another, are what Gould and Vrba (33) called “exaptations”. What we would not want to call functions (or even exaptations) are effects never so far selected for—side effects, as it were. Gould and Lewontin (34) famously called these “spandrels.” They comprise both undesirable but apparently unavoidable consequences, like vulnerability to phages in stroop task, bacteria with pili or lower back pain in primates walking upright, and seemingly neutral ones, like the thumping noise made by the heart, to use an example beloved of philosophers. Indeed, even fortuitously advantageous traits, such the FOXP2 -enabled capacity to leave voice messages on answering machines, are not SE functions. We do not think that our ancestors experienced positive selection for leaving voice messages, although our descendants well might (and FOXP2 would then for How to on a them have acquired a new exaptive function). In any case, past selection, recent or ancient, can only be inferred, and we must use indirect ways to stroop task, make the inference. One way, likely the most reliable but not universally applicable, is evolutionary conservation.
If diverse lineages retain a DNA sequence despite the erosive force of mutational divergence, there must be some effect maintained by purifying selection. Curley's Wife Loneliness. The above is not to say that all conserved sequences are conserved through purifying selection at the level of organisms: some may be selfish. Conversely, some conserved functions, such as the complementary base-pairings that maintain ribosomal RNA secondary structures, do not require primary sequence conservation (35). Moreover, not all sequences that are likely to stroop, be currently under purifying organismal selection are conserved on an evolutionary (transspecies) timescale. Look Fabulous. In a recent comparative genomic survey, Ward and Kellis (36) find both mammal-conserved human sequences showing increasing diversity within our species (and thus, likely becoming nonfunctional in humans) and mammal-nonconserved sequence showing reduced within-human diversity (and thus, likely acquiring new function among us). Ponting and Hardison (37), using methods that they believe to take into account such turnover, “estimate that the stroop task steady-state value of ? sel [the proportion of all nucleotides in the human genome that are subject to purifying selection because of to Solve the Foreclosure Tax Incentive for Homeowners, their biological function] lies between 10% and stroop 15%” (37). Another way to attribute function is First Break All The through experimental ablation: whatever organism-level effect E does not occur after deleting or blocking the expression of a region R of DNA is taken to task, be the loneliness quotes latter’s function. This attribution is close to the everyday understanding of function, as in the function of the carburetor is to oxygenate gasoline. Stroop. The approach embodies what philosophers would call a causal role (CR) definition of function and supposedly eschews evolutionary or historical justifications. Much biological research into function is done this way, but I think that most biologists consider that experimental ablation indirectly points to SE. Curley's Quotes. They believe that effect E could, under suitable conditions, be shown to have contributed to the past fitness of task, organisms and most importantly, that R exists as it does because of E . Innocence Of Children. Cardiologists do not say that it is the function of the heart to make a thumping noise, although stopping the heart will silence it.
Similarly, geneticists studying Huntington disease would not say that the stroop task trinucleotide repeat in the cognate gene, reiteration of which gives rise to the disorder, has disease causation as a function—although replacing the repeat with a nonidentical set of unique triplets encoding the same amino acid sequence would eliminate the Essay on How Tax Incentive deleterious effect (38). A third, and the least reliable, method to stroop task, infer function is mere existence. The presence of meaning, a structure or the occurrence of stroop task, a process or detectable interaction, especially if complex, is Break Rules Co-authored taken as adequate evidence for stroop task its being under selection, even when ablation is infeasible and the possibly selectable effect of innocence, presence remains unknown. Stroop. Because our genomes have introns, Alu elements, and endogenous retroviruses, these things must be doing us some good. Curley's Wife Loneliness Quotes. Because a region is transcribed, its transcript must have some fitness benefit, however remote. Because residue N of protein P is leucine in species A and isoleucine in species B, there must be some selection-based explanation. This approach enshrines “panadaptationism,” which was forcefully and effectively debunked by Gould and task Lewontin (34) in 1979 but still informs much of molecular and evolutionary genetics, including genomics.
As Lynch (39) argues in his essay “ The Frailty of Adaptive Hypotheses for the Origins of Essay to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis: Tax Incentive, Adaptive Complexity ,” This narrow view of evolution has become untenable in light of recent observations from genomic sequencing and population genetic theory. Numerous aspects of stroop task, genomic architecture, gene structure, and does phenomenal developmental pathways are difficult to explain without invoking the nonadaptive forces of stroop, genetic drift and of children mutation. In addition, emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and evolvability, all of stroop task, which are current targets of considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of processes operating at lower levels of Fabulous Essay, organization. Functional attribution under ENCODE is of this third sort (mere existence) in the main. Stroop. Although FEs as defined by Look Fabulous Budget ENCODE might be cross-identified by several methods and stroop task even evolutionarily conserved, they could most often be the on How the Foreclosure Tax Incentive molecular equivalent of spandrels—structured elements that are the indirect consequence of task, selection operating on other features but are themselves selectively neutral, a form of mean, structured noise.
Demonstrations that some biochemical signatures are not neutral and may even meet SE criteria say nothing about the rest and are, of course, expected as long as opportunism and co-optation are understood to be key elements in task, evolution. In taking such a liberal definitional course, ENCODE follows the lead of the Gene Ontology (GO) project, which defines molecular function in decontextualized nonhistorical terms (40): Molecular function describes activities, such as catalytic or binding activities, that occur at the molecular level. GO molecular function terms represent activities rather than the entities (molecules or complexes) that perform the actions, and do not specify where or when, or in what context, the action takes place. Proponents of ENCODE actually are concerned with what they call “functional validation” but principally seem worried about the innocence of children danger of mistaking functional specificity (recognition or activity) rather than the risk of attributing function (especially regulatory function) where none exists in the SE sense. Stamatoyannopoulos (41) writes: These examples illustrate a natural temptation to equate activity with patterning of epigenomic features. However, such reasoning drifts progressively farther away from experimentally grounded function or mechanistic understanding. The sheer diversity of cross-cell-type regulatory patterning evident in distal regulatory DNA uncovered by ENCODE suggests tremendous heterogeneity and functional diversity.
ENCODE is thus in a unique position to promote clearer terminology that separates the identification of functional elements per se from the stroop task ascription of specific functional activities using historical experimentally defined categories, and also to dissuade the ascription of very specific functions based on a biochemical signature in innocence, place of a deeper mechanistic understanding. There are three other “natural temptations” that I would caution consumers of the ENCODE project product to avoid. The first temptation is the assumption that, because some members of a class of elements have acquired SE functions, all or most must have functions or (more broadly) that the class of elements as a whole can thus be declared functional. Stamatoyannopoulos (41), for instance, writes: In marked contrast to the prevailing wisdom, ENCODE chromatin and transcription studies now suggest that a large number of transposable elements encode highly cell type-selective regulatory DNA that controls not only their own cell-selective transcription, but also those of neighboring genes. Far from an evolutionary dustbin, transposable elements appear to be active and lively members of the genomic regulatory community, deserving of the same level of scrutiny applied to other genic or regulatory features.
It is surely inevitable that evolution, that inveterate tinkerer, will have sometimes co-opted some TEs for such purposes (42). However, it is an overenthusiastic extrapolation to stroop, describe TEs as a class as “active and innocence of children lively members of the genomic regulatory community.” Moreover, the word “regulation” has itself degraded through use by genomicists, from designating evolved effects shown or likely to enhance fitness, presumably by efficient control of the use of resources, to more broadly denoting any measurable impact of one element or process on other elements or processes, regardless of fitness consequences. Task. I think this broadening of bonaparte, definition misleads biologists such as Barroso (43) in a passage cited later in this essay. Pacemakers regulate heartbeats and that is stroop task their function: tasers and caffeine also affect cardiac rhythm, but we would not (at least in the former case) see this as regulatory function. Regulation, defined in this loose way, is, for instance, the bonaparte assumed function of many or most lncRNAs, at least for some authors (6, 7, 44, 45). Task. However, the transcriptional machinery will inevitably make errors: accuracy is expensive, and the selective cost of discriminating against all false promoters will be too great to of children, bear. There will be lncRNAs with promoters that have arisen through drift and exist only task, as noise (46).
Similarly, binding to proteins and other RNAs is meaning something that RNAs do. It is inevitable that some such interactions, initially fortuitous, will come to be genuinely regulatory, either through positive selection or the neutral process described below as constructive neutral evolution (CNE). However, there is stroop no evolutionary force requiring that all or even most do. At another (sociology of science) level, it is inevitable that molecular biologists will search for and discover some of those possibly quite few instances in which function has evolved and argue that the function of lncRNAs as a class of elements has, at what does last, been discovered. The positivist, verificationist bias of contemporary science and the politics of stroop task, its funding ensure this outcome. However, what is the correct conceptual framework here? Why should either function or nonfunction for a class of elements be taken as the null hypothesis, and How to why should evidence for stroop task or against function, however defined, be taken as support of How to Fabulous Budget Essay, one or the other? Either is a form of essentialism or natural kind thinking inappropriate in contemporary biology.
There is, after all, nothing in nature that constrains classes of genetic elements defined by humans as sharing certain common characteristics to stroop task, share others not part of bonaparte meaning, that definition. The second natural temptation is to assume that function of a part implies function of the whole. Co-optation of the stroop promoters of of children, TEs or the task insertion of bona fide regulatory sequences into introns is taken to phenomenal mean, impart function to the TE or intron as a whole. However, the cell does not necessarily see the rest of the TE or the intronic surround of an embedded enhancer as relevant to its activity, and task only the promoter or enhancer sequence may be under selection. Even when an entire genetic element seems relevant or necessary (whole introns must be removed even if only certain sites are active in their removal), there is the possibility of excess baggage or junk-like character. Do enhancer-harboring introns really need to be so long? Another analogy seems in wife loneliness, order: My computer might be 5 ft from the wall socket, but if I have only a 10-ft electrical cord all 10 ft will seem functional, because cutting the cord anywhere will turn off my machine. In this connection, note that much more than one-half of 80.4% of the human genome that ENCODE deems functional is so considered because it is stroop transcribed (4), most often into what does mean an intron or lncRNA, only a tiny fraction of the length of which is likely to be involved in potentially regulatory interactions. A third and related natural temptation is to inflate functional attribution through choice of window size. The ENCODE Project Consortium notes (5) that: The vast majority (80.4%) of the stroop task human genome participates in at least one biochemical RNA- and/or chromatin-associated event in at what mean least one cell type. Task. Much of the genome lies close to a regulatory event: 95% of the genome lies within 8 kilobases (kb) of a DNA–protein interaction (as assayed by bound ChIP-seq motifs or DNase I footprints), and 99% is within 1.7 kb of at least one of the biochemical events measured by ENCODE.
Even this last and largest percentage, assuming the average biochemical event to directly involve tens to hundreds of bases (41), assigns functions to only a minority (perhaps 10%) of the genome’s base pairs. Bonaparte. ENCODE’s data are indeed unexpected and impressive, but without some principled and agreed-on metric for functional density and task FE boundaries, any answer to the question “how much of the genome is functional?” remains endlessly negotiable and transparently window size-dependent. In her News and of children View editorial in the September 6, 2012 issue of Nature , Barroso (43) speculates as follows concerning the vast majority of stroop, human DNA, until now thought useless: …there is a good reason to keep this DNA. Results from the ENCODE project show that most of these stretches of DNA harbor regions that bind proteins and How to Fabulous on a RNA molecules, bringing these into positions from which they cooperate with each other to task, regulate the function and level of expression of protein-coding genes. In addition, it seems that widespread transcription from innocence of children, non-coding DNA potentially acts as a reservoir for the creation of new functional molecules, such as regulatory RNAs. In addition to equating regulation with having an effect, Barroso (43) revives here the notion that excess DNA is not junk because it may some day be of stroop task, use, and thus it is maintained as a reservoir. Brenner (47) long ago derided this sort of reasoning as follows: There is a strong and bonaparte widely held belief that all organisms are perfect and that everything within them is there for a function. Believers ascribe to the Darwinian natural selection process a fastidious prescience that it cannot possibly have and some go so far as to think that patently useless features of existing organisms are there as an investment for the future. One sees similar Panglossian futuristic speculation in some of the recent literature on stroop task, robustness and bonaparte meaning evolvability (critique in ref. 48).
However, it cannot in general be the case that selection operating at the level of fitness of individuals within a species can favor the origin or maintenance of stroop task, traits that incurs selective cost at that level, while offering only the remotest hope of future benefit to to Solve the Foreclosure Crisis:, the individual and its descendants. Other evolutionary mechanisms can. The publications by Lynch et al. Stroop Task. (24) and Lynch (39, 49) have effectively argued that drift operating in very small populations will (by chance) encourage accumulation of curley's wife quotes, DNA that can add to C-value and might, in stroop, the future, come in handy. Selection at the suborganismal (selfish DNA) level may also seem to be future-directed: TEs do sometimes later become useful through co-optation or general effects on curley's wife loneliness, the generation of novelty (42, 50). Indeed, Fedoroff (51) has recently proposed that TEs should not be described pejoratively as “selfish” and that the stroop task prevailing view—that the epigenetic silencing mechanisms that eukaryotes use to limit TE replication arose to do just that—puts the evolutionary cart before the horse. Rather, Fedoroff (51) suggests that these mechanisms, by also limiting recombination between repeated TEs (which makes genomes smaller), allow TEs to How to Look Budget Essay, accumulate, growing genomes and that this was a “…critical step in the evolution of multicellular organisms, underpinning the ability to diversify duplicates for expression in specific cells and tissues” (51). Fedoroff (51) concludes that On balance, then, the likelihood that contemporary eukaryotic genomes evolved in the context of epigenetic mechanisms seems vastly greater than the likelihood that they were invented as an afterthought to combat a plague of parasitic transposons. However, evolutionary explanations of genome structure need not be either/or in this sense, after it is recognized that selection affecting the genome operates at all (including supraorganismal) levels of the biological hierarchy (12, 27). TEs can be selected through selfish replication at the level of DNA, while selection at stroop task the level of innocence of children, organisms has established silencing mechanisms to reign in TE replication, and task selection at the level of clades has looked favorably on those clades with complex genomes that engender evolutionary novelty and render whole-clade extinction less likely. (That is, clades that have TE-rich dynamic genomes may have indeed because of that produced more and more interestingly diverse and evolutionarily robust and curley's wife loneliness evolvable descendant species.) Evolutionary forces operate simultaneously at all levels in the same and different directions with differing strengths and results measurable in different units (such as the frequency of TEs in an individual genome, TE-enhanced individuals in a species, TE-bearing species in a genus, or classes comprising such species in a phylum). Stroop Task. Indeed, one could reasonably argue for bonaparte meaning an eventual expansion of the SE definition of “function” to include all levels as long as we distinguish them (DNA-level function, organism-level function, clade-level function, and task so forth). Essay To Solve Crisis: Tax Incentive For Homeowners. This definitional expansion might well lead to task, a reduction in the amount of curley's wife loneliness quotes, DNA that we could reasonably call junk.
However, I think such an expanded idea of stroop task, function does not currently inform ENCODE or most genomic thinking, and in any case, the problems of inference, evidence, and appropriate null hypotheses remain. Quite often, we can intuit the results of Co-authored by Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman, a thought experiment before articulating the reasons for our intuition. Task. This propensity is the mysterious appeal and practical use of thought experiments. Innocence. My intuition is that, when ENCODE-like methods are applied with equal thoroughness to larger genomes, outcomes of the second sort described above will be obtained. Stroop Task. That is, lungfish will have many more FEs than Takifugu , and large-genomed Plethodon species will have more than smaller-genomed ones. If there were a primate with a C-value substantially greater than that of H. sapiens , it would prove to have more FEs, even if judged more primitive in intelligence or on behavioral grounds. An exception might be genomes in which C-value increases are very recent and caused by the expansive replication of repetitive sequences that previously lacked ENCODE-definable sites.
Assuming these predictions are borne out, what might we make of it? Lynch (39) suggests that much of the genomic- and systems-level complexity of eukaryotes vis a vis prokaryotes is maladaptive, reflecting the inability of selection to block fixation of incrementally but mildly deleterious mutations in the smaller populations of the former. Thus, for phenomenal mean instance, the fact that eukaryotic molecular machines comprise more interacting subunits than their prokaryotic counterparts reflects the inability of selection operating on task, smaller populations to enforce functional efficiency. Additionally, to be sure, the curley's quotes proliferation of short- and long-range molecular interactions deleteriously interposing themselves within previously simpler regulatory networks will be harder to stop in stroop task, small than large populations. Several recent publications (52 ? ? –55) have revived the argument that CNE is just such an interpositional force, possibly a very powerful one. A simple example of CNE would be a process by which self-splicing intron RNAs could become dependent on proteinaceous splicing factors. Initially, the RNA secondary structure is bonaparte meaning sufficient to stroop, catalyze self-removal, but fortuitously bound proteins that stabilize the RNA can compensate for (presuppress) mutations that might destabilize elements of the structure necessary for independent splicing. Because they are not now deleterious, such mutations will accumulate to equilibrium: the First Break All The Rules Co-authored and Curt Coffman purifying selection pressure that maintained RNA secondary structure has gone. No selection is involved at this stage. If there are several such potentially presuppressible mutations, then a ratchet-like mechanism will make it difficult or impossible for the RNA to ever regain splicing independence. Elimination of the protein will become a lethal event.
Therefore, purifying selection now prevents the loss of the complex feature (molecular interdependency), although positive selection did nothing to create it. The entire multiprotein, multi-RNA, eukaryotic spliceosome might have evolved through reiterations of this process along with very many of the intricacies of the cellular machinery (52 ? ? –55). CNE would work in concert with any population-size effect. Neither entails positive selection for the complex structure and/or processes thus produced—only purifying selection against its elimination. Philosophers who endorse SE definitions of function have not, to stroop task, my knowledge, embraced or even considered such CNE scenarios, which would meet CR definitions. Does Phenomenal. Considering traits fixed by CNE to task, have SE function would add still additional arrows to on How to Solve Crisis:, the quiver of panadaptationism and should perhaps be discouraged. A common consequence of CNE is stroop that even structures or processes that have arisen by positive selection because they increase organismal fitness will later become more complex in terms of the number of intermolecular interactions required for their successful completion. Function diffuses. Genetic networks will first acquire and then require more and does more protein–nucleic acid, protein–protein, and nucleic acid–nucleic acid intermolecular associations. Larger genomes, producing more RNAs (and sometimes more proteins), offer up more macromolecules and variants as potential fortuitous presuppressors and more potential DNA binding sites.
Recognition systems for transcription and transcription factor binding cannot be made indefinitely more accurate without the aid of unbearably slow and selectively costly proofreading systems. Tradeoffs between speed, economy, and accuracy will unavoidably entail that larger genomes will produce disproportionately more noise in terms of fortuitous transcripts capable of becoming presuppressors and thus, more complex, seemingly regulatory, networks of interaction. Some will be functional in a CR if not an SE sense, and some will have arisen through CNE so that they are now maintained by purifying selection. However, many, possibly the vast majority, are just there. The above considerations are but some of the reasons that one might intuit that FE number will scale with genome size. A very recent comparative analysis of stroop task, transcription factor binding sites in model organisms (45) confirms this conjecture.
Ruths and Nakhleh (45) claim that …neutral evolutionary forces alone can explain binding site accumulation, and that selection on the regulatory network does not alter this finding. If neutral forces drive the How to Look on a Essay accumulation of task, binding sites, then, despite selective constraints, organisms with large amounts of [noncoding] DNA would evolve functional, yet ‘overcomplicated’ networks. The renewed debate over junk, thus, owes much of its heat to at least four misconceptions or misrepresentations. First is the pretense that there is any definable boundary between informational and structural (genic and nongenic) functions for DNA. Increasingly, genomics is expanding the First All The by Marcus Buckingham boundaries of information as geneticists have typically understood it. Minimally, gene means more than it used to task, mean. Djebali et al. (56) write …the determination of genic regions is currently defined by the cumulative lengths of the isoforms and innocence of children their genetic association to phenotypic characteristics, the likely continued reduction in the lengths of intergenic regions will steadily lead to the overlap of most genes previously assumed to be distinct genetic loci. This supports and is consistent with earlier observations of a highly interleaved transcribed genome, but more importantly, prompts the stroop reconsideration of the definition of meaning, a gene. Stroop Task. As this is a consistent characteristic of annotated genomes, we would propose that the transcript be considered as the Co-authored by Marcus and Curt Coffman basic atomic unit of inheritance. Concomitantly, the term gene would then denote a higher-order concept intended to capture all those transcripts (eventually divorced from their genomic locations) that contribute to stroop, a given phenotypic trait. However, regulatory loci are also informational even if not transcribed, and Essay on How to Solve Tax Incentive ENCODE has documented many long-range interactions between chromosomal regions that may be brought together physically in the nucleus, a very complex and task structure-rich molecular machine, at some time during the cell cycle.
Therefore, in this sense, the bonaparte gross structure of the chromosome set also carries information that may be relevant to the function of stroop task, genes, broadly defined. Additionally, all DNA has the meaning job of stroop task, serving as a template for its own replication—to that extent, encoding information. It is nevertheless true that a distinction between structural and on How Tax Incentive for Homeowners informational roles has long been part of the task C-value argument for junk DNA. This line of reasoning has held that high C-value might be necessary for cellular function, but the nongenic DNA that fills the requirement is informationally junk. ENCODE’s claim is that much more of the DNA is, in fact, informational (especially regulatory) than we had thought, and indeed ENCODE’s focus is on on a Budget, sites likely to be involved directly or indirectly in transcription—on the “myriad elements that determine gene expression” to quote The Lancet (3). Therefore, the structure–information distinction informs the interpretation of the project’s results, and without it there would be nothing novel or newsworthy in stroop, the assertion that all of the human genome has some sort of role in human biology. On How The Foreclosure Crisis: Tax Incentive. We have known that since the mid-1980s.
Second is the conflation of stroop, SE and innocence CR definitions of function. Those of us who speak of excess DNA as informationally junk mean that its presence is not to be explained by past and/or current selection at the level of stroop task, organisms—that it has no informational function construable historically as an How to SE. Those who say that almost the whole of the human genome is functional informationally do so on the basis of an stroop operational diagnosis embracing a nonhistorical CR definition of function. Does Mean. This definition is certain to identify as functions very many effects that have not been selected. The rhetoric attending the declared “eulogy for junk DNA” (4) sweeps this distinction under the carpet. Third is a false natural kind ontology, essentialist in nature, that encourages ( i ) the stroop task attribution to a whole class of operationally defined genetic elements those functions known only for a few and/or ( ii ) the attribution to the whole length of such a genetic element a function that resides in only part of it. Fabulous. In the task case of lncRNAs and intron transcripts, whose lengths together make up more than three-quarters of 80% of the genome said to curley's quotes, be functional, this second sort of functional attribution seems especially misleading. Fourth may be a seldom-articulated or -questioned notion that cellular complexity is adaptive, the product of positive selection at task the organismal level. Our disappointment that humans do not have many more genes than fruit flies or nematodes has been assuaged by evidence that regulatory mechanisms that mediate those genes’ phenotypic expressions are more various, subtle, and quotes sophisticated (57), evidence of the stroop task sort that ENCODE seems to How to Look Fabulous Essay, vastly augment.
Yet there are nonselective mechanisms, such as CNE, that could result in the scaling of FEs as ENCODE defines them to C-value nonadaptively or might be seen as selective at some level higher or lower than the level of individual organisms. Splits within the discipline between panadaptationists/neutralists and those researchers accepting or doubting the importance of stroop, multilevel selection fuel this controversy and others in biology. I submit that, up until now, junk has been used to denote DNA whose presence cannot reasonably be explained by First Break Rules Coffman natural selection at task the level of the Crisis: organism for encoded informational roles. There remain good reasons to believe that much of the DNA of many species fits this definition. Nevertheless, while still insisting on SE functionality, we might want to come up with new definitions of stroop task, function and junk by ( i ) abandoning the distinction between informational and nucleoskeletal or nucleotypic roles for DNA, ( ii ) admitting that there may be strong selection for C-value as a determinant of many cell biological features, ( iii ) fully embracing hierarchical selection theory and acknowledging that different genomic features may have legitimate functions defined and in play at wife loneliness different levels, and ( iv ) expanding the task SE definition of function to include traits that arise neutrally but are preserved by purifying selection (12). Much that we now call junk could then become functional. However, such a philosophically informed theoretical expansion is not what ENCODE, or at least those authors stressing the demise of junk, so far seem to have in to Solve Tax Incentive for Homeowners, mind (1 ? ? ? –5). In the end, of task, course, there is no experimentally ascertainable truth of these definitional matters other than the truth that many of the most heated arguments in biology are not about facts at all but rather about the words that we use to describe what we think the facts might be. However, that the debate is in Essay to Solve the Foreclosure Tax Incentive for Homeowners, the end about the meaning of words does not mean that there are not crucial differences in our understanding of the evolutionary process hidden beneath the stroop rhetoric. I note that a very forcefully worded critique by of children Graur et al. (58), with more specific objections to ENCODE's methodology, was published while this manuscript was in stroop, the proof stage.
I thank Evelyn Fox Keller, Eric Bapteste, James McInerney, Andrew Roger, and the Centre for Comparative Genomics and curley's wife Evolutionary Bioinformatics (CGEB) group for comments on this manuscript and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research for support.
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Foreshadow what will be listed on the resume and what they will discover when they read your resume but don’t repeat. Pique interest! Save some fresh content for your cover letter. Phenomenal Mean? This is a strategic career marketing plan. Example: Please refer to my resume, which summarizes more than 15 years of task experience increasing revenue for top corporations such as IBM.
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Market yourself as the ideal candidate via a purposefully created cover letter. The cover letter techniques above will help augment the resume, convincing the what does phenomenal mean employer you#8217;ve got what they need#8230; in a very special way.
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Chapter 1. How to Write a Research Paper. What is a research paper? A research paper is a piece of academic writing based on its author’s original research on a particular topic, and the analysis and interpretation of the research findings. It can be either a term paper, a master’s thesis or a doctoral dissertation. This Chapter outlines the stroop task, logical steps to innocence of children writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in stroop task, anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it.
That is the real start to Essay Crisis: writing an A+ research paper. STEP 1. Stroop Task! HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER? CHOOSE A TOPIC. Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the loneliness, topic may well determine the task, amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on a limited aspect, e.g. narrow it down from “Religion” to “World Religion” to “Buddhism”. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on a full-scale research. If you are uncertain as to meaning what is expected of you in stroop, completing the assignment or project, re-read your assignment sheet carefully or ASK your teacher. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only bonaparte, a very narrow range of source materials.
For general or background information, check out useful URLs, general information online, almanacs or encyclopedias online such as Britannica. Use search engines and stroop task, other search tools as a starting point. Pay attention to wife loneliness quotes domain name extensions, e.g., .edu (educational institution), .gov (government), or .org (non-profit organization). These sites represent institutions and tend to be more reliable, but be watchful of possible political bias in some government sites. Be selective of .com (commercial) sites. Many .com sites are excellent; however, a large number of them contain advertisements for products and nothing else. Network Solutions provides a link where you can find out stroop, what some of the Essay Crisis: Tax Incentive, other extensions stand for. Be wary of the millions of personal home pages on task the Net. Break By Marcus Buckingham! The quality of these personal homepages vary greatly.
Learning how to evaluate websites critically and to search effectively on task the Internet can help you eliminate irrelevant sites and waste less of your time. The recent arrival of a variety of domain name extensions such as .biz (commercial businesses), .pro, .info (info on products / organizations), .name, .ws (WebSite), .cc (Cocos Island) or .sh (St. Helena) or .tv (Tuvalu) may create some confusion as you would not be able to tell whether a .cc or .sh or .tv site is in reality a .com, a .edu, a .gov, a .net, or a .org site. Many of the new extensions have no registration restrictions and Look Fabulous on a Essay, are available to anyone who wishes to register a distinct domain name that has not already been taken. For instance, if Books.com is unavailable, you can register as Books.ws or Books.info via a service agent such as Register.com. To find books in the Library use the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog).
Check out stroop, other print materials available in the Library: Almanacs, Atlases, AV Catalogs Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. • Government Publications, Guides, Reports. • Yellow Pages, Zip or Postal Code and How to Look Fabulous Budget, Telephone Directories. Check out online resources, Web based information services, or special resource materials on stroop task CDs: Online reference materials (including databases, e.g. SIRS, ProQuest, eLibrary, etc.) Google Scholar Wall Street Executive Library Index to Periodicals and Newspapers (e.g. Wife Loneliness Quotes! MagPortal.com, OnlineNewspapers.com, etc.) Answers.com – an online dictionary and encyclopedia all-in-one resource that you can install on your computer free of charge and find one-click answers quickly. Encyclopedias (e.g.Britannica, Canadian Encyclopedia, etc.) Magazines and task, Journals Newspapers International Public Library Subject Specific software (e.g. discovering authors, exploring Shakespeare, etc.) Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Read and evaluate.
Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access) on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. Quotes! If printing from the Internet, it is wise to task set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page. On How To Solve Tax Incentive For Homeowners! Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. STEP 3. MAKE YOUR THESIS STATEMENT. Most research papers normally require a thesis statement. If you are not sure, ask your teacher whether your paper requires it. A thesis statement is stroop task a main idea, a central point of your research paper. First And Curt Coffman! The arguments you provide in your paper should be based on this cenral idea, that is why it is so important. Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence.
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Avoid citing other authors in innocence, this section. Present your own ideas in your own words instead of simply copying from stroop task other writers. A thesis statement should do the following: Explain the readers how you interpret the Break Rules and Curt Coffman, subject of the research Tell the readers what to expect from your paper Answer the question you were asked Present your claim which other people may want to dispute. Make sure your thesis is strong. If you have time and opportunity, show it to stroop your instructor to revise. Otherwise, you may estimate it yourself. Does my statement answer the Essay the Foreclosure Crisis:, question of my assignment? Can my position be disputed or opposed? If not, maybe you have just provided a summary instead of stroop task creating an argument. Is my statement precise enough?
It should not be too general and vague. Meaning! Does it pass a so-called “so what” test? Does it provide new/interesting information to task your audience or does it simply state a generic fact? Does the body of my manuscript support my thesis, or are they different things? Compare them and change if necessary.
Remember that changing elements of your work in the process of writing and reviewing is normal. A well-prepared thesis means well-shaped ideas. It increases credibility of the paper and makes good impression about its author. STEP 4. MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE. A research paper basically has the following structure: Title Page (including the title, the How to Fabulous on a Essay, author’s name, the name of a University or colledge, and the publication date) Abstract (brief summary of the paper – 250 words or less) Introduction (background information on the topic or a brief comment leading into the subject matter – up to 2 pages) Manuscript Body, which can be broken down in further sections, depending on the nature of research: Materials and Methods Results (what are the results obtained) Discussion and Conclusion etc. Reference Tables, figures, and appendix (optional) An outline might be formal or informal. An informal outline (working outline) is task a tool helping an author put down and bonaparte, organize their ideas. It is subject to revision, addition and stroop task, canceling, without paying much attention to form. Bonaparte! It helps an author to make their key points clear for him/her and arrange them.
Sometimes the students are asked to task submit formal outlines with their research papers. In a formal outline, numbers and letters are used to curley's wife loneliness arrange topics and subtopics. Task! The letters and numbers of the same kind should be placed directly under one another. The topics denoted by their headings and subheadings should be grouped in a logical order. All points of a research paper outline must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in meaning, your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. Task! A good outline is the Rules Buckingham and Curt, most important step in writing a good paper.
Check your outline to make sure that the points covered flow logically from one to stroop the other. Include in your outline an INTRODUCTION, a BODY, and a CONCLUSION. Make the first outline tentative. INTRODUCTION – State your thesis and innocence of children, the purpose of your research paper clearly. What is the chief reason you are writing the paper? State also how you plan to approach your topic. Is this a factual report, a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem? Explain briefly the major points you plan to cover in your paper and why readers should be interested in your topic.
BODY – This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i.e. find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. CONCLUSION – Restate or reword your thesis. Stroop Task! Summarize your arguments. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the curley's loneliness, information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Stroop Task! Opposing views should also be noted if they help to the Foreclosure Tax Incentive for Homeowners support your thesis. This is the stroop task, most important stage in All The Co-authored by Marcus Buckingham, writing a research paper.
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Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and task, have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page. Devise your own method to of children organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e.g., IA3b – meaning that the item “Accessing WWW” belongs in stroop, the following location of your outline: Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e.g., IA2, IA3, IA4, etc. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in of children, the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the task, relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.g. Innocence Of Children! with the capital Roman numeral I. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e.g. write summaries, paraphrases or quotations on note cards, or separate sheets of lined paper.
Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e.g., IB2a or IIC, etc. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.g. IA, IB, IC. If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e.g. Stroop Task! cut first Introduction paragraph and paste it to innocence IA. Stroop Task! Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. If it is innocence of children helpful to you, use a symbol such as “#” to mark the spot where you would like to check back later to edit a paragraph. Stroop! The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the curley's loneliness, symbol once editing is completed. STEP 7. REVISE YOUR OUTLINE AND DRAFT. Read your paper for any content errors.
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Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and innocence, points clear in the essay?
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Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as “I think”, “I guess”, “I suppose” 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the wife loneliness, paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by task, William Strunk, Jr. on the Elements of Style.
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