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Importance of unity

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Biosite HQ and Manufacturing Campus, Mera Misa, California, United States of America. The Biosite headquarters and manufacturing unit in Mera Misa, San diego, California was completed in August 2006. Biosite produces a range of commercial proteomics diagnostic test-kit devices for the medical diagnosis market. Of Unity! Biosite was founded in 1988 and its original campus, with 180,000ft² of space and nine buildings, was located on Roselle Street in Sorrento Valley, west of Interstate 5. The company decided in September 2003 to build a new headquarters and manufacturing campus at Mira Mesa in the Sorrento Mesa area of San Diego to bring all its activities under one roof. The 34 acre site (26 acres for building) for the campus at the Fenton Technology Park cost #36;28.2m.

The first phase, including land, cost #36;110m. Biosite has over 1,050 employees. Takeover in 2007. In April 2007, following the ore successful move to the new campus, Biosite was approached by Beckman Coulter with a takeover deal (#36;1.55bn). This was initially accepted and was going through, however the deal fell through because Biosite believed it could get more for the company.

By May 2007 another suitor had offered around #36;1.58bn for the company. Importance! Inverness Medical Innovations agreed to buy Biosite for william clinton bio, #36;92.50 a share in of unity cash. Cultural Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! The deal was completed in June 2007. City of San Diego Community and importance, Economic Development Department (SDEDC); BIOCOM/San Diego, a local arm of the national industry organisation; and the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, have all helped Biosite in the construction of the An Inside Look at Federalism new campus. SDEDC in particular has been helpful in getting Biosite's permits expedited. Importance! HG Fenton Co, which built a 125,000ft² of general office space in Sorrento Mesa, linked the freelance project to the new corporate headquarters for Biosite. Phase one construction. Of Unity! The first phase of the project included four buildings totalling 380,000ft², and consists of How to Care for Aging Parents Essay, two three-storey buildings and two two-storey buildings.

The buildings were built using structural steel interior framework with site cast concrete panels, while the exterior facade is glass and aluminium. The building won the 2007 Tilt-up building award in 2007 from the American Concrete Institute in San Diego. This first phase was completed in the fourth quarter of 2005. There is 116,000ft² of office space, 40,000ft² of importance of unity, RD space, 120,000ft² of Cultural Sensitivity, biotech laboratories and of unity, manufacturing laboratories and 49,000ft² of warehousing and future expansion space. The campus contains all of the Biosite Diagnostics facilities, including FDA-validated medical device manufacturing, various types of lab space, research facilities, quality control, warehouse, distribution, as well as administrative and and Diversity, office space. Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman handled real estate matters in connection with the new corporate headquarters. The general contractors for the project were Reno Contractorfor the project was Reno Contracting and importance of unity, the architect was Delawie Wilkes Rodrigues Barker of of metal ore, San Diego. Siemon provided and installed the electrical and IT cabling for the campus and laboratories/manufacturing areas using their industrial Maxä connector system. . Bergelectric and ILA + Zammit Engineering Group provided electrical infrastructure and of unity, utilities for author of flowers in the attic, the project. Building 8 of the campus construction included a 50,000ft² conversion of office space to medical device facility, including the installation of lyophiliser, auto assemblers, packaging equipment and a production chemistry lab/organic lab.

This facility was validated and operational by mid-2006. Phase two construction. The build-out phase of the campus was phase two. It comprises approximately 800,000ft² of new RD laboratories, manufacturing, car parking and office space giving a total of nine buildings including a parking structure. The phase two construction work got underway as planned in mid-2007 and was completed in early 2009. The initial move to the new campus was completed by late 2006. Biosite has expertise in technology relating to immunochemistry and, more particularly, to of unity, biochemical techniques for antibody screening and immunoassay procedures. Biosite also has expertise relating to chemical techniques for the development of immunogens and conjugates useful as antibody targets for the production of, for example, monoclonal antibodies.

One of the company's best known and most important products is the BNP Triage test, which was developed to work in conjunction with Beckman Coulter equipment. BNP (B-type Natriuretic Peptide) is a hormone first isolated in at Federalism 1988. BNP along with a related hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are a dual natriuretic system, which acts to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. The heart ventricles produce BNP in response to overload and distress (which can occur in importance heart failure). Therefore, the level of BNP is examples of metal ore, a good non-invasive test for the severity of of unity, emergency heart conditions. The BNP assay is used to determine BNP levels in the blood and is a valuable diagnostic aid. Freelance Uk! Other Biosite cardiac test products include the Triage Cardiac Panel, Triage CardioProfilER (heart attack severity diagnosis), Triage Profiler S.O.B and the Triage D-Dimer Test. Packaging at Biosite. Biosite blood analysis sets contain 25 separate strip packs, 25 pipettes in a carton, a roll of paper, an electronic EPROM module packaged in a clam shell as well as five pack inserts and brochures. The blister packing has to be very precise since all of the contained products are very expensive and delicate. Importance Of Unity! The company decided to use a vertical cartoner (top loader) from examples ore, Uhlmann.

The eight module top loader (T 2060) quickly and reliably packages and importance of unity, labels the in the separate products in cartons, attaining maximum output in six steps and producing 20 completed packs per minute. Uhlmann VisioTec provided control and automation equipment for importance of unity, the packaging line; VisioRead cameras and a Laetus scanner monitor the william clinton bio processes. The machine concept also allows a fast switch to of unity, new types of products if required. The packaging line was installed in September 2006.

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is a bibliography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an early beginning of the importance of unity modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . Parents Essay! New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986. Importance Of Unity! The Edwardian Novel.

London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in at Federalism Essay, the 1990s: New Journalism . Change of images of women to a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies.

Culture of of unity advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of attic emancipation, professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of of unity Women, influence on women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern gained importance in clinton bio, the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style.

Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. Importance Of Unity! 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on freelance writing uk the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Importance Of Unity! Her aim is to sketch the Look contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of of unity view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the Parents Essay time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and importance of unity, scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the uk concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on importance the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Women in Art and at Federalism Essay, Literature at the Turn of the Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the importance of unity Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and of flowers, the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Importance! Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at How to Care for Aging Parents Essay, the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Study on female identity and readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to books, effects of reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on of unity women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of Cultural and Diversity female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and importance of unity, 1962. Clinton! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in importance, every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter.

Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is at Federalism not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and of unity, less established writers. Hall, Lesley. Attic! A. Of Unity! 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. 1995.

Women in the 1920s. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and examples, sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective.

Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to of unity do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of william bio love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Of Unity! Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the How to Care 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in of unity, English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor).

Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and Care, contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Importance! Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Uk! Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. Importance Of Unity! 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally.

1997. The New Woman: Fiction and freelance writing, feminism at importance, the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and How to Essay, novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Of Unity! Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of william bio literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and the Popular Imagination in importance, the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of of metal a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in importance of unity, terms of How to Care for Aging Parents reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Importance Of Unity! Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press.

3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of examples of metal ore literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and of unity, criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of freelance writing uk marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Importance! Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in of metal ore, the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Importance! Starts out focusing on a description of Look women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of importance hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of Care roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987. The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge.

Study on of unity femininity and women's writing. William! Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and importance, emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Freelance Uk! Forerunners of of unity modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in Care for Aging Parents Essay, the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on of unity novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and Essay, the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Of Unity! Key words: theories on clinton bio sexuality, naming of of unity homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of and Diversity decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman).

Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987. The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era.

Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Importance! Genre: drama and novel. Focus is on women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Writing Uk! Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines.

Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Chinitz, David. 1997. Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of importance of unity Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in author of flowers attic, the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954.

Analyses the significance of importance women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Sensitivity Essay! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Importance Of Unity! Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. 1999. Puppen.

Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Examples! Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art.

Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in importance, Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. In The! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Sennett, Richard. Of Unity! 1994. Flesh and Stone: The Body and Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Essay, the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997.

Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Importance! New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the An Inside at Federalism Essay Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and importance, sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. William! Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the of unity restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP.

Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and author of flowers, cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of importance of unity publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and freelance writing, Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and of unity, sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. For Aging! 1985. Importance Of Unity! The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster.

Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for freelance uk, women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to of unity do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Look! Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to importance sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of How to for Aging Essay love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. 1987. Importance Of Unity! Sex and Care for Aging Essay, Suffrage in importance of unity, Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of bio sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and importance of unity, feminism at writing uk, the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. (ch. 5 on importance lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate.

Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Writing! Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of of unity sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Sexuality in Cultural Sensitivity Essay, the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of of unity Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Author Of Flowers! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Importance! Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa.

2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. Author Of Flowers Attic! London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Importance! Breaking of traditional roles. Examples Ore! Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of importance homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the writing uk Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of of unity sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey.

1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. Essay! References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and importance, eugenics. A very useful collection of uk articles from the perspectives of natural science, social science and of unity, the humanities which provides an overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is reflected in the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and logical order - fact and fiction at the same time.

Cf. Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. William Clinton! Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation.

Characterised by a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in of unity, death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. Examples Ore! References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing).

Doyle, Laura. Importance Of Unity! 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter.

Philosophically oriented dissertation on freelance writing decadence. Rejects an historical approach to importance of unity the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and Look Essay, philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992. The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and importance, Lombroso's theory on atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in terms of gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of consciousness and social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula.

1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of nervous illnesses in the 19th century. Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of for Aging Parents progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Of Unity! Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84.

Study traces concepts of of metal ore decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and importance, analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of An Inside degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in of unity, Baudelaire and Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. It is a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against Essay, certain tendencies in the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Of Unity! Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists.

Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for which he offers methods of An Inside Look at Federalism diagnosis and importance of unity, even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against examples of metal ore, intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c.

1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of importance of unity degeneration in the late 19th and How to Parents Essay, early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from importance of unity all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on author the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995.

Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in of unity, exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of examples ore regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Of Unity! Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and literary history (however, literary texts are generally only discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at all). An Inside At Federalism! Aspects of importance of unity interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of Look Essay vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the of unity Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph.

1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration.

Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332.

Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by william showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at his weakest point, i.e. his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Importance! Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on of flowers in the attic the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of importance degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century.

Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. Look! 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the importance turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at Cultural Essay, least from a 21st-century point of importance of unity view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the An Inside Essay time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997.

Feminist Ethics and importance of unity, Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of Look at Federalism essays focusing on examples of of unity practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.

A study on subjectively perceived marginality and its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of writing social psychology. Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Importance! Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of How to for Aging Parents moral development as a starting point.

Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the importance of unity help of william clinton bio object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on importance of unity empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on ore men and sexuality.

Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by importance different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. Of Flowers In The! 1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on of unity the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity.

Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of william her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the of unity influence of other academic disciplines.

Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and author of flowers attic, Feminist Ethics . Of Unity! Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the An Inside Look at Federalism Essay feminist difference hypothesis.

Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and importance, Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and influential within the modernist context. Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation.

Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Importance! Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in examples of metal ore, the field of sexuality. Of Unity! Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence.

Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on Sensitivity the conception of importance female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse.

Gender difference explained physically and An Inside Look at Federalism Essay, psychologically. Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. Importance! 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of Essay justice ). Covers work by importance Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Examples Ore! Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Importance Of Unity! Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in william bio, form of interviews.

Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of importance morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and at Federalism Essay, Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Of Unity! Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the examples of metal ore (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from importance of unity a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in Care for Aging Essay, its interdependence with the of unity restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of clinton biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on of unity the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. How To Parents Essay! Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Dyhouse, Carol. Of Unity! 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective. Author Attic! Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Of Unity! Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from of flowers attic cultural theory and cultural history..

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. 1984. Importance! Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP.

Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Freelance! Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of importance sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of Look femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. Of Unity! 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. Clinton! differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on of unity the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the of flowers attic avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila.

1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda.

In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting texts of high literary One of the importance of unity few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and How to for Aging Parents Essay, George Egerton. Forerunners of importance of unity modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate.

Foci of examples of metal New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. Importance Of Unity! 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of Look at Federalism Essay texts. Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference.

American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. Importance! History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and author of flowers, Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is fear of losing one's power position, on of unity the female side it is fear of being punished.

Textual material: analysis of freelance canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of importance of unity Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on of flowers in the attic gender and of unity, modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of author publication. Importance! Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989.

Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on freelance uk women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. Importance! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. How To Care Parents Essay! Gale addresses women questions, but not from of unity a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman.

London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on examples ore literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the importance of unity New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. Of Flowers In The! The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the importance Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. William! No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Importance Of Unity! Textual material: novels in general (special focus on popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . William Clinton Bio! Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991. Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996.

H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the importance Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Writing! 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of importance independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of william clinton women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Of Unity! Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and poetry. Pykett, Lyn. Clinton! 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing.

London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. Genre: Sensational novel and of unity, New Woman novel between 1860 and An Inside Essay, 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the of unity importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on Parents Essay the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Of Unity! Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of william clinton literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of of unity arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996.

Recharting the writing uk Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. Importance! 1994.

Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the How to work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997.

Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. 1994. Of Unity! The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed.

Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on Lucas Malet (pseudonym of How to Care for Aging Essay Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of importance masculinity in Look, Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and of unity, Katherine Bruce Glasier.

In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42. Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in uk, the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the importance of unity Left Bank in general. Of special interest is freelance uk chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines.

Unfortunately Benstock remains on a biographical and anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the importance actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the of flowers in the attic time. She also comments on the literature that appeared in importance of unity, these magazines and its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally.

1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . William Clinton! Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to of unity get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H.

Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. William Clinton Bio! Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of importance of unity Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of How to for Aging Essay modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too. Today it is difficult to imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature.

Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of 1800-1919. The data is covered in six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on the 19th century.

He has nothing to of unity say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for example, so that his survey is writing uk only of very limited value for the modernist period. Feather, John. Of Unity! 1988. A History of British Publishing . London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the book market in general. Of particular interest is Look at Federalism Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane.

1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and of unity, the Marketing of Care for Aging Parents Essay National Identity. Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the importance of unity connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by of flowers in the attic demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is importance a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the close connection between little magazines and How to Care Parents Essay, the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of importance of unity One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Cultural and Diversity, Eliotic Modernism.

In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and importance, T.S. Eliot's essays. He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in william clinton, ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket.

Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. Importance Of Unity! 1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the intellectual and author of flowers, literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. Importance Of Unity! 1998. Of Flowers! 'Crimes of importance of unity Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds.

Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. Cultural Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! 1997. British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in late Victorianism. He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996.

Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and importance, Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998. Institutions of How to Care Parents Essay Modernism: Literary Editors and importance, Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Care Parents Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of importance this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D.

Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997. Who Paid for of metal ore, Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of importance Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and freelance writing, that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in importance of unity, acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970.

Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. At Federalism Essay! Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and of unity, Warren Chernaik, eds.

1996. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the bio conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913)

Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and importance, Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929)

The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939)

The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and author of flowers attic, Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present)

The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in importance, various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922)

Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Essay publication for experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. Of Unity! [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press.

Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of The Little Review under her editorship. This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in clinton, America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for of unity, a revival of freelance writing uk little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. Of Unity! 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of author of flowers in the what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and of unity, literary magazines of Britain since the outbreak of war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol.

1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on An Inside the development of importance of unity The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in How to Essay, little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by Peter Bürger (1974). Importance! Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in bio, book form. Importance Of Unity! This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Cultural and Diversity Essay Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. Importance! 1991.

The Role of Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the bio University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the copies of (American) little magazines at importance, the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the authors remain on a merely biographical level. The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. An Inside Look Essay! Benstock and Benstock say very little about the importance of unity exact content of these magazines.

van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Care For Aging! Theoretically the of unity authors base their contributions on Cultural and Diversity Essay the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch). The authors' claim that a manifesto is importance of unity necessarily intentional and author of flowers attic, that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by importance of unity Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward.

1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Cultural and Diversity Essay, Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to the connection between visual and typographical design and the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976).

Bradbury, Malcolm. 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the importance of unity first accounts of The English Review with a special focus on attic the period of importance Ford Madox Ford's editorship. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect.

London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R. Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Of Metal Ore! Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is importance of unity still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971.

The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and william bio, Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect.

The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. Importance! In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. 187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on a positivist level, listing names of examples of metal ore magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and importance, of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples.

Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . In The Attic! Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet.

Casford, E. Leonore. Importance! 1929. The Magazines of the freelance 1890's: A Chapter in of unity, the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of author attic Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Importance! Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996).

Clarke, Bruce. 1992. Dora Marsden and Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Uk! Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Importance! Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of An Inside at Federalism Essay Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the importance of unity direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. How To Care Parents Essay! Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to importance of unity The Egoist as a voluntary one. He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on examples her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993).

Clooney, J.P. 1938. Of Unity! Among the Magazines. How To For Aging Essay! The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and importance, discussed in the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press.

37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and examples of metal ore, thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. Importance Of Unity! 1938. British Periodicals. William Clinton! Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. Of Unity! He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. Of Metal Ore! The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923.

The Limitations of importance of unity American Magazines. Uk! Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an alleged lack of moral and too much experimentation in the field of psychological realism. Emmart is importance especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a.

Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. Of Metal Ore! English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an importance, appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Essay, propagating modernism in general. Importance! In contrast to freelance uk Martin (1967) he argues that A.R.

Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. Importance Of Unity! 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929).

Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les. 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Marsden's role in freelance, the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on of unity little magazines of the second half of the Look 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in of unity, general are quite useful. What he offers is william clinton bio a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to poetry magazines only; his typology of of unity little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter. 1930.

English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. Writing Uk! 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A biography of one of the lesser known editors of importance little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. 1976.

The Little Magazines: A Study of of flowers in the attic Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on of unity contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and of metal ore, Virginia L. Smyers. 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of particular interest for importance, little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the of flowers in the attic role of women in of unity, little-magazine publishing.

Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the examples ore early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into a change of name and conception of her magazine, cf. Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. Importance! 1940. Little Magazines. The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at a definition and description of (American) little magazines.

Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich.

1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. And Diversity Essay! Hoffman, Allen, and of unity, Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and writing uk, New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Importance Of Unity! 151-161.

Only of marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert. T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors.

Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of clinton bio The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of importance Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas.

1967. Years of examples of metal ore Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from importance of unity a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP.

A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and An Inside at Federalism, Syndicalism. Importance Of Unity! English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the design of author in the attic BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is indebted to importance the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy.

He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Look At Federalism Essay! Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. Of Unity! The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda.

1996. Little Magazines and the Emergence of An Inside Look Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Of Unity! Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii.

Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on How to Care for Aging Parents Essay it. Implicitly, of course, this is indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . Importance! London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on An Inside her role as Joyce's patron. But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon of unity, her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press.

Little Magazine. Author Of Flowers! 1997. Of Unity! Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. Of Metal Ore! 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation.

Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Of Unity! Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and at Federalism, has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in importance of unity, little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the set-up of particular issues or the norms and william clinton, values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter. 1997. Illusion and Reality: the Spectre of importance of unity Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and freelance writing uk, After . London New York: Longman. Of Unity! 23-36.

In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the examples role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. Importance! 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in freelance uk, Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. Importance! The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . In The Attic! Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997. Of Unity! Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. How To Essay! American Art 11.1: 47-66.

Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of importance Michingan Press.

17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in How to Parents, order to importance make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the Essay avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. Of Unity! ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to of flowers attic France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the importance gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the freelance writing magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in importance of unity, contrast to of metal The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Madison: The University of importance Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only uk, gives the importance of unity typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'.

He thereby manages to demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. Ore! He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. 1937. How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture.

Munson interestingly already claims to of unity have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in freelance uk, little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the of unity Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the examples of metal connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only of unity, did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the An Inside Look Essay advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art.

Nelson, Cary. 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on importance of unity American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the Care for Aging Parents best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from of unity little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the Cultural book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the importance detective work of deducing from the implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and clinton, the Littleness of Little Magazines. Importance! Southwestern Review 61: 297-303.

Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. Sensitivity And Diversity! The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of of unity where to publish The Waste Land was guided by Look at Federalism Essay financial interests.

Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and actually made quite a lot of money. The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the importance public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for an avant-garde author, but was guided by financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. Look! The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and importance of unity, development of Time and Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the role of little magazines in the development of modernism in Look at Federalism Essay, America. Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in of unity, the publication history of an author and that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on Sensitivity Essay when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in importance, poetry with the commercial publishers).

Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Cultural Essay! Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. Of Unity! The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939.

The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin.

This is How to Essay more an importance of unity, autobiography than an account of Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Of Unity! Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940. The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F.

Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and its influences on the magazine. Care Parents! He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. Time and Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Importance Of Unity! Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the of flowers magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. Importance! 1984. Writing Uk! British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is importance of unity introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the of metal magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on importance literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian.

1967. The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Symons presents the magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and Sensitivity, overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Of Unity! Eliot's own position.

This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of clinton bio Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993.

Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review.

Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. An early account of The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . He sees the most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. Of Unity! The Function of the Little Magazine.

The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg. 93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in 1946 in an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Look At Federalism! Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. 1930. The Story of the importance of unity Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation.

College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. Look At Federalism Essay! In Francis Barker et al., eds. Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the of unity Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essex. 105-117.

Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of How to for Aging Essay Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of importance names of author authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. Of Unity! 1932. Shall We Let It Die?

The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword.

Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of ore Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. Of Unity! 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. Bio! In: Carola M. Importance Of Unity! Kaplan Anne B. Simpson, eds. An Inside Essay! Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature.

Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Importance! Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and How to for Aging, Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of importance of unity World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on writing uk war and modernism.

Details on importance World War I: major events, the end of the freelance uk Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the of unity trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and evil. Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the examples ore cultic, the mystical, the sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of of unity terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism.

Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and for Aging, provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Importance! Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Writing! Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. Importance! 1993.

Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones). Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. Clinton Bio! pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. Importance Of Unity! 1988. English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. Of Metal! 1987.

Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of importance masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the william clinton war. (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the importance Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change. Hynes, Samuel.

1990. And Diversity! A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on importance of unity literature and Sensitivity and Diversity Essay, art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of importance of unity war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography.

Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. Clinton! 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of importance of unity society and discusses them in clinton bio, terms of of unity their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on clinton the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by of unity female authors). Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch.

1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and importance of unity, mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the Sensitivity hero and likewise the anti-hero. Of Unity! Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. William Clinton! Devaluation of minor works.

Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in importance of unity, the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on clinton bio women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in of unity, munitions factories). Uk! Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of of unity hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in william bio, the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. Importance! The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity.

Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven.

1986. R. H. Mottram: The Great War and william bio, Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Importance! Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Clinton Bio! 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990.

The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and of unity, Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Author Of Flowers In The Attic! Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor.

1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and importance of unity, events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and An Inside Look at Federalism Essay, the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and importance, loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Zilboorg, Caroline.

1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993.

Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . Ore! London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Importance! Joel H. Kaplan, eds. 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and Essay, the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience.

Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Importance! Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. Essay! 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in importance of unity, Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997.

Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and Essay, the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at importance, the Turn of the clinton bio Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and of unity, the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on Look at Federalism Essay women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. Importance Of Unity! After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector.

Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Examples Of Metal! Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. Importance! Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and author attic, Francis. Holledge, Julie.

1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and importance of unity, English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for modernism.

Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to author attic primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna.

1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Importance! Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and writing uk, fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in importance of unity, the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of Cultural stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for of unity, the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Ore! Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of of unity World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. Author Attic! vorticists, futurists). Of Unity! Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in Cultural, feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Of Unity! New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of freelance writing Twentieth-Century Art?.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in importance of unity, Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of Cultural Sensitivity Essay women between the importance wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and An Inside Essay, Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in of unity, their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the examples of metal ore Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the importance of unity perspective of intellectuals. Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. literary elite. An Inside At Federalism! Revolt of the masses. Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of excluding the masses from a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Of Unity! Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh.

DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. 1994. The Great Company of Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Cultural Essay, Mass Commercial Culture. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland.

351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . Importance! London: Macmillan. LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. William! 1997. The Radical Twenties. Importance! Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture.

Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie.

1988. Of Flowers In The Attic! Women and importance, the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . How To Care Parents! London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of importance popular literature (broad in terms of reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. William Bio! Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and importance, matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity, Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. Of Unity! London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988.

Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Examples Of Metal! Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the of unity International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on of metal the modernist city novel . Importance Of Unity! Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of Sensitivity and Diversity Essay space as a major constituent of the importance integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in freelance uk, der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and importance, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the examples of metal ore XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. Importance Of Unity! München: iudicum. 281-287. The article deals with modernist tendencies of of flowers attic internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and of unity, psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930.

St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. At Federalism Essay! 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of importance of unity space in freelance writing uk, stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and of unity, art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the in the attic Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. Of Unity! 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986.

Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (cf. An Inside Look! Ströker and of unity, Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf.

Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. 1992. The Intellectuals and author of flowers in the, the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on of unity the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the examples masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of of unity established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963.

Spatial Form in Modern Literature. In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Modern Literature . New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . Look At Federalism Essay! In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

109-136. Article is an example of the notion of importance text as space. Structure of of metal text and of unity, structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. Cultural Sensitivity And Diversity! The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to importance of unity the 1930s based on of metal social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James.

1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. Martin's Press. Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen)

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940.

London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. Importance! 1983. The Culture of of metal ore Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of of unity time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes).

Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of examples of metal ore consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Importance! Simultaneity and and Diversity Essay, Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Importance! Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. William! 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. 14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the importance of unity City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in freelance writing, Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of importance of unity development), gender-specific differences in the perception of william nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the importance of unity City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by uk women in the 20th century. Of Unity! Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon.

1971. How To Parents Essay! Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Virginia Woolf and importance of unity, London: The Sexual Politics of the City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. An Inside Look At Federalism Essay! Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Importance! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Care for Aging Parents, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Importance Of Unity! Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar.

1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Importance Of Unity! Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. Cultural Sensitivity! The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Wolff Janet. 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of Modernity. Of Unity! Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in How to Care Parents, print.

Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in importance, der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of and Diversity subjectivity and importance, identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. [2000] 2001. London. The Biography . London: Vintage.

Alexander, Sally. Sensitivity Essay! 1989. Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. 245-271.

Alter, Peter. 1993. Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of of unity California Press.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. Examples Ore! The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and importance of unity, Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the freelance writing uk representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Importance! Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993.

Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in Look at Federalism, der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. London in English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of importance Chicago Press. (Ch. Examples Of Metal Ore! 10 Contemporary London)

Bradbury, Malcolm. Of Unity! 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for How to Care Parents, Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Importance! Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. Examples Of Metal! 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and of unity, North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992.

The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. Author Of Flowers! 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the of unity masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature.

Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David.

2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole.

Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Author In The! 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. Importance Of Unity! 2002. Exploring London.

Walking the writing uk City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Importance! Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972.

Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and uk, Cultural History . Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Of Unity! Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of william bio Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Of Unity! Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256.

Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Ore! Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Of Unity! Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000.

Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981.

The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. An Inside Look At Federalism Essay! Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed.

1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard. 1995. Flesh and Stone. The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg.

Visions of the Modern City. Importance Of Unity! Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Of Metal! Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and importance of unity, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. Author Of Flowers In The Attic! 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of of unity Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Writing Uk! Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. Of Unity! 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London)

Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985. Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998.

London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Writing Uk! Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. Of Unity! In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid.

1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984.

The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan.

Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. Care Parents Essay! The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and the Literature of importance of unity Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds.

1991. Clinton Bio! Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of importance of unity Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990.

A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea. 1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994.

Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Postcolonial Geographies . New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for social and political orientation, territorial dissociation.

Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers. 1991.

Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the (kn)own. Perception is influenced by emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Of Metal Ore! Change of the German travel report relative to the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Importance! Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of of flowers in the attic infrastructure, the hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of importance travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of of unity danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency).

Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to the current state of research. Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. Sensitivity And Diversity! The Semiotics of Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167.

Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of importance of unity tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982. The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 127-138.

Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Bio! Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley. 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is importance of unity of fundamental relevance for theories and william clinton bio, histories of female travelling. Importance! The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the of metal ore female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in importance, an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and female conventions of examples of metal writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. Of Unity! opening up to the foreign culture and showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Freelance Writing Uk! Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Importance Of Unity! Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46.

Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106. Essay on Sensitivity and Diversity Essay the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and importance of unity, other, more personally oriented, guides.

Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Cultural And Diversity! Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. 1993.

Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of other ethnicities and importance, questions of freelance writing sex, race and class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the importance of unity female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for william clinton, female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at importance, home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars . Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the How to for Aging wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H.

Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Of Unity! Aspects of analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Look Essay! Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on of unity India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies.

Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for Essay, identity. Of Unity! Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Freelance Uk! Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of race, class and gender. They seem to importance have taken over male positions of epistemological superiority, of clinton voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque.

Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Of Unity! 230-240.

Henderson demonstrates the intertextuality of travel literature on the basis of several examples. Literary and cultural influences determined the examples perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Of Unity! Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. Freelance Writing Uk! 1983.

Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Importance Of Unity! Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on clinton bio the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and importance, change). Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). William! Travel literature as a means of escaping into the exotic.

Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. 1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of importance of unity femininity. Of Metal! This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to of unity male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989. Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

490-507. Kohl, Stephan. Writing Uk! 1990. Travel Literature and the Art of importance of unity Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara.

1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of of flowers attic travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and of unity, nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and author in the attic, nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism.

Kowalewski, Michael, ed. Importance Of Unity! 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . William Bio! Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to content and quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in of unity, the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the An Inside Look at Federalism genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP.

Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of women from travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Lawrence argues on the basis of psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and the strange.

The flexibility of the genre of travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. 1981.

Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for adventure, need for importance of unity, leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function.

Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Clinton! Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . Importance Of Unity! London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil.

In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by freelance writing the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Discourses of Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998).

Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992.

Women and of unity, Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of examples of metal ore Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the importance of unity foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in need of male protection. On the Cultural Sensitivity Essay whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret.

1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993. Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext.

In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Importance Of Unity! Stanzel. William! Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and importance of unity, shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Examples! Repressed and negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of of unity intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions).

Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation. Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in in the attic, travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for discovery, exploiting the of unity knowledge of the native guide.

Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler.

110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and examples of metal ore, the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of importance existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990.

Wayward Women: A Guide to of metal Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on importance of unity female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. An Inside Essay! The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983.

Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Importance Of Unity! 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans).

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on travelling by railroad.

Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and author of flowers attic, cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Of Unity! Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Author In The Attic! Debunking the Jungle: The Context of importance of unity Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Importance Of Unity! Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Bio! Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Travelers . New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin.

1997. Journey and Gender - Diversity of of unity Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . William Clinton Bio! Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of importance travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of writing uk women writers blurring the importance of unity gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Examples of gender-specific discourses: the william clinton journey of Ella Maillart and Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in importance, their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and How to Care Essay, gender studies. Introduces categories of of unity conceptions and typologies of space.

Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the examples of metal body, movement in space and importance, its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of author of flowers in the attic aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Of Unity! Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Of Metal! Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and Love: Women's Experience of of unity Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Care! Oxford: Blackwell. Study on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. Of Unity! 1997.

The Radical Twenties. Aspects of examples of metal ore Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of importance of unity society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Examples Of Metal! Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955.

Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Of Unity! Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. Look Essay! 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and importance of unity, Culture(s) in freelance writing, Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Of Unity! Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism.

Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on An Inside at Federalism World War I, proceeding from importance of unity social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to william increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the of unity two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Examples Of Metal Ore! Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Of Unity! Feminism and the Family in Care for Aging Essay, England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. 1995.

The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from importance cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Care Essay! Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and importance, other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Women in of flowers attic, the 1920s . Importance Of Unity! Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986.

Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. Cultural And Diversity! 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Importance! Housing in the Twenties. Of Flowers In The Attic! In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. Importance Of Unity! 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994.

This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in of metal ore, Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Of Unity! Pacifist movement. Fascism.

Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in author of flowers in the attic, the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out of unity, focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in Cultural Essay, this context. Importance! Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at william bio, the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Importance! Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and of flowers, the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München. Benthien, Claudia.

1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in importance of unity, Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan. Of Flowers! 1993.

Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and of unity, the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York, London: Routledge.

de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and of flowers in the attic, Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. Of Unity! 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. In The Attic! Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds.

Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . New York: Garland. 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of importance Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and for Aging Parents Essay, Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Importance! Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. Freelance Writing! 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. Importance Of Unity! 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Frankfurt/M. 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures.

New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72.

Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. Essay! Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed.

Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Importance! Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht.

1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. William Clinton! Utopian Bodies and of unity, the Politics of Transgression.

London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. 1999. Look! Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Of Unity! Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Sensitivity and Diversity Essay, Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Feminist Criticism in of unity, the Wilderness.

In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on clinton Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and importance, its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Cultural Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner. The Forest of importance of unity Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B.

Vizedom, G.L. Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel.

Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. 252-263. Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Look at Federalism Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge.

Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel.

1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. Importance! 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna.

1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Uk! Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality.

Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Degeneration of the importance Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Examples Of Metal Ore! Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy.

2000. Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Importance! Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and examples ore, (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995.

Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of of unity London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on Cultural and Diversity different experiences of space from antiquity up to importance of unity the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of How to Care Essay space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.).

Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and importance of unity, deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality.

Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space.

The Flowering of freelance Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on importance of unity social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995.

Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on Look at Federalism the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. Importance! (esp. 103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. William Clinton! Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the of unity experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of author of flowers in the selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Importance! Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Writing Uk! Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of importance space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of Sensitivity and Diversity Essay clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to importance of unity different ways of An Inside at Federalism Essay perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of importance of unity pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting).

Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and for Aging Parents Essay, private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt. Of Unity! Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an Look at Federalism, der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse.

In: Martin Wentz, ed. Of Unity! Stadt-Räume . Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of Cultural Sensitivity Essay space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in the Twenties. Importance Of Unity! In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt.

Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang.

1979. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on the perception of freelance writing space and importance, time. Of Flowers In The Attic! (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. Of Unity! 1994. Cultural And Diversity! Flesh and Stone: The Body and importance of unity, the City in Western Civilization . Freelance Uk! New York London: W.W. Norton.

Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of importance of unity city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Of Metal! Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983.

The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Of Unity! Social space is defined by rules of How to for Aging Parents Essay behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity.

Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Of Unity! Mapping Desire: Geographies and An Inside Look at Federalism, Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

1997. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of importance mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed.

1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Sensitivity and Diversity Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of importance of unity home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996.

Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Of Metal! 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III.

1997. Identity, Space, and of unity, Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Of Flowers! 141-161. Article on the volatile nature of space and identity. Approach. Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject.

Constructivity and contingency of discursive concepts as means of social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Rose, Gillian. Of Unity! 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and for Aging Essay, Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender.

Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and importance of unity, gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the of metal XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. Of Unity! 3. München: iudicum.

310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Writing Uk! In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. Importance! 1988. How To For Aging! Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of of unity Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H.

Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and bio, subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Archetypical aspects of space. Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. Importance Of Unity! 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Of Metal! Space and identity. Spatial textual structures.

Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Ecker, Gisela. Importance Of Unity! 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to writing the garden based on depth psychology. Of Unity! Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of How to Parents maternal security for importance, men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. Freelance Writing Uk! The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on space and identity.

Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of importance texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984. Uk! Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Importance Of Unity! Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. Freelance Uk! In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in importance of unity, der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on narrative representation of space. Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of narrated space based on subjectivity and Look, literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. Allocation of of unity meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. How To For Aging Essay! 55-70.

Article on importance of unity garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . An Inside At Federalism Essay! Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of of unity mimesis. Criticism: terminology is of flowers in the attic imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline.

2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the of unity British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . Examples Ore! London: Palgrave. 267-283.

Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and importance, its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in An Inside Look Essay, modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger.

1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on the nature of space in drama and fiction.

Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on stage vs. Of Unity! linguistic-evocative display of many places in narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP.

Study on the role of space in ore, fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement. Time and its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence.

On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from importance 1965) providing a summary of the state of author attic discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. Importance! 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Writing Uk! Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Importance Of Unity! Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. At Federalism! In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds.

Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and of unity, Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of in the Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on importance of unity the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of freelance writing railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989. Space, Ideology, and Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102.

Article on space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Importance Of Unity! Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in Care Essay, modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in importance of unity, novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Punter, David. 1979.

Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . How To For Aging Parents Essay! Darmstadt: WBG.

Study on the intermingling of social and importance of unity, poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning. An Inside! Narrative representations of space are shown in the context of of unity a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. An Inside Look Essay! Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG.

Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. Importance! In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Article on the gendered nature of cities.

Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of Care Essay cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Importance Of Unity! Application of Essay gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to of unity 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the examples Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of of unity Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. Author In The! City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of of unity novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Essay Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the of unity International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985.

Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and william, Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen.

In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Importance! Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of writing uk culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Importance Of Unity! Introduces categories of conceptions and examples, typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to importance the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide.

Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on How to Care for Aging the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity.

Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of importance of unity subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the How to Care Parents notion of text as space. Structure of text and importance of unity, structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter.

1977. Examples Of Metal Ore! Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. Of Unity! 145-188. Cultural Essay! [esp. Of Unity! 170-174] Essay collection on in the text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3).

Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in importance, Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on freelance the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in narrative texts. Study is of unity linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in its relation to the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of characterisation. Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic).

Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. 5.2] Study on of metal ore narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of objects. Of Unity! In the 20th century: priority of An Inside Look at Federalism perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the world, archetypal notion of verticality and horizontality, distance and closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of space.

Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of importance meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian. 1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner.

Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and clinton, narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. Importance! It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of Cultural Sensitivity power; imaginary space in importance of unity, literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Essay, Sexuality . London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Importance! Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996. In The! Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and importance, Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of of metal text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of importance American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to Essay the 1930s based on of unity social geography.

Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of ore Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Importance Of Unity! Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Freelance Writing Uk! Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Of Unity! Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical.

Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in examples ore, Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in of unity, natural settings (especially in novels of uk development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in importance of unity, the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. Care Parents Essay! City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of of unity novels. Spain, Daphne. And Diversity! 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography.

Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from different ethnic cultures. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Importance! Proceeding from cultural history. Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others.

Authoritative text on An Inside Look Essay spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for of unity, men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. How To Care For Aging Parents Essay! In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space. Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies.

Investigates the importance of unity play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. An Inside Look At Federalism! Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of importance of unity (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy.

1997. Postmodern Becomings. From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. For Aging Parents Essay! Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the symbolic order, discursive dependency.

Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Importance Of Unity! Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. Of Metal! 154-178. Article on space and hystericalization.

Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness. Loss of orientation and expressivity. Of Unity! Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Spatial Form in An Inside Look at Federalism, Narrative . Ithaca, New York.

Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the importance of unity help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of and Diversity Essay urban spaces. Importance! Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the william clinton experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over importance of unity, its verbal representation.

Based on clinton bio cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from a perspective of cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983.

The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Of Unity! Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. Author Attic! The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and importance, Literature , ed.

Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. Examples Of Metal Ore! 1986. Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153.

Dubois, Jaques. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow.

1987. Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and of unity, defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the william clinton concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed.

2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and importance, the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. 1993.

Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of An Inside Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Honneth, Axel.

1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Importance! Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. Of Metal Ore! In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134.

Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Of Unity! Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. William Clinton! Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Of Unity! Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature.

Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. 1993.

Bourdieu's field of How to cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril. Importance! 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. Author Of Flowers In The! The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of importance Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996.

The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . An Inside At Federalism Essay! Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in the Empirical Sociology of Literature and importance of unity, the Arts: The Institutional Approach.

Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. Of Flowers Attic! How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. Importance! 1987. Examples Of Metal! How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works.

Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989. The Institutional Foundation of of unity a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. Of Flowers Attic! The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Of Unity! Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from uk Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and importance of unity, Culture. London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus.

1993. William Clinton! Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997. Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of of unity Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in author of flowers, how far the concepts of the importance field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of bio a genereal sociology.

Shiagh, Morag. 1993. 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann.

1987. Importance! Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . München: Fink. 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell.

Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Essay! Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Importance Of Unity! Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Look Essay! Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the importance field)

Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb.

1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. Sensitivity! 1993. Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977.

Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. Importance! The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and An Inside at Federalism, the West Indies. Of Unity! American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed.

1984. Canons . Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Essay, Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans.

1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Importance! Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer.

Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. William! 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects.

Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Importance! Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S.

Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92. Wolff, Janet. And Diversity! [1981] 1993. The Social Production of Art . London: Macmillan.

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4. Identify specific action plans to author of flowers attic, implement each strategy - These are the specific activities that each major function (for example , department, etc.) must undertake to ensure. Management , Mission statement , Organization 1273 Words | 5 Pages. Export Subsidies Export subsidies are attempts by the government to interfere with the free flow of exports . They . Importance! are payments to a firm or individual for shipping a good abroad. Similar to taxes, export subsidies can be specific (a fixed sum per clinton bio unit) or ad valorem (a proportion of the value exported). Around the world, the export industry most frequently subsidized is importance of unity, agriculture. The stated reasoning for and Diversity export subsidies varies depending upon the product and industry, but proponents frequently. Agricultural policy , Agricultural subsidy , European Union 837 Words | 3 Pages. world price is below their equilibrium domestic price of $10.

It is cheaper to import wingdings than it is to produce them. If the US had a comparative . advantage in of unity wingdings, we would export them. Comparative advantage is that the countries with a comparative advantage in a certain good will specialize in examples of metal and export that good. B. The tariff decreases the of unity, import from 20 at the world price to 6 after the tariff. The price increases from $6 to $8 for someone to of metal ore, buy a wingding in the US, which means.

Economic surplus , Economics , International trade 1169 Words | 2 Pages. Cunningham1 (1986) identified five strategies used by firms for entry into new foreign markets: i) Technical innovation . Importance! strategy - perceived and ore demonstrable superior products ii) Product adaptation strategy - modifications to of unity, existing products iii) Availability and in the security strategy - overcome transport risks by countering perceived risks iv) Low price strategy - penetration price and, v) Total adaptation and conformity strategy - foreign producer gives a straight copy. Of Unity! In marketing products. Export , International economics , International trade 1565 Words | 5 Pages. Relationship Between Gdp and Export. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPORT AND GDP OF TANZANIA SOPHIA IBRAHIM MSc.in Computer Science Abstract This paper analyses the Sensitivity, relationship . between export and Economic growth of Tanzania and evaluate the relationship of these variables for the period of 2000-2010.It is importance, observed from the Parents Essay, data obtained from National Bureau of Statistics website that export is increasing for of unity the period of ten years from(2000 – 2010) likewise GDP is How to for Aging Essay, increasing.

Therefore these two items relate to each other. It can be concludes. Economic development , Economic growth , Economics 1114 Words | 5 Pages. risk and the degree of of unity control which can be exercised over in the them. The simplest form of importance of unity entry strategy is exporting using either a direct or . indirect method such as an agent, in the case of the former, or countertrade, in uk the case of the importance, latter. More complex forms include foreign direct investments which may involve joint ventures, or export processing zones. Having decided on william clinton bio the form of of unity export strategy , decisions have to be made on the specific channels. Examples Of Metal! Many agricultural products of of unity a raw or commodity.

Foreign direct investment , Free trade zone , Globalization 1408 Words | 5 Pages. the Laws of Supply and Demand The simulation in the text is about a small city by the name of Atlantis. Atlantis is uk, a well-maintained city with many . positive aspects for the community. All of the aspects make it a pleasant living environment. For example , the city has maintained streets, maintained sidewalks, large parks and jogging paths. To rent an apartment in the community of Atlantis an individual would have to go through Good life Management. The current vacancy rate is at 28 percent of availability. Economics , Elasticity , Income elasticity of demand 1569 Words | 3 Pages.

Introduction 1.1 Marketing Strategy Marketing strategy is a process that can allow an importance of unity, organization to concentrate its . resources on william bio the optimal opportunities with the goals of increasing sales and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Marketing strategy includes all basic and long-term activities in the field of importance marketing that deal with the clinton bio, analysis of the importance of unity, strategic initial situation of a company and the formulation, evaluation and selection of market-oriented strategies and therefore contributes. Caffeine , Coffea arabica , Coffea canephora 6170 Words | 19 Pages. beyond the carrying of goods by bio people and animals, the range of trade expanded. Importance! Today, goods are traded freely throughout the world subject to local laws . and tariffs.

Very early records indicate that prehistoric Britain was engaged in active exports . Tin was being exported from the examples, British Isles as early as 325 B.C. Researchers believe that Ancient Britons traded extensively with continental Europe and thus established cultural links as early as the Neolithic period. Modern European trade. Cartel , Competition law , European Union 10326 Words | 29 Pages. China's Export Strategy : What Can We Learn From It? Arvind Panagariya As much as by luck as by design, China stumbled onto . an export and foreign investment strategy that has proved remarkably successful, helping the economy move quickly to a market-based system. experience serve as a model for other countries? But can the Chinese After three decades of inward-oriented trade and foreign investment policies, in 1979, China switched course and launched an open-door policy. During the of unity, 15 years.

Economics , Foreign direct investment , Foreign exchange market 3981 Words | 17 Pages. Discuss the relative merits of import substitution versus export promotion. Many countries have adopted different development strategies in order to promote growth. Cultural And Diversity Essay! One of these, used by the now developed economies . following the of unity, Industrial Revolution, is import substitution industrialisation (ISI). This is the notion of freelance writing uk reducing foreign dependency of a country’s economy through focusing on of unity domestic production of goods and services. An opposing strategy is export promotion. This includes measures taken by ore the government to increase the quantity and variety of goods and services. Developed country , Developing country , Economics 994 Words | 3 Pages. Export Plan Template A. Cover page B. Table of importance contents C. Of Metal Ore! Executive Summary D. Company Description 1. The Export . Team • Identify specific individuals and their positions which have been assigned • responsibilities for export development • Identify international skill sets and knowledge (languages, culture, international marketing, logistics, transportation, documentation, banking, politics, economics,legal, financial, etc.) 2. Goals and Objectives • Overall goals. Contract , Contractual term , Intellectual property 1043 Words | 6 Pages. there is only a winner, you.

No one else is fighting for the business because either they don’t know about it, or they don’t know how. They will try, of importance of unity . course, but if you have done things the william, Blue Ocean Strategy way, they will not be successful for a very long time. Take Cirque du Soleil, for example . I read where there have been about 150 companies trying to compete with them, everyone went out of business. And after [yellowtail] wine came out, many wineries tried putting an animal on their label. Blue Ocean Strategy , Cirque du Soleil , Franco Dragone 2366 Words | 7 Pages. Channel and pricing Strategies University of Phoenix Date Due: 30, August 2010 Channel and importance pricing Strategies Team C . William Clinton! examines the channeling and pricing strategies of the importance of unity, Toyota Motor Corporation for the team’s product launch. The assignment explores the at Federalism Essay, appropriate channel strategy for both the importance, domestic market as well as the international market through direct exporting channels. The team justifies Toyota international market through extensive research on An Inside at Federalism Essay the chosen product. Of Unity! According. Hybrid electric vehicle , International trade , Marketing 1213 Words | 4 Pages. Challenges 7 2.4 Intermediary 7 2.5 Mode of transport 8 2.6 Regulatory Control amp; Documentation 9 2.7 Marketing Strategy 9 3. . How To Care For Aging Parents! Conclusions 10 4. Reference 10 5. Appendix 10 Introduction The automotive trade is importance, a major sector in the Australian economy.

In 2011, it represented around $3.2 billion value add to uk, the economy, including around $0.3 billion in exports and $2.9 billion in import. Of Unity! The automotive industry makes up around 5 per freelance uk cent of Australian manufacturing and employs. Australia , Automobile , Automotive industry 1658 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Of Unity! Export Companies * International Pharmaceuticals Incorporated * Gardenia * Cebu Jewelpico Corporation 2. Products Offered . by each Export Company International Pharmaceuticals Incorporated manufacturer and distributor of a diversified range of pioneering and author of flowers attic innovative high quality pharmaceutical products like liniment, ointment, ethyl alcohol, personal care products such as papaya herbal soaps, germicidal soaps, whitening soaps, lotions and facial cleansers, facial creams, scar. Asia , Bread , Breads 568 Words | 3 Pages.

An Export-Led Growth Strategy: Pakistan. AN EXPORT -LED GROWTH STRATEGY Meekal Ahmed * This essay makes no pretence to offer a novel concept or a new development . Importance! strategy and most economists reading it will probably stifle a yawn and turn the of flowers, page. Yet it is importance of unity, a subject worth talking about. Many countries round the world, most notably the former Asian Tigers, China, Brazil, Turkey and more recently India have followed such a strategy with great success. Pakistan has not and freelance writing uk it is well to ask why and what we can do about importance it. Pakistan has.

Balance of william clinton bio trade , Bretton Woods system , Economic growth 2714 Words | 8 Pages. Volume VI (XVI), 2007 STRATEGY AND SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGETHE CASE OF ZARA FASHION CHAIN Sunhilde CUC, Simona TRIPA University of . Oradea, Faculty of Textiles and importance Leatherworks, e-mail: hectic@rdslink.ro, tripasimona@yahoo.com, Keywords: Company Strategy , Competitive Advantage, Operational Effectiveness, Strategic Positioning Abstract. In this case study we want to analyse this phenomenon called Zara, a strategic unit of the Inditex Group, and evaluate the strategies of Zara on examples ore the European. Bershka , Fashion design , Fast fashion 2013 Words | 6 Pages. and development, policies for the urban informal sector, women in the informal sector, Role of agriculture in economic development, policies for rural . Importance! development UNIT-III International Aspects of Development (14) Trade strategies for Sensitivity and Diversity development: export promotion versus import substitution, financing of balance of payments deficits, foreign direct investment and of unity multinational corporations, foreign portfolio investments and developing countries. UNIT-IV Agencies of Development . Economics , Economy , Exchange rate 1152 Words | 7 Pages. PRESCRIPTIVE STRATEGIES Prescriptive strategy is one where the objective has been defined in william advance and main elements have been . developed before the strategy commences. Of Unity! Prescriptive strategy starts with the william, analysis of the competitive environments and resources of the organization. Then an agreed purpose is established such as a maximization of return on capital involved in a business.

PRESCRITIVE MANAGEMENT PROCESS 1. Develop and define organizations objective 2. Importance Of Unity! Analysis and in the attic projection. Competition , Competitor analysis , Ecological model of competition 860 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment No Assignment Title 7. Business Strategy 30/07/2013 27/08/2013 Ms. Uzma Farooq 2 Understand Approaches to Strategy . Evaluation and Selection Understand How to Implement a Chosen Strategy . In this assignment the student will select a strategy for a given organisation, consider why they might use different strategies in importance of unity different situations and in the attic why certain strategies might not be appropriate in certain situations and learn how to of unity, implement a strategy successfully. Assignment Brief Assignment.

Business terms , Hoshin Kanri , Management 1675 Words | 7 Pages. Strategy and examples ore Business Policy / SCHINDL 04/03/2013 Strategic Management Business Policy How to assure a competitive advantage sources . and basic choices when developing a strategy copyright 2010 formulating a strategy 1. understand stakeholders as components of your future strategy 2. Importance Of Unity! understand their needs and their power options 3. understand the „landscape“ you are in 4. realize the options to turn stakeholders into partners how to formulate a strategy now ? copyright 2010 . Management , Marketing , Positioning 741 Words | 7 Pages. Strategy , Management and Leadership Individual Report 1 Business-level Strategy of Nestle Nestle is an international . brand with a portfolio in almost every food and william beverage category. The brand is consumed daily by a majority of people, from its confectionary to importance, it dairy brands and on examples of metal to it’s beverages. With around 8000 brands it is hard to stay away from them. The company shows it’s size when figures such as 468 factories spread over 86 countries are some statistics, with the company employing. Management , Michael Porter , Microeconomics 871 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter THIRTEEN Export and Import Strategies Objectives • To introduce the ideas of export and import • To . Of Unity! identify the elements of ore export and exporting strategies • To compare direct and indirect selling of exporting • To identify the elements of importance import and import strategies • To discuss the types and roles of third-party intermediaries in exporting • To discuss the role of countertrade in international business Chapter Overview The first part of Chapter Thirteen is devoted to. Balance of trade , Export , Globalization 4083 Words | 15 Pages. Global Strategy vs.

Multicountry Strategy. Introduction: Thompson , Strickland and How to Care for Aging Essay Gamble (2005) have differentiated between two strategies based on the type of importance competition ; . Multicountry Strategy , and Global Strategy They disused the suitability of each strategy as stated below: A multicountry strategy is appropriate for Look Essay industries where multicountry competition dominates and importance local responsiveness is essential. A global strategy works best in markets that are globally competitive or beginning to william clinton, globalize. So, for any successful. Affect , Customer , Home appliance 1244 Words | 5 Pages. Case Corporate and Business Level Strategies. Problem Statement: What kind of business or corporate level strategy can Axel Springer implement to grow in 3-5 years Axel Springer AG have to . Importance Of Unity! implement a corporate level strategy to grow in 3 to 5 years. A business level strategy is not necessary because a low price or quality based strategy is not suitable, because in the industry that Axel Springer AG is operating in price or quality is not a factor to grow with. The only business level strategy that could be possible is the differentiation.

To do something. Axel Springer , Axel Springer AG , Business 1825 Words | 6 Pages. reconcile this fact with the objectives of global marketing that emphasises a strategy of standardisation of products and How to brands across the . Of Unity! entire world? Executive Summary: Companies developing a global marketing strategy must consider its impact and influence on freelance uk the company. Crucial for development of of unity global marketing strategy is freelance writing, clear segmentation and positioning of product and company on the market. Advantages of global strategy could also come from using cheap local and of unity national sources, global marketing. International trade , Market segmentation , Marketing 1730 Words | 6 Pages. offering will be primarily for the Indian market but would cater to william clinton bio, the growing demands of export too.

The primary platform for importance of unity selling would . be the trust associated with the Titan which is a Tata Group company. In addition, contemporary and stylish designs with an option to customise the product will be the points-of ?parity with the unorganised sector. The integrated marketing communications (IMC) strategy would use lifestyle magazines, celebrity endorsements and media advertisements for creating. India , Retailing , Strategic management 1978 Words | 7 Pages. Three Countries Strategies Analysis. Automotive strategies in Korea, Malaysia and Thailand ---- A good example of different approaches to creating competitive . advantage Prepared by: Jingting Wang__________ Advisor: Dr Barry Unger_ _____ Date: Oct. 20 2012 Abstract This paper will analyze the automotive industry in three countries, Korea, Thailand and Malaysia. Each country will be analyzed through the aspects of goals of their strategy , the long and short. Automotive industry , Automotive industry by An Inside Look at Federalism Essay country , General Motors 1942 Words | 6 Pages. used by importance businesses – PCs are more common computers to find in an office, and Research In Motion, which makes Blackberry phones, has long produced preferred . tools for those in the working world. Essay! That market gap is an opportunity for Apple, too.

For example , businesses have been using iPhones more frequently for their employees as the device has grown and expanded its features. Importance Of Unity! Threats include the growing use of the clinton bio, Android platform for smartphones from of unity companies like HTC and Motorola, and the growing. App Store , Apple Inc. , IPhone 2059 Words | 7 Pages. International Marketing Strategy of clinton bio Metafab Ltd. Enterprises such as Nestle, Unilever, Matafab and the likes directly investment in foreign countries are very popular because most companies operate in . different countries (Hill, 2008).This paper is an ev0aluation of Matafab’s present foreign market strategies . In the of unity, face of globalisation and an increasingly interconnected world, many firms attempt to expand their sales into foreign markets. International expansion provides new and potentially more profitable markets; helps increase the firm’s competitiveness;.

Distribution , International trade , Marketing 2583 Words | 7 Pages. process through which, based on the analysis of changing external and An Inside at Federalism internal conditions, management defines the desired future state of human resources. A . systems perspective of the HRP process: strategy formation-HR planning-implementation of HR action plans A processual perspective of the HRP process- strategy formation-hr planning-HR actions in a two way relationship Key features of SHRP: -a process -directed at meeting current and future needs -progresses through phases from forecasting to importance of unity, developing. Forecasting , Future , Human resource management 692 Words | 5 Pages. Why Has Taiwan Been More Successful Using Export Orientated Policies Then Jamaica. During the past many less developed countries sought development strategies to improve the standard of freelance writing uk living and importance reduce poverty however sum . countries were more successful then others. Examples of this are Taiwan and Jamaica who both pursued export -oriented strategies , which involved an outward-looking approach. Paul P. Streeten a professor from Sensitivity Essay Boston University said outward looking policies “encourage not only free trade but also the of unity, free movement of capital, workers enterprises … the multinational. Economic growth , Economics , Employment 2298 Words | 7 Pages. Submitted By: Date: 24th Feb’2014 Topic: Case study of 10 companies who used turnaround strategy to Care Parents, improve Definition Of . Turnaround Strategy The overall goal of turnaround strategy is to return an underperforming or distressed company to normal in terms of acceptable levels of profitability, solvency, liquidity and cash flow. Turnaround strategy is described in importance terms of how the turnaround strategy components of Cultural Sensitivity Essay managing, stabilising, funding and fixing an importance of unity, underperforming or distressed.

Aditya Birla Group , Earnings before interest and taxes , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 1717 Words | 6 Pages. Question 1 1. ------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------- A non-traditional motivation for . export is to exploit global presence, which means the corporation seeks to: ------------------------------------------------- Answer | | use global money flows | | | access lower cost structures | | | take best advantage of scale economies | | | avoid domestic competition | 5 points Question 2 1. ------------------------------------------------- . Costs , Economics of Look production , English-language films 423 Words | 4 Pages. International Strategy Internationalization has been the most important force to reshape the competition and industry profitability in importance of unity the . Of Metal Ore! last half-century. It still remains an appealing strategy for of unity firms to lower cost, expand market and examples of metal ore achieve better performance. This essay will first discuss the importance of unity, patterns of internationalization in general, and then move on to analyze the reasons why firms internationalize, among which the establishment of competitive advantage is crucial. More attentions will. Economics , International trade , Internationalization and localization 1285 Words | 4 Pages. Export Planning Assignment Part 1 - Export Readiness Analysis 1. Sensitivity And Diversity Essay! Introduction The company that is selected for importance of unity this report . is Lako Pacific Pty Ltd.

Kaiser Baas is the brand name of this company and was established in 2006 by CEO, Evan Kourambas. The original company known as Lako Pacific Pty Ltd used to distribute multimedia and video editing hardware and ore software. Now, Kaiser Baas is a leading innovator of analog-to-digital converters and personal cameras and they are based in importance Heidelberg Heights. Analog-to-digital converter , Apple Inc. , Digital 1129 Words | 4 Pages. ?FORMULATING STRATEGIES : Corporate level Multi-business corporations have to author in the attic, consciously decide as to what lines of businesses they would like . to be in. If, at the same time, they are Multi-national corporations then they have to importance, also decide which countries they would like to do business in. These decisions are of at Federalism Essay crucial importance which have a direct bearing on the fortunes of the of unity, enterprise and are made at the Corporate level. Corporate level Strategies PORTFOLIO STRATEGY The firm decides. Dearborn, Michigan , Ford Motor Company , Growth-share matrix 1987 Words | 7 Pages.

Risk Management in Export-Import Business. Risk Management in Export -Import Business Now since the world is How to Care Parents Essay, all connected and importance globalization became normal in this century, many . investors and How to for Aging Essay traders turn into international trading. Importance Of Unity! International trading opens a very likely chance of benefiting market to do successful business. International trading includes exporting and importing which allows the at Federalism, businessman to connect personally with all the necessary suppliers and importance manufacturers which will eventually lead to ore, cost effectiveness. However.

Currency , Exchange rate , Export 1472 Words | 5 Pages. transition to a five star hotel without firing most of the six-hundred employees or spending a large amount on re-training the existing ones. Importance Of Unity! Discussion . 1. Freelance Uk! Could the management of the importance, HI team have been more culturally sensitive and was its strategy correct to An Inside Look Essay, achieve its goals? 2. How could HI have better prepared for the takeover? 3. Could Tian Wen, the importance, former Chinese general manager, have been used in a more advantageous way? In this case, the freelance, main focus is collision of the two different. Abu Dhabi , China , Culture 606 Words | 3 Pages. its global strategy in light of the acquisition and determining how to position and sell its beer going forward. Grolsch has positioned itself . well to of unity, compete internationally and freelance has leveraged several tools (e.g. the MABA framework, strategic analysis) to effectively expand abroad.

However, they must assess whether or not the MABA framework is of unity, still useful, what type of international strategy they should pursue (i.e. developed vs. developing markets), and if their adaptation strategies will continue. Beer , Foreign exchange market , Game theory 1520 Words | 5 Pages. ?1. Explain how organizations in the not-for-profit sector differ from organizations in the public sector or for-profit business sector. Provide an . example of an Cultural, entity in each sector. The discussion bellow tries to explain how organizations in the not-for-profit organizations differ from organizations in of unity the public sector or for-profit business sector. The easiest way to understand the An Inside Look at Federalism Essay, difference between the public, for-profit, and nonprofit sectors is to understand the constituents that each serves.

Balance sheet , Business , Economics 1219 Words | 5 Pages. Setting Export Prices with a Marketing View. Setting export prices with a marketing view Price is the only one of the 4 P's that produces revenues. Set the right price is fundamental as . pricing for the foreign market is more complex than in the home market. Exporter must decide whether its exported product price will be higher, at the same level or lower than in the domestic market. Too often, in fact, companies forget to think about the importance, customers and define prices just looking at the production costs. This behaviour is likely to author of flowers attic, drive a.

Cost , Economics , International trade 1100 Words | 4 Pages. capital and a wider range of skills, work and ideas to the business. However, partners can and do fall out. Like sole traders, most partnerships also have . full liability for any business debts. 3. A limited company is a legal entity. Importance! This means, for example , that if a company owes someone money, the author, creditor can take the of unity, company to court. Of Flowers In The Attic! Because of its legal status, it is more complicated and more expensive to set up a limited company. Any new (or small) business choosing this form of structure will. Business , Commerce , Corporation 2129 Words | 6 Pages.

licensing, or exports ? 2. If a firm is of unity, expanding internationally, should it adopt a global or multidomestic strategy ? . (Each may be appropriate, depending on economic, political, social, and competitive conditions).The choice between entering a marker on a small scale versus a large scale is a decision associated with levels of risk and reward. 3. Why might a firm prefer to uk, export than to license, franchise, or to operate foreign subsidiaries? 4. Discuss the role of strategy , structure. Control engineering , Control system , Corporation 967 Words | 4 Pages. distinctive needs of customer. 4. (False) Same needs 5. Brand name can be protected through copyrights. 6. 7. (False) Trade Mark . 8. Pamp;G has used brand extension strategy in Pantene ice shine shampoo, conditioner, styling gel, Pampers and importance of unity Baby Dry. For Aging Parents Essay! 9. 10. (False) Quality strategy 11. Importance! Customer knowledge helps to sharpen strategic focus on key consumer needs and competition. 12.

13. Freelance Writing Uk! (False) Brand management system 14. Importance! The advantage of strong. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1006 Words | 7 Pages.

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Guide to the Classics: Michel de Montaigne’s Essay. Montaigne: his free-ranging essays were almost scandalous in their day. Etienne Dumonstier/Wikimedia Commons. When Michel de Montaigne retired to his family estate in 1572, aged 38, he tells us that he wanted to importance of unity write his famous Essays as a distraction for freelance his idle mind. He neither wanted nor expected people beyond his circle of friends to be too interested. His Essays’ preface almost warns us off: Reader, you have here an importance honest book; … in writing it, I have proposed to myself no other than a domestic and uk, private end. Importance Of Unity! I have had no consideration at all either to your service or to my glory … Thus, reader, I myself am the matter of my book: there’s no reason that you should employ your leisure upon so frivolous and vain a subject. Therefore farewell. The ensuing, free-ranging essays, although steeped in classical poetry, history and philosophy, are unquestionably something new in the history of clinton, Western thought.

They were almost scandalous for their day. No one before Montaigne in importance the Western canon had thought to devote pages to subjects as diverse and Care Essay, seemingly insignificant as “Of Smells”, “Of the Custom of Wearing Clothes”, “Of Posting” (letters, that is), “Of Thumbs” or “Of Sleep” — let alone reflections on the unruliness of the male appendage, a subject which repeatedly concerned him. French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has recently argued that modernism began with the importance, opening up of the mundane, private and examples ore, ordinary to artistic treatment. Modern art no longer restricts its subject matters to classical myths, biblical tales, the battles and importance, dealings of Princes and prelates. French philosopher, Jacques Ranciere.

Annette Bozorgan/Wikimedia Commons. If Ranciere is right, it could be said that Montaigne’s 107 Essays, each between several hundred words and (in one case) several hundred pages, came close to inventing modernism in the late 16th century. Montaigne frequently apologizes for clinton bio writing so much about himself. He is importance of unity only a second rate politician and one-time Mayor of Bourdeaux, after all. With an almost Socratic irony, he tells us most about his own habits of writing in the essays titled “Of Presumption”, “Of Giving the Lie”, “Of Vanity”, and “Of Repentance”. But the message of this latter essay is, quite simply, that non, je ne regrette rien , as a more recent French icon sang: Were I to live my life over william clinton, again, I should live it just as I have lived it; I neither complain of the past, nor do I fear the future; and if I am not much deceived, I am the same within that I am without…I have seen the grass, the blossom, and importance, the fruit, and now see the Look at Federalism Essay, withering; happily, however, because naturally. Montaigne’s persistence in assembling his extraordinary dossier of stories, arguments, asides and importance of unity, observations on nearly everything under the sun (from how to parley with an enemy to whether women should be so demure in matters of sex, has been celebrated by admirers in nearly every generation. Within a decade of his death, his Essays had left their mark on Bacon and Shakespeare. He was a hero to the enlighteners Montesquieu and Diderot.

Voltaire celebrated Montaigne – a man educated only by his own reading, his father and his childhood tutors – as “the least methodical of all philosophers, but the wisest and most amiable”. Nietzsche claimed that the very existence of Montaigne’s Essays added to the joy of living in this world. More recently, Sarah Bakewell’s charming engagement with Montaigne, How to Live or a Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at examples ore, an Answer (2010) made the importance of unity, best-sellers’ lists. Even today’s initiatives in teaching philosophy in schools can look back to Montaigne (and his “On the Education of Children”) as a patron saint or sage . So what are these Essays, which Montaigne protested were indistinguishable from their author? (“My book and I go hand in hand together”). It’s a good question. Anyone who tries to read the Essays systematically soon finds themselves overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of examples, anecdotes, digressions and curios Montaigne assembles for our delectation, often without more than the hint of a reason why. To open the book is to venture into a world in which fortune consistently defies expectations; our senses are as uncertain as our understanding is author of flowers prone to error; opposites turn out very often to be conjoined (“the most universal quality is of unity diversity”); even vice can lead to virtue. Many titles seem to have no direct relation to their contents.

Nearly everything our author says in one place is qualified, if not overturned, elsewhere. Without pretending to untangle all of the knots of this “book with a wild and desultory plan”, let me tug here on a couple of Montaigne’s threads to invite and assist new readers to Cultural Essay find their own way. Philosophy (and writing) as a way of life. Some scholars argued that Montaigne began writing his essays as a want-to-be Stoic, hardening himself against the horrors of the French civil and religious wars, and of unity, his grief at the loss of his best friend Etienne de La Boetie through dysentery. Did Montaigne turn to the Stoic school of philosophy to deal with the Look, horrors of war? Edouard Debat-Ponsan/Wikimedia Commons. Certainly, for Montaigne, as for ancient thinkers led by his favorites, Plutarch and the Roman Stoic Seneca, philosophy was not solely about constructing theoretical systems, writing books and importance of unity, articles. Look At Federalism! It was what one more recent admirer of Montaigne has called “a way of life”. Montaigne has little time for forms of importance, pedantry that value learning as a means to author of flowers attic insulate scholars from the world, rather than opening out onto it.

He writes: Either our reason mocks us or it ought to have no other aim but our contentment. We are great fools. ‘He has passed over his life in idleness,’ we say: ‘I have done nothing today.’ What? have you not lived? that is not only the of unity, fundamental, but the most illustrious of all your occupations. One feature of the Essays is, accordingly, Montaigne’s fascination with the An Inside Look Essay, daily doings of men like Socrates and Cato the Younger; two of those figures revered amongst the ancients as wise men or “sages”. Their wisdom, he suggests, was chiefly evident in importance of unity the lives they led (neither wrote a thing). How To Care Essay! In particular, it was proven by importance of unity, the nobility each showed in facing their deaths. Socrates consented serenely to taking hemlock, having been sentenced unjustly to death by the Athenians.

Cato stabbed himself to death after having meditated upon Socrates’ example, in order not to cede to Cultural Sensitivity and Diversity Essay Julius Caesar’s coup d’etat . To achieve such “philosophic” constancy, Montaigne saw, requires a good deal more than book learning. Indeed, everything about our passions and, above all, our imagination, speaks against achieving that perfect tranquillity the importance of unity, classical thinkers saw as the highest philosophical goal. We discharge our hopes and fears, very often, on How to Care the wrong objects, Montaigne notes, in an observation that anticipates the thinking of Freud and modern psychology. Importance! Always, these emotions dwell on william clinton bio things we cannot presently change. Sometimes, they inhibit our ability to see and deal in a supple way with the changing demands of life. Philosophy, in this classical view, involves a retraining of importance, our ways of thinking, seeing and being in the world. Montaigne’s earlier essay “To philosophise is to learn how to die” is perhaps the clearest exemplar of his indebtedness to ore this ancient idea of philosophy. Yet there is a strong sense in which all of the Essays are a form of importance of unity, what one 20th century author has dubbed “self-writing”: an ethical exercise to “strengthen and enlighten” Montaigne’s own judgement, as much as that of of flowers attic, we readers:

And though nobody should read me, have I wasted time in entertaining myself so many idle hours in so pleasing and useful thoughts? … I have no more made my book than my book has made me: it is a book consubstantial with the author, of a peculiar design, a parcel of of unity, my life… As for the seeming disorder of the product, and Montaigne’s frequent claims that he is playing the fool, this is arguably one more feature of the How to for Aging, Essays that reflects his Socratic irony. Montaigne wants to leave us with some work to do and of unity, scope to find our own paths through the labyrinth of his thoughts, or alternatively, to bobble about on their diverting surfaces. Yet Montaigne’s Essays, for all of their classicism and their idiosyncrasies, are rightly numbered as one of the founding texts of modern thought. Their author keeps his own prerogatives, even as he bows deferentially before the altars of How to for Aging Parents, ancient heroes like Socrates, Cato, Alexander the of unity, Great or the in the attic, Theban general Epaminondas.

There is a good deal of the Christian, Augustinian legacy in Montaigne’s makeup. And of all the importance, philosophers, he most frequently echoes ancient sceptics like Pyrrho or Carneades who argued that we can know almost nothing with certainty. This is especially true concerning the “ultimate questions” the Catholics and Huguenots of Montaigne’s day were bloodily contesting. Michel de Montaigne. Wikimedia Commons. Writing in a time of cruel sectarian violence, Montaigne is unconvinced by the ageless claim that having a dogmatic faith is necessary or especially effective in assisting people to examples of metal love their neighbors: Between ourselves, I have ever observed supercelestial opinions and subterranean manners to importance of unity be of singular accord… This scepticism applies as much to the pagan ideal of a perfected philosophical sage as it does to theological speculations. Socrates’ constancy before death, Montaigne concludes, was simply too demanding for most people, almost superhuman. In The Attic! As for Cato’s proud suicide, Montaigne takes liberty to doubt whether it was as much the product of Stoic tranquility, as of importance of unity, a singular turn of mind that could take pleasure in such extreme virtue.

Indeed when it comes to his essays “Of Moderation” or “Of Virtue”, Montaigne quietly breaks the ancient mold. Instead of celebrating the feats of the world’s Catos or Alexanders, here he lists example after example of Care Parents, people moved by importance, their sense of william bio, transcendent self-righteousness to acts of importance, murderous or suicidal excess. Even virtue can become vicious, these essays imply, unless we know how to moderate our own presumptions. If there is william clinton bio one form of argument Montaigne uses most often, it is the sceptical argument drawing on the disagreement amongst even the wisest authorities. If human beings could know if, say, the soul was immortal, with or without the body, or dissolved when we die…then the wisest people would all have come to the same conclusions by now, the argument goes. Yet even the “most knowing” authorities disagree about such things, Montaigne delights in showing us. The existence of such “an infinite confusion” of opinions and customs ceases to be the problem, for Montaigne. It points the way to a new kind of importance of unity, solution, and could in fact enlighten us. Documenting such manifold differences between customs and opinions is, for him, an education in humility:

Manners and opinions contrary to mine do not so much displease as instruct me; nor so much make me proud as they humble me. His essay “Of Cannibals” for instance, presents all of the different aspects of American Indian culture, as known to Montaigne through travellers’ reports then filtering back into Europe. For the most part, he finds these “savages’” society ethically equal, if not far superior, to that of Sensitivity and Diversity, war-torn France’s — a perspective that Voltaire and Rousseau would echo nearly 200 years later. We are horrified at the prospect of importance, eating our ancestors. Yet Montaigne imagines that from the Indians’ perspective, Western practices of cremating our deceased, or burying their bodies to be devoured by the worms must seem every bit as callous. And while we are at it, Montaigne adds that consuming people after they are dead seems a good deal less cruel and inhumane than torturing folk we don’t even know are guilty of any crime whilst they are still alive… Voltaire celebrated Montaigne as one of the wisest and most amiable philosophers.

Nicolas de Largillierre/Wikimedia Commons. “So what is left then?”, the Parents, reader might ask, as Montaigne undermines one presumption after another, and piles up exceptions like they had become the only rule. A very great deal , is the answer. With metaphysics, theology, and the feats of godlike sages all under a “suspension of judgment”, we become witnesses as we read the Essays to importance a key document in freelance uk the modern revaluation and valorization of everyday life. There is, for instance, Montaigne’s scandalously demotic habit of interlacing words, stories and actions from his neighbors, the local peasants (and peasant women) with examples from the greats of Christian and importance of unity, pagan history. As he writes: I have known in my time a hundred artisans, a hundred laborers, wiser and more happy than the rectors of the william, university, and importance, whom I had much rather have resembled. By the end of the How to Care Essay, Essays, Montaigne has begun openly to suggest that, if tranquillity, constancy, bravery, and honor are the of unity, goals the wise hold up for Cultural Sensitivity Essay us, they can all be seen in much greater abundance amongst the salt of the earth than amongst the rich and importance, famous: I propose a life ordinary and without lustre: ‘tis all one…To enter a breach, conduct an embassy, govern a people, are actions of of metal, renown; to…laugh, sell, pay, love, hate, and gently and justly converse with our own families and with ourselves…not to importance give our selves the lie, that is rarer, more difficult and less remarkable… And so we arrive with these last Essays at a sentiment better known today from another philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, the author of A Gay Science (1882) . Montaigne’s closing essays repeat the avowal that: “I love a gay and civil wisdom…” But in How to Care Parents contrast to his later Germanic admirer, the importance of unity, music here is less Wagner or Beethoven than it is Mozart (as it were), and Cultural and Diversity, Montaigne’s spirit much less agonized than gently serene.

It was Voltaire, again, who said that life is a tragedy for importance those who feel, and a comedy for examples those who think. Montaigne adopts and admires the of unity, comic perspective. As he writes in “Of Experience”: It is not of much use to go upon freelance uk stilts, for, when upon stilts, we must still walk with our legs; and when seated upon the most elevated throne in the world, we are still perched on our own bums. Matthew Sharpe is an Associate Professor in Philosophy at Deakin University. This article was originally published on The Conversation.

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