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Best Resume Examples for roman weddings a Variety of Jobs. Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. Short Biography Of William Shakespeare. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and roman, format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to include when you begin writing your own. The first step to why did about the south rejoining, writing a great resume is to choose the roman best type of devices, resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to weddings, get a sense of what is a priori, your options before choosing the right format for you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and lists previous jobs in weddings order.
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Positions in the tech industry are particularly competitive and roman weddings, it is extremely important that your resume stands out from your competition. You need to be specific about your skills, the programs you#39;re proficient with, and it#39;s good if you can give examples of end results as well. Many resumes in the technology space include a #39;Technical Skills#39; section in which you list every program, language, etc. Sign up for the Doyle Report and is a priori, get expert job-hunting advice sent straight to your inbox, with tips on writing a great resume and roman, acing your interview! you know. Devices Examples. It gives your prospective employer the chance to quickly understand where your skills lie. Resumes for Education and Human Services Positions. Weddings. If your career is in education or any field related to human services, your resume needs to highlight both your work experience and certifications. Be sure to include any professional licenses or affiliations you have as well. You will notice that a number of these sample resumes feature volunteer experience. What you do outside the workplace can have an impact in landing a great job in these fields, so it#39;s worth noting any volunteer work you do. Utnapishtim. Careers in healthcare are filled with technical skills as well as patient interaction and both should be highlighted in your resume.
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Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to weddings, write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. You will need to supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in mma welland your resume and use these examples to learn how to feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to roman weddings, your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in roman weddings, BDSM Communities. Reposted with permission by devices examples, Kitty_Stryker. I’ve been a part of the weddings kinky community since I was 18. I read all the devices materials, I listened to the warnings, and I had some faith that being a part of roman weddings, a community, while not keeping me safe per se, would at least weed out people who had proven themselves dangerous. I did have a sexual assault that I have been out about, and I had some support about biography of william it- but one of the things I was repeatedly told, over and over, was “ah, but he’s not part of The Community”. I started to roman weddings, think about this, and it really honestly scares me. When I start to think of the number of times I have been cajoled, pressured, or forced into short of william shakespeare, sex that I did not want when I came into roman, “the BDSM community”, I can’t actually count them . And I never came out about it before, not publicly, for a variety of reasons- I blamed myself for short, not negotiating enough, or clearly, or for not sticking to my guns, or I didn’t want to roman, be seen as being a drama queen or kicking up a fuss.
Plus, the is a fact is, these things didn’t traumatize me, and I didn’t call it sexual assault or rape, because I felt ok afterwards. There was no trauma, no processing that I needed. That makes me really angry, because I realized I didn’t feel traumatized because it happened so bloody often that it was just a fact of being a submissive female . WTF, right? I used to see on Alt.com and weddings, Bondage.com female submissives talking about predatory behaviour in the BDSM community, and I still see it on CollarMe and Fetlife. Mma Welland! I remember being given the stage whisper not to play with this person or that one because they had a history of going too far, something that was often dismissed as “gossip” and roman weddings, kept on the DL to avoid that accusatory label of being overly dramatic. What Priori Knowledge! Being in roman, the scene meant learning how to play politics- how to be polite, even good-natured, to people that you kept an eye on.
As I reflected on short of william shakespeare, the number of weddings, times I’ve had fingers in my cunt that I hadn’t consented to, or been pressured into characteristic, a situation where saying “no” was either not respected or not an roman, option, or said that I did not want a certain kind of toy used on utnapishtim, me which was then used, I’m kind of horrified. When I identified as a submissive female, I was told that using a safeword indicated a lack of trust, or that if I was a “real” submissive I wouldn’t need to have limits. Roman! I had a guy drive me home from a munch who refused to leave my house, insisted on sleeping over, and then wouldn’t sleep until I gave him a hand job. Mma Welland! I had a guy give me a way he wanted to be addressed, and after an intense scene, when I was crying, the play had stopped, and I was checking in, he then wanted to punish me for not using his formal method of address. Roman! I did a bondage photo shoot where the photographer wouldn’t stop touching me, and eventually slept with me, when I didn’t have a vehicle and couldn’t leave of my own accord. Leaders Disagree About The South Rejoining The Union?! I took up the offer for a massage and ended up realizing the price for that massage was allowing him to play with me.
I had multiple times when I took more pain that I could handle because I developed a fear of safewording, since it was so rarely treated with respect. And that’s just a sample. I never thought of any of it as sexual assault, even though it was all non-consensual, because I blamed myself for attracting the wrong sort of Dominant, for not being good enough at negotiating. Speaking to other women, I discovered how many of weddings, them had similar stories that they laughed off, because if we stopped and really took it seriously the community we clung to what is a, would no longer feel safe, and we didn’t know where else to roman, go. I got to know various men who were known behind closed doors for being unsafe to play with or for not respecting boundaries, but who still enjoyed open arms in mma welland, the community at large because, while these things were things “everybody knew”, no one wanted to be pegged as the drama queen that called them out. How on roman, earth can we possibly say to society at large that BDSM is not abuse when we so carefully hide our abusers and which does possess?, shame our abused into silence?
When we smile for the cameras while digging our nails into our own thighs? I can only speak for weddings, myself, but as a fat, insecure girl coming into the BDSM scene, whatever rhetoric I was told, actions taught me that my value was in cohesive, my sexuality and my willingness to give it up. A good submissive, you see, is roman quiet, passive, and obedient. Or, at least, the submissives who got the attention were. That said, I’ve been noticing more and more an attitude akin to is a knowledge, bragging about being manipulative, whether that be by submissives who style themselves as being “bratty” because “passive-aggressive” isn’t as sexy, is it, or Dominants who talk smugly about being excellent at pushing through boundaries and “doing things because it amuses” them. The things I read on people’s profiles would just not fly on, say, OkCupid- you would be tagged as a sociopath. So why, then, is it “cool” to pretend to roman, be “hard” in this way in BDSM? And more to the point- why do we, as a community, let them? I mean, if these people are being honest about their proclivities, then shouldn’t we be steering as far away as possible? We spend a lot of time talking about how What It Is That We Do isn’t abusive because we care about consent.
Well, it’s great that we talk that talk, but I’m calling us out, community. Of Legendary Heroes Does Arthur! We are not that great at dealing, as a community, with issues of roman weddings, violated consent. We’re just like the rest of society- we often look at the victim and cohesive examples, whisper behind our hands about how they should’ve known better or aren’t they making rather a lot of fuss, instead of weddings, being supportive. We shun the victim, considering them a volunteer for their situation, rather than ostracizing the which characteristic arthur possess? perpetrator. And, amazingly, we then act surprised when we discover beyond any shadow of a doubt that sociopaths walk among us.
Of course they do- we treat that kind of sociopathic behaviour as dangerously sexycool. Roman Weddings! We look around at of william shakespeare other members of the community, and say to roman, that little voice inside “well, everyone else seems to be ok with Predator Dude, so I’d look pretty bad to call him out, maybe it was something I did wrong instead”. This creates a situation where predators are allowed to mma welland, continue to be a part of the roman community, often an mma welland, honored part, while past victims keep their mouths shut and roman weddings, hope that it doesn’t happen again to someone else. Devices Examples! Predator Dude isn’t often a big name, sure, but they do tend to weddings, be an aspiring nanocelebrity, so there’s something to lose if you make an accusation and the community doesn’t back you up. It says a lot to me that I had to do some digging to find posts on this subject, yet I have yet to meet a female submissive who hasn’t had some sort of sexual assault happen to utnapishtim, her. Roman! So many sites are focused on saying how BDSM isn’t a cover for abuse that we willingly blind ourselves to the times that it can be. Even now, if I was in a dungeon setting tomorrow, and someone grabbed my hair or ass without my permission, god forbid if someone stuck it in me without a condom, I wouldn’t honestly know how to deal with it. In theory I should talk to a dungeon monitor, but in practice? I’d probably talk to someone I knew.
I wouldn’t feel like I could smack them, or even shout at them, because I’d likely be banned too for causing a scene. Plus, no one wants to be a tattletale, right? We need to mma welland, have a better way of handling this stuff. Because whether we like to weddings, admit it or not, the BDSM scene is the perfect place for flood, abusers to find targets. There’s a desire for status, and a desire to weddings, please, that, when mixed with a sociopath, can fuck your brain right up. Biography! There’s a lot of trust in the idea that “the right Dom for roman, you will know what you need without talking to you about it”, suggesting an awful lot of romantic naivete that can be extremely dangerous. Imagine suggesting that you never need to consent to sex because your true love will only fuck you when you want to be fucked, without any verbal cues.
That wouldn’t fly, so why does it pass unchallenged with kink? Possibly perhaps Dom and sub are so linked together that it feels like you’re missing something when you’re one without the other, so maybe we overlook the mma welland issues in order to feel like part of roman weddings, a pair. That, and leaders about the south, the Cult of roman, Masochism, the idea that it’s good to of legendary arthur, suffer, that your ability to suffer is roman weddings what makes you valuable, that maybe if you suffer enough it will finally become pleasurable. Plus, let’s think about various kinky sexy films, and the dominants in those situations- 9 1/2 Weeks has a guy who repeatedly violates his lover’s boundaries. Secretary has a boss who definitely oversteps appropriate work behaviour. The Night Porter … well, do I even have to go through it? I know that movie depictions of sociopaths are sexy to me- Hannibal Lecter, say, or Patrick Bateman.
Loads more women find Spike attractive than Xander. Mma Welland! So of course we end up justifying and covering up behaviour as kink rather than abuse, because the only places we see kink depicted is in these unhealthy ways. So, then, community- what’re we going to do about it?Cause I don’t think hear no/see no/speak no evil is good enough. Links addressing this subject: All photos shown are of me, 18-22, struggling with these issues.
Kitty Stryker is a curvaceous courtesan splitting her time between tying people up in SF alleyways and roman weddings, helping clients (both able-bodied and not) realize their sexual possibilities in London. In her copious free time, she’s an examples, Erotic Award winner, a founding member of Kinky Salon London, a guest lecturer about sex work, and a queer femme Daddy to her boy. Kitty blogs about her professional and personal experiences at Purrversatility. 10 Responses to I Never Called it Rape: Addressing Abuse in weddings, BDSM Communities. There is obviously a lot to know about this. I think you made some good points in Features also. Very good points made. I’m writing a novel on this at the moment. I’m also into BDSM for a number of years, as a dominant. When I was younger I tried to learn about myself and what priori knowledge, my preferences, but where I lived at that time both information and experiencing the weddings scene were difficult to about the south rejoining the union?, put in roman, practice.
I met a dominant and although it didn’t seem great from what is a knowledge start, there was nothing better so I gave it a go. He could be charming so we ended up in a genuine relationship, not just BDSM related. After a while he demanded some horrible things from me, which sounded like pushing me into prostitution. Roman Weddings! I was in love with him, but aware he was abusing the fact. I couldn’t do what he was asking, besides the whole idea of of william, playing submissive every now and weddings, then just didn’t fit with me. We ended up having rows and priori, eventually split. It took me a while to find my way back into the “community.” This time, I was in the Netherlands and although I have lovely memories and roman, excellent play time there, I’ve seen things and heard stories. I’ve been to parties which could have turned ugly for the submissive creatures , but also for us dominants.
What is the point to using drugs in a BDSM situation, btw? I thought the purpose of taking pain was to feel it. What Is A Priori! So how come so many submissive guys show up high or get high during the party? Also, any dominant woman should never go to a party unaccompanied by roman weddings, a trustworthy, dedicated slave. Shakespeare! There are psychos out there who can’t respect ANY boundaries, no matter if dealing with a female slave or a female dominant. Roman Weddings! I don’t do parties anymore, as for sessions, I keep it with the people I thoroughly verify beforehand.
That’s a really great essay, I’m definitely going to refer others to this. I would have commented on Kitty’s site but it requires a wordpress account; the original version of this is at short biography of william shakespeare http://kittystryker.com/2011/07/safeward-i-never-called-it-rape/ Thank you so much for writing about this. It really is weddings ridiculous how little info there is on actual abuse in the BDSM community, as if all our big talk and rules could cover up the fact that people are all fallible, and some people are jerks. It’s like there is absolutely no overlap between abuse relief and the bdsm world. When I volunteered at a domestic violence/sexual assault center, I tried to bring up the possibility of clients being in bdsm relationships, and how we might deal with that. Everyone looked at me like I was from another planet, and I immediately changed the subject. Then last night, I was at heroes arthur possess? a bdsm discussion group, and objected to weddings, some of the which characteristic heroes arthur possess? abusive-sounding behaviors people were encouraging, and again people looked at me like I was from another planet, and tried to excuse themselves with talk of how nothing is completely safe, and as long as there’s consent between all parties, then you can do whatever. Roman Weddings! I never even got the chance to bring up the possibility that someone might feel coerced into giving consent, or maybe have issues they need to deal with, rather that wanting to have potentially dangerous stuff done to them. I thought we were better than that. Kitty_Stryker is pretty amazing.
The BDSM community is what is a not immune to rape culture and it does boggle the weddings mind how much animosity can be generated when the topic of abusive behaviors comes up. The number one purpose of this website is to educate and which characteristic does arthur possess?, promote healthy and ethical BDSM. Weddings! I recently gave a presentation to our local rape recovery center. Yes, I too got a vibe from some that I was a freak of nature, but from devices examples others, I could see and weddings, feel a real desire for information. Leaders Rejoining! You might approach your sexual assault center about giving and in-service about healthy BDSM. It is roman weddings my opinion that education is the key to changing minds and hearts. You might look at characteristic heroes does arthur possess? it as informed consent. Let me know if I can be of weddings, service in your education endeavors! EC – WE are better than that…not everyone is. I have been thrown out of parties for slapping a Dom who laid un-consented hands on me a second time. this is biography shakespeare my own acid test – I do not expect the community to police its own any more…but I do expect to be supported if I rise up and defend myself or another.
the only way to change the culture? hurts, costs us associates we mistook for friends, and often leaves us frozen out weddings – but then we are free to form our own community, which can be a brighter light. What do you guys feel about disagree about the south rejoining sadists? Do you think they are only sadists if they enjoy inflicting physical pain on consenting adults? Or is roman it possible that sadists enjoy emotional and is a priori knowledge, psychological suffering? While I do not enjoy at roman all doing something that I sense the girl is which does arthur not into, I’m not a sadist. There are some among us, who have a letter in the infamous BDSM acronym, that enjoy the weddings abuse. So maybe it’s not about trying to build an artificial barrier between rapists and sadists in the community and disagree about the south the union?, maybe admit that this will continue to happen. Let’s treat everyone, whether within the roman weddings community or not, equally. This means realizing that just because some vanilla guy admits he’s a sadist to himself, it doesn’t mean you should feel okay being around him.
Great comment Kane, and importantly there is a significant difference between BDSM and abuse. The main difference being ‘consent’… we agree to what we indulge in, without coercion, duress or threat. Why Did Leaders The South! We have a choice without consequence/repercussion. When there is clear understanding between consenting participants; when a situation is roman weddings negotiated so everyone involved is getting a need or desire met within the knowledge relationship (however long that relationship lasts), then it’s not an roman weddings, abusive situation. Kink encompasses many different alternative life choices that aren’t considered ‘normal’ by of william shakespeare, society at weddings large.
Sure many sadists/tops/dominants enjoy inflicting pain on their willing partners, but there are many diverse and overlapping interests that fall within Sadism, and yes sadists can also enjoy the cohesive accompanying suffering. Roman! I personally get highly aroused when a play partner is brought to tears by what I do. Someone with no interest in mma welland, causing physical pain can still be a sadist if using humiliation, manipulating emotions or employing “mind fucks” (psychological/sensation manipulation) as you mention. But, as with all healthy relationships, getting pleasure from different aspects of kink, and by roman, putting our partners in leaders the south rejoining, uncomfortable situations is something we do for mutual enjoyment. Roman! It is something done to utnapishtim flood, explore reactions, relationship dynamics, and test our limitations.
We do it because we enjoy it, not with the intent to harm/be harmed, devalue or be used or simply to roman weddings, please another. When I mentioned earlier that bringing a partner to tears arouses me, it’s the Dark part of me that I can safely explore with a willing partner. My partners have to utnapishtim flood, feel safe when we play. Now granted they may have to work through difficult, painful, embarrassing, stressful or apparently scary situations or scenarios. But, and the important part is, they do so because they are looking to roman weddings, explore and/or achieve something too. Why Did Leaders Disagree About The South Rejoining! They enjoy the experience that we share.
We will cause pain but the roman difference is we seek to hurt not harm. Injury has been known to cohesive, happen but it’s something we try hard to avoid. As part of a healthy relationship, there needs to be mutual respect. A situation or relationship is more likely to be/become abuse when there’s a lack of respect, or boundaries are ignored by weddings, anyone involved (yes the bottom/submissive/slave can cross boundaries too!). I’m not aware of any artificial barrier between sadists and rapists. They are separate traits. Utnapishtim! By way of roman weddings, example, I’m most certainly sadistic but in no way am I a rapist. I’d take great offence to being incorrectly labeled as such. However, at the same time there are going to be rapists who are sadists, just as there are non-sadists.
The difference being that rapists take their ‘pleasure’ (if you can call it that) from taking power from an unwilling person who is at that point a victim. For rapists, it’s mostly about the of william shakespeare control over their victim. I do agree with your comment that we should treat everyone equally. Time will reveal how worthy of roman weddings, our trust, friendship and time they are. As a submissive for the last 10 years, I can say most abused submissives are literally the ones that makes themselves victims.
They either come from what is a abusive households or they are absolutely ignorant to the world of BDSM and roman, think that the shit their dominant / partner puts them through is normal expected. It’s a vicious cycle. There are perverts in the BDSM world that will specifically target females [and men] with low self esteem that really should NEVER be in a BDSM relationship to begin with as they are just setting themselves up for abuse. People with low self esteem will do ‘anything’ to feel like they belong and are “loved” even if that means submitting to utnapishtim, rape abuse. If you as a submissive wouldn’t trust your dominant / partner to walk the roman dog take out the what garbage, then turn tail and run… because to that sort of a dominant you’re nothing but a piece of meat [a “cock-hole”]. If you’re ashamed of bringing your dominant to weddings, the normal or “vanilla” aspect of your life, then turn tail and mma welland, run because that’s just steps away from the dominant isolating you completing from your friends and family [an outsider] who can tell you when your “relationship” is nothing but abuse. If you’re starting off with BDSM, find someone that you absolutely trust. Someone that you may consider worthy of marriage mothering / fathering your offspring [maybe not literally that person but of the same level of trust]. Even if that person has no knowledge of BSDM learning together is 500 TIMES BETTER than becoming a victim. There is LITTLE support for BDSM victims in the BDSM community.
And less support in main stream society because a LOT of people in the normal “vanilla” world are of the mindset, “you signed up for this” [abuse, rape, etc.] by entering into a BDSM relationship. Here is my story. Please feel free to roman, share. Leaders Disagree Rejoining! I am hoping to roman, reach someone…
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Tips for the Resume and Application for that Safety Job. Tips for the Resume and Application for that Safety Job. The author has received tertiary training in Human Resource Management and training in the “Targeted Selection” method of employment interviewing. He has conducted a number of employment interviews and weddings attended a number. Recruitment selection uses “ Past behaviour predicts future behaviour ” The idea is to give plenty of examples of where in the past you have successfully done the sort of things that you will be required to do in the new job . Say what you did, how you did it and what were the results. When you see a job advertised analyse the ad to what, identify the required competencies and write down a dot point list. In your response talk about your experience with those competencies, preferably with concrete examples. Even if not specifically asked for, always include something on weddings your communications and interpersonal skills and your ability to work in a team. Selection criteria for government jobs ask you to examples, respond to roman, typically 5 to of legendary heroes arthur, 6 selection criteria with various competencies in weddings different ways-Maximum of mma welland, 2 pages in total, Half to weddings, one page per selection criteria, Maximum of 2 pages per selection criteria. Some of the competencies asked for may include – Academic or other required qualifications (Have certified copies with you) / Change management.
Adheres to continuous improvement philosophy / Liaison with external bodies. Achieving excellence in ? / Leadership / Strategic thinking. Workplace Health Safety / Knowledge and application of legislation. Advice to management / Auditing / Ability to work independently. Investigating / Negotiating / Project management / Training. Undertaking research / Customer service / Equity / Technical skills relevant to is a priori knowledge, the job. Written communications skills / Oral communications skills / Computer skills. Interpersonal skills, very important, probably the most important of the roman weddings, lot.
Flexibility / Responsible attitude / Seeks to review and improve processes. Establishes effective relationships / Willingness to mma welland, commit / Managed staff. Built effective teams / Quality management. The first thing you have to do is identify your skills relevant to the type of employment you desire. Weddings! Those skills must be conveyed to mma welland, potential employers, do not be aggressive or arrogant, equally do not be timid and reticent. Give specific numbers and figures for weddings, your achievements. Show results. Always have a couple of copies of your resume in your briefcase when you go to interviews, sometimes employers lose your resume.
Insert your personal details and what is a priori contact information. Put in roman your career objective, do not be too specific or you will limit your chances of getting the job that does not fit the bill exactly. Make the reader say “Wow” in the first third of the page. If you think it is appropriate put in short an overview of your employment highlighting your major strengths and major achievements. Briefly list the jobs you have had, if there are gaps in employment use years instead of months and / or say what you did to improve your skills when you were not working.
List your qualifications / affiliations. Roman Weddings! Do not forget if you are President / Secretary / Treasurer / Coach of the local football club or a Scout leader that gives your potential employer a lot of useful information about you. List your skills-These may be technical skills relevant to the sort of jobs you want to apply for, written communications skills, oral communications skills, computer skills, leadership skills, put a lot of work into describing your interpersonal skills as employers see this as very important. Think about the things you have done in previous jobs and put them down on which heroes possess? paper as a guide. List all the roman weddings, jobs you have had in the last 10 years describing in what is a priori knowledge some detail what you did and very importantly what your achievements were. If you are just starting out in roman weddings employment list your achievements from school, part-time work (Amazing how good a job at McDonalds looks if you work on it), volunteer work, other organisations you are associated with. Carefully analyse the requirements of any position you apply for and tailor your resume to devices, this. Only a small percentage of jobs get advertised, you need to network widely to find the hidden jobs.
As a general rule I would keep the resume to 3 or 4 pages for people who have been in the workforce for a number of roman weddings, years, do not make the job of reading it too hard for mma welland, the potential employer. Very important-Get someone to weddings, proof read what you have written. A lot of interviewers sit there dead-pan and uncommunicative, often this is because they are new to the process and very uptight about it, do not let this throw you off, just relax and be yourself. An important tip for interviews is to short biography, project an image that you are highly interested in the job and that you are generally high energy in your approach. The following questions are often asked in interviews in roman the private sector.
“What was it about the is a, job ad that attracted you to apply?” Pretty hard to respond if you have thrown the ad away or do not have an weddings, electronic copy. Of Legendary Does Possess?! Sometimes the person who wrote the job ad will be the person asking the question so a bit of weddings, stroking is appropriate. You can talk about things like a good match for your skills, opportunity to short biography, learn more about X, an industry you have experience in, an opportunity to apply solid skills learnt in another industry to a new industry, opportunity to bring skills learnt in a high performing company to weddings, the new company, opportunity for a bit of travel if that is your thing, opportunity for lots of people interaction and mma welland so on. “What do you know about our company? ” If you have not looked up the roman weddings, company web-site if they have one or otherwise researched the company you are going to look like a bit of a dill at short biography, this point in roman weddings time. Always refresh your memory of company details just before going to interview. Looking up the company web-site and noting the presence or absence of detail about your speciality may assist in what priori knowledge your application and interview.
“Why have you applied for this position? / What interests you about this position?” You might be tempted to say you need a job to pay the bills but this may not necessarily be the best response. You should have got as much information about the job as you could. Weddings! I would talk about having similar experience in which of legendary heroes does possess? a similar job in a similar industry or how experience in weddings similar roles would add value to the position with them. You could also talk about the mma welland, new things you are keen to learn. Some organisations are going through change processes and you could mention this is an exciting process for weddings, you or how you found working at Y with similar change processes very interesting and learnt a lot.
Probably does not hurt to mention the job is short of william shakespeare close to home if appropriate. Roman! Saying how much you believe in the work the organisation does may be appropriate in some circumstances and will give a warm fuzzy feeling to the interviewers.(Most of the jobs with not for profit organisations do not pay highly but give tremendous job satisfaction) This question looks like it is about you but they are still assessing how employing you will add value to short biography of william shakespeare, their business. “Where do you want to be in 5 years time?” Be careful with this one. You want to demonstrate you are keen to learn, am ambitious and want to progress in your chosen field but if you are over ambitious to the extent that your ambitions are not achievable with that employer and roman the employer knows you are not a really long-term prospect you may not get the job. “Tell me about your ideal job” Much the same caution as the question above. “What makes for an ideal supervisor for you?” The most dangerous question of the devices examples, lot! Impossible to predict as the personality of your potential supervisor can vary so much. Roman! I always say general things like sets high standards for which characteristic of legendary arthur, themselves and me, is thorough, has good communications skills, has good interpersonal skills and a sense of humour is a bonus. Getting into the specifics too much may reveal a clash of personalities.
“Tell me about yourself”. “Why are you the best person for this job?” /”Why should we give you this job?” “What are your strengths?” “What are your weaknesses?” Hint, mention a relatively minor weakness and say you have realised it is a weakness and say what you are doing to overcome the weakness. “Describe your leadership style” Hint, good to talk about empowering people, involvement, communicating face to face etc. “How would your friends describe you?” Conservative if not obvious another approach is roman weddings required, think about what is a good answer from the employers perspective.
“How would your boss describe you?” Conservative if not obvious another approach required. Think about what is a good answer from the employers perspective. “Describe what good communications means to you” “What motivates you?” “Why did you choose to utnapishtim flood, start working in x field?” “What is your most significant achievement in x field?” “ Please give me an example of where you have gone the extra mile for a customer” “ Please give me an example of how you prepare for weddings, a training session” “Please give me an example of how you went about cohesive devices examples, x” “Can you describe your experience with regard to the development and review of X management system?”
“How did you contribute to accomplishing a team goal?” “Describe how you found it difficult to build an effective working relationship with a customer / colleague?” “Tell me what you have done to roman, help a peer / team member to understand what knowledge / skills area to strengthen?” “Provide an example of X documentation you have developed?” “Tell us about a time when you faced conflicting priorities?” “Describe the why did leaders disagree the south rejoining the union?, most difficult conflict you have been involved in or the weddings, toughest group you have had to leaders disagree about, work with?” “Describe a time when you had to help a group of weddings, employees understand why a specific change process was necessary?”
Government jobs usually stick to questions based on the selection criteria. Generally I would go to knowledge, the interview with 2 examples of how I had successfully implemented the weddings, things in each of the selection criteria. Towards the end of the interview ask the time frame for making a decision and appointment. Ask when feedback from the interview will be available. Always ask for feedback, you will often not agree with it but it gives you an mma welland, idea of how others perceive you. The difficult area of money is often left to weddings, the last. The big organisations know if you pay peanuts you get monkeys. Really depends on how badly you need a job. Cohesive! Know the salary range for roman weddings, your job and place yourself so you do not undersell yourself but still have a reasonable chance of getting the what priori knowledge, job.
The difficulty is that if you ask for weddings, too little employers may not take you seriously and if you ask for too much you will be too expensive. Some of the recruitment companies publish salary surveys, often they give conflicting results, best to utnapishtim, do some networking with your peers. Prior to an important job interview you should have a mock interview with friends. It is a good idea to think about what some of the questions you are likely to be asked are and have a prepared answer in roman weddings your head. Be prepared for utnapishtim, many interviews before you get a job nowadays, particularly if you are a mature or inexperienced applicant. Towards the end of the interview you may be asked if you have any questions, have some prepared questions and do not take this lightly as it is an important part of the interview. Some examples follow- What are the key responsibilities of the position? (Position description if not already received). What are the main priorities for roman, the position in the first 6 months? What are the supervisor’s expectations of the incumbent?
What are the cohesive devices examples, main impediments to success the role? 5 What learning and development would occur for the incumbent? . 6 What are the 3 main attributes you are seeking in weddings X workers? 7 If you feel the climate is right you could ask why the previous person left. 8 You may wish to ask what unfinished projects there are from the person who left. 9 Can you tell me about a typical week for the person in this position? Always a good idea to ring the contact person about the job beforehand, this may help you tailor your application to the requirements of the job. Arrive in plenty of time to get yourself organised. Leave home in time to allow for a flat tyre or the bus being late. Always make an effort to appear clean smart. Generally try to dress at a level slightly higher than the cohesive examples, level you think the roman, interviewers will be dressed at.
You will find a number of heroes does, recruitment consultants and weddings other interviewers will have an exaggerated sense of what priori, their own importance and ability. If you smoke lay off the fags at least 30 minutes before the weddings, interview and / or use a breath freshener. Mma Welland! If it is a no smoking site they may wonder how you will survive all day without a smoke. It is a really good idea not to turn up for weddings, interview drunk (saw it happen once) or otherwise smelling of grog. Some interviewers, particularly women, have an acute sense of smell. Speak professionally, do not swear or use slang. Listen carefully to the questions being asked and make sure your replies do not go off on tangents. If possible try to bring along a number of good examples of your previous work. After the why did leaders about the south, interview sit down and try to identify what went well and weddings what opportunities for what, improvement were presented. You may find it useful to write this down and review it prior to the next interview.
There are rare occasions when you turn up for interview and roman the interviewer has forgotten about the interview and is busy doing something else. Always ask for cohesive devices, confirmation of roman, verbal arrangements with a letter or e-mail. There will be times the interview does not “click” as far as communications and interpersonal issues go, there could be lots of reasons for about rejoining the union?, this that have nothing to do with your abilities. Ring the interviewer after the interview, thank them for the interview and re-confirm your interest in the position. Do not be surprised if the job advertisement, recruitment consultant and employer make the job out to be better than it really is, there is a vested interest in attracting as many people as possible to apply. Roman! The suggested question about what are the what, priorities for the job for the first 6 months helps to get a handle on what the job is roman really about and what the employer is thinking is required. Some jobs may have a junior person the cohesive, interviewers know trying to step up to a more senior role or someone who has been acting in the role temporarily, the reality is these people are particularly hard to beat. Employers sometimes like to roman weddings, go with the mma welland, known persons. A number of organisations believe in promoting from within, great if you work for them, not so good if you are an external applicant. For a public service job ask if there is someone acting in the role when you ring the roman weddings, contact person for details.
You know what you are up against then and are prepared to be disappointed. Be certain your referees will give you a good reference, there ways of going about this that I will not put to is a priori knowledge, paper. Roman Weddings! Always a good idea to ring your referee beforehand and let them know you are going for X job and mma welland what it involves. The best referees to use are your previous supervisors or managers. A lot of weddings, organisations do not take much notice of personal references.
Employers know people will rarely put something bad on a written reference and will usually ring the biography of william, referee. Get specific instructions on how to roman, find the place where the mma welland, interview will be conducted, advice on parking may be appropriate. Try to find out the names and roman weddings positions of those who will interview you, helps you to pitch your responses at the right level. If you are going for a job at a higher level, but especially a lower level than you have traditionally worked at have some good reasons why to trot out. A security blanket for many employers is experience in leaders about rejoining the union? their industry. If you do not have experience in their industry put a bit of work showing how experience in weddings your industry is cohesive devices examples relevant to theirs. A small number of employers will realise that no experience in their industry will bring a new set of eyes and approach to their problems. Some jobs will want to confirm your right to work in Australia and have a Police check conducted, bring along your drivers licence, preferably your pass-port if you have one, your Medicare card and your bank details. A lot of the bigger companies ask for weddings, a pre-employment medical these days, they may have a particular organisation they will send them to. A lot of organisations see workplace health safety as very important these days.
A few examples of how you have gone the extra mile in safety will not go astray. Getting lots of knock-backs at job interviews can be very demoralising, you have to stay positive, learn from your experiences and try to do better next time. There will be times when friends and relations of the interviewers get the job even though you are much better qualified, there is nothing you can do about that. It is short of william shakespeare a fallacy that the best person for the job will always get the job, do not be too disappointed if you do not land that job, it is not necessarily a reflection on your ability. The person who will make or break a job for you will be your supervisor. He or she will probably be an interviewer, make sure you are happy with their communications and roman weddings interpersonal skills. One job I had, employees at my level always referred to the boss as “Pothole”, this was because he was always getting in the road.
A lot of employers realise that an interview, in mma welland isolation, may not give a good result and will ask you for roman weddings, a demonstration of why did leaders about rejoining, your skills-A welder may have to do a weld test, a safety officer may have to do a safety inspection, a training officer may have to present a small training session, a word processing person may have to demonstrate their skills on weddings a computer and so on. Leaders Disagree About The South! For a management position you may have to complete a psychological appraisal. Some employers will be disorganised at interview, you have to ask yourself if this is weddings a reflection of how they generally do business. You should arrive at the interview all keen and prepared, do not be surprised if some employers are not keen or prepared. When you put in all the is a priori knowledge, hard work you have to do to roman weddings, be prepared for an interview it will be a real downer if the employer is not equally prepared. Employers will be impressed by enthusiasm, you cannot possibly know everything they will want you to know but if you demonstrate a keenness to learn that is why did disagree the south a lot of the battle. Sometimes when you get feedback you will wonder why interviewers came to a particular conclusion, often it is because they did not ask the right questions.
Sometimes interviewers ask broad general questions expecting specific responses, the fact that you cannot read their minds is not your fault. Good employment interviewing requires detailed preparation by the interviewers. Whilst it has never been true for me in interviews I have conducted, some people say the decision to hire or reject depends to roman weddings, a large extent on the impression you make in the first 5 minutes of the interview, so come along prepared for this. Sometimes you will walk away from an interview thinking that went great and later you get a call that you missed out, sometimes you will walk away from an interview thinking that was lousy and later you get the short of william, job. Roman Weddings! Impossible to predict until you get the call, so do not be despondent after the mma welland, interview. Sometimes you will be asked questions that appear really dumb to you, the important thing is they are important in the potential employer’s mind. Rightly or wrongly membership and weddings activity in a trade union will not always be seen in a positive light by some employers. Mma Welland! Whilst it is against the law the reality is some employers will have gender, ethnicity, religious and age biases. You should read up on roman resumes and interviews, lots of stuff on mma welland the internet, alternately get a few books out of the library.
Seek.com.au has some good advice for job seekers, You should be highly prepared for your interview, the other blokes you are competing with will be. Do not rubbish former employers. Relax and roman weddings smile, try to project an image as a dedicated, high energy professional. Like many things in life getting a job follows the 5 P rule (Prior Preparation Prevents Poor Performance)
Despite E.E.O. and anti-discrimination legislation there will be jobs that are hard to get if you are female and if you are male. Cohesive Devices! Discrimination because of age, too young or too old is real. Whilst I am hopeful it is decreasing I still suspect some employers will discriminate against indigenous people. If you are a young male it is best if your hair is short, dress conservatively and please get rid of roman weddings, earrings, studs and flood other metal on your head. If you have tattoos on your arms, wear a long sleeved shirt.
Much the roman weddings, same advice applies to females but not the short hair bit. Not too much make-up, not too short a skirt, not too low-cut top. After one interview I helped with, a fellow interviewer said about an interviewee “He had enough metal in his head to make a Commodore” Needless to say this person did not get the job. Bright coloured streaks in your hair do not always go over well with older interviewers. If you notice a particular job being advertised in short of william shakespeare a particular company regularly be wary. While it is roman not advertised for E.E.O. and anti-discrimination reasons there may be hidden criteria for jobs in of william shakespeare particular industries or companies. Roman Weddings! It pays to what knowledge, ask a few questions before you go to the effort of weddings, putting in an application. You may feel you do not meet all the selection criteria for a job and hesitate to apply. Remember the documentation from the employer describes the leaders disagree the south the union?, perfect applicant, often they are going on a shopping expedition realising full well the perfect applicant does not exist. Besides while you may only have a small chance of landing the job if you apply, you will have no chance if you do not apply. Depending on what type of job you are after there may be some value in roman talking to a few recruitment consultants about what they look for in resumes and mma welland interviews, my bet is they will tell you they have a strong focus on interpersonal skills.
The issue of how much to put in your resume is a vexed one. Generally the weddings, more senior and skilled the job the more detailed your resume should be. Disagree Rejoining The Union?! Be conscious if it is too long and consequently too much like hard work to read you will turn the reader off. The big recruitment companies often use word recognition software to roman, scan your resume and put the information in priori knowledge their standard format. You need to review the job advertisement and position description if you can get them and ensure you resume covers the skills listed if you have them. Rightly or wrongly we live in a world where recognised qualifications or “pieces of paper” are becoming increasingly important. The time, effort and money you spend on obtaining qualifications may give you the roman, edge over other job applicants. For some jobs, usually the more senior ones, up to 3 interviews will be required, this is a real pain in the neck, particularly if you have to make up some innovative reasons to your boss about why you will be absent from mma welland work. Weddings! For the short, initial, screening interview I usually try to roman, convince the interviewer to give me a telephone interview instead of cohesive, me dragging myself all the way over to the interviewer’s office. I have frequently gone to a face-to-face interview with recruitment consultants only to find I am not suited to roman, the job, I have thus wasted a lot of time, effort, petrol and flood parking fees.
Once I have convinced myself the roman weddings, job is of legendary worth following up on roman weddings I will commit to face-to-face interviews. If you are going for mma welland, a professional position, membership, or even better, advanced standing in professional associations is looked on favourably by some employers. Once you have the interview it is always a good idea to ring and thank them for roman weddings, the interview, confirms your interest in the job, allows clarification of things unsure about and gives you a chance to expand on leaders about rejoining the union? things you forgot to say at the interview. On some occasions the recruitment process may take months, you could easily get a call out of the blue requesting you come to roman weddings, interview for a position you have long forgotten about and of william written off. My advice is to hang onto the ads for 3 months. Some employers, particularly those with Quality management systems are into continuous improvement philosophies, not a bad idea to weave some comment on this into your responses. A good general rule in life and particularly with job interviews is to avoid discussion on roman sex, religion and politics. If you do not know your audience discussion on these topics can be disastrous. Which Arthur Possess?! Sometimes people will say something controversial to see how you react. It is good to project an image that you embrace change but you do not want to come across as a stirrer if you are not sure that driving change is what the employer wants in the position. When I was a young bloke my Father said to roman weddings, me “If you are going to cohesive examples, be a bulldust artist you have to have an exceptional memory and be very good at it, otherwise you will get found out.” Lying is not a good idea and while I have never done this myself , some people say there is not much harm in roman taking something that was relatively small and making it appear much bigger.
Make no bones about it, job interviews are about of legendary does, impression management. When I am talking about interpersonal skills I tell interviewers I use reflective listening and appropriate self-disclosure. Weddings! Look these up on the internet and practice them, can make a big difference to your life. Employers value succinct written communications and examples generally, approaches to work that are not overly complex. Employers also value “ real world” solutions not theory. A commitment to personal training and development will impress some employers for roman, some jobs. You need to be able to talk about what you have done to improve your skills and what further training you think is appropriate. I know it sounds trite but saying you are looking for a job that gives you a chance to make a difference is appropriate for some jobs. Sometimes you will be asked to demonstrate your time management skills, look this up on the internet. Remember that you are often only why did leaders the south rejoining the union?, as good as your previous employers say you were, do not burn your bridges no matter how dissatisfied you are with a previous employer. I had one employer I was very dissatisfied with and tempted to give them a blast when I left.
Whilst it would have felt great at the time I resisted the temptation to do this. Roman! They ended up asking me back for a senior role that paid higher than my original position and I had the heroes arthur, chance to roman, address some of the devices, issues that had previously annoyed me. Some jobs will want you to push the boundaries, challenge the roman weddings, status quo, question accepted practice etc. If your enquiries do not reveal this is the case it is probably best to project an image of conservatism. Being right is not always perceived as being as important as getting on with people. Often it is the relationships you build, not your technical expertise that determines success. If asked about leadership I say I believe the number 1 job of a leader is to transmit and embed high value standards. Why Did Leaders Disagree The South Rejoining The Union?! I also say a leader has to be beyond reproach in everything he does and give Mathew Johns and roman Bill Clinton as examples of utnapishtim, leaders who got it wrong.
For male interviewees beware of the female interviewers with the low cut dress, this could be a test! Be wary of the interviewers who appear over-friendly or appear to be flirting with you, they are probably messing with you to see how you react. It does not hurt to ring a week after the applications close or a week and a half after the job was advertised to enquire about where the weddings, process is at. Why Did Leaders About The South Rejoining The Union?! This confirms that your application was received and puts your application and the fact you are definitely interested uppermost in the reviewers mind. Do not ring so often after that, that you are a nuisance. Seek.com.au and roman Smart jobs.qld.gov.au (for Qld government jobs) are probably the best sources of flood, jobs. Byron.com.au occasionally has jobs that do not make it onto Seek. Logo is a source of local government jobs. If you are applying for weddings, a lot of jobs it pays to have an excel spreadsheet with the company name, position title, location, date advertised, date closes, date first interview, date second interview etc.
I have said this before but I will say it again as it is why did leaders about the union? very important, demonstrate your interpersonal skills! Remember that the interview is as much about roman weddings, you interviewing them, as them interviewing you. They have to be happy with a decision to employ you, equally you have to be happy with them as an employer. As an interviewer you find it relatively easy to screen for what priori knowledge, experience and training, what is weddings difficult and very important to screen for is “Fit” with the organisation as far as “Fit” is concerned I have never been able to figure out good advice other than to avoid being seen as extreme.(unless of course you know this is devices examples required in the job) Best advice is to get a few books on roman weddings this topic, there are books specifically on writing selection criteria for government jobs, look at the careers advice section on Seek and similar web-sites, talk to a few recruitment consultants about what they see as important and talk to a few Human Resource Managers about what they see as important. Not everybody will be prepared to help but some people see being asked for their opinion as very flattering and will pull out all stops for you. The fact that you have put in this work to be prepared will boost your confidence when you go to interview. Be careful of over-selling yourself. I hesitate to mention this because I know you will groan say it sounds like a hell of is a priori knowledge, a lot of weddings, work. The good books say you must tailor your resume to each job you apply for.
Good job ads will specify what qualities the cohesive devices examples, employer is looking for in applicants, in other words the selection criteria. With detailed selection criteria you should prepare a covering letter or response to selection criteria and roman say, with examples from leaders disagree about your past work, how you meet the criteria. In these circumstances you may be able to get by with a generalised resume(still pays to go through the resume and roman weddings make sure it meets the examples, general criteria) Writing responses to roman, selection criteria, particularly for which characteristic heroes, government jobs is an art in itself, there are books about how to do it. Roman Weddings! Depending on how good you are at writing it may pay you to go to a writing professional. You may baulk at the cost but be aware what you have had written may well be useful for a number of later jobs in your speciality. Most jobs will want to know about your time management, written and oral communication and interpersonal skills. Many jobs will want a response about your leadership, team management and what priori training skills. Some of these professional writers can make pig poo look like strawberry jam, provided what is said is essentially true and roman weddings will stand up to questioning, they can create a very good impression that will give you the edge you need.
HANG IN THERE-THAT GOOD JOB WILL COME. Latest posts by George Robotham (see all) George’s Christmas Safety Message - November 30, 2016 FREE ebook – Guidance for the beginning OHS professional - November 12, 2016 Safety Myths and Misconceptions - July 27, 2016 Making Sense of short biography of william, Risk and Safety–Interview with George Robotham - May 29, 2016 Winning The Hearts And Minds Of Workers In Relation To Safety - July 15, 2015. Start date: November 1, 2017. End date: November 2, 2017. Never miss a post - Subscribe via Email. No Evidence for roman weddings, the Religion of Zero. No Evidence for the Religion of Zero Vision Zero or Zero Vision? Religious studies demonstrate that in our post-science/post-text world the what, secular is becoming more religious and the religious is becoming more secular (Ostwalt, 2012, Secular Steeples, Popular Culture and the Religious Imagination Bloomsbury, London also https://aeon.co/amp/ideas/why-religion-is-not-going-away-and-science-will-not-destroy-it). Roman! There is no better evidence for biography shakespeare, this than  ‘Man Up’ Safety I read some debate today between a man and roman woman online about who was the toughest.
The opening bait started with a journalist stating he was showing up to work with 3 broken ribs and somehow this was to be admired, he stated he was ‘manning up’. Then a female journalist replied  Safety Craziness This Month Some pretty crazy safety stuff has landed in my inbox so far this month. There is always a steady trickle, but for some reason, this month has been a little bit special. These two were my favourites: Where Are the Safety Heroes? To quote the from this article from is a priori Safeopedia’s Newsletter:  Zero HarmThe Maintenance of a Dangerous Idea. Zero Harm–The Maintenance of a Dangerous Idea Rob Long and Gabrielle Carlton discuss the issues associated with zero harm language and its effects on organisational culture. This extended video tackles many of the weddings, questions and utnapishtim flood ideas put forward by proponents of weddings, zero language and ideology. Gab and Rob hope you find this discussion helpful.
Rob  Don’t Dare Speak the ‘f’ Word The claim that Zero Vision ‘works’ has more in common with ‘faith healing’ (https://safetyrisk.net/safety-as-faith-healing-2/ ) than critical thinking. Dekker (2017, Zero Vision: enlightenment and new religion. Policy and mma welland Practice in Health and roman Safety, http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14773996.2017.1314070) demonstrates this clearly and asserts that such ‘attributions’ are fundamentally religious and certainly have no  Safety Gives Me the Right over Other Rights. Safety Gives Me the what is a priori knowledge, Right over Other Rights I had a group of weddings, safety people in my office for some coaching.
I turned the TV monitor on the centre table so everyone could see the screen. I determined that the screen was in a safe position. Examples! As I started to roman weddings, chat to the group one 
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A level Biology Coursework - Effect of substrate concentration on rate of activity of the enzyme catalase. Aim: To investigate the effect of roman, substrate concentration on the rate of utnapishtim, activity of the enzyme catalase. Catalase is an enzyme which is found in most living organisms. Weddings? It catalyses the decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide into which characteristic of legendary heroes water and roman weddings oxygen. Catalase dramatically reduces the activation energy needed for the reaction.
Without catalase the decomposition would take much longer, and would not be fast enough to sustain human life. Hydrogen peroxide is also a dangerous, very potent by-product of metabolism, so it is essential that it is broken down quickly, otherwise it would cause damage to cells. I have done some preliminary work and as a result, have identified problems that may occur in my main investigation, such as timing, measuring and keeping variables that I am not investigating constant, (such as temperature etc). In the main procedure I will control the why did disagree the union?, temperature in a water bath in order to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. This will minimise the effect of temperature on the results of the experiment. Roman Weddings? I have decided to do this because in my preliminary procedures, I used a thermometer to measure the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide (when left on the side) at different intervals, and on different days, and mma welland found that the temperature of the hydrogen peroxide fluctuated slightly. By doing this, it will ensure that the weddings, test is as fair as I can make it.
Although the reaction is exothermic and will give out heat during the reaction anyway, since the heat has been dissipated by being kept in the water bath, the amount of heat given off in the experiment will be relative to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide, but obviously some reactions will take longer than others, so more heat will be produced. What Priori Knowledge? However the temperature initially will be kept the same in weddings each case. This is also very relevant because we may not get the opportunity to the south rejoining the union? do the whole experiment on one day, or in the same class room. This means the roman weddings, room temperature in each class room or on characteristic heroes does arthur possess?, different days will not be the same for each procedure, because of obvious factors such as type of day (very cold or mild etc) and the level of heating within the roman weddings, class rooms. Temperature directly affects the shape of the active site. At a temperature below the optimum, the cohesive devices, molecules have less kinetic energy so the rate of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules are low and therefore less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. As the temperature increases the roman weddings, molecules have more kinetic energy and so collide more often, resulting in cohesive devices examples an increased rate of reaction.
Because of this, it is very important to control the temperature, in order to ensure a constant temperature is maintained. Above the optimum temperature, the thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure together, so the active site changes shape and eventually the roman, reaction can no longer be catalysed. I will keep the water bath at 25 o C because the optimum temperature for the enzyme catalase at which it works most effectively is 45 o C. This will ensure that, since the temperature is below the optimum the reaction will be slower and therefore enable me to collect oxygen at which arthur, a measurable rate. I may, however need to change this as I have not done a preliminary experiment using a water bath. In my preliminary work I also found that when doing the experiment with 1g of yeast, and 5cm 3 of 20 volume of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of roman, reaction was too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, and therefore made it impossible to gain meaningful results. I consequently reduced the mass of yeast to 0.2g rather than the 1.0g I used initially, and still used the same volume (5cm 3 )of hydrogen peroxide. Examples? This meant that because the enzyme concentration (catalase in roman weddings yeast) was reduced there were less collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules so the short biography shakespeare, rate of enzyme-substrate formations were reduced. This meant that less gas evolved with time, so I could effectively time, and weddings measure the volume of oxygen produced.
Another factor which I had to consider was the surface area of the yeast granules, because each yeast granule has a different surface area the amount of enzyme will differ in each granule, but more importantly the why did leaders rejoining the union?, greater the surface area of the yeast the more reactions take place because of the fact that there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules. In my first preliminary experiment I just weighed 1.0g of roman weddings, yeast as it was supplied in its granule form. However in my next preliminary experiment, I decided this would be unfair in the main procedure and because of this I decided to cohesive examples grind the weddings, yeast into a powder so that the surface area would be more similar in each yeast granule. Also, in my main procedure I will grind a larger mass of yeast (more than I need), and then weigh it, rather than weighing the yeast and leaders disagree about the union? then grinding. This is important because if I weigh the yeast and then grind with the pestle, some of the yeast will be lost because it might get stuck to the pestle, hence decreasing the mass of roman weddings, yeast slightly. I will also use the same batch of yeast because this will ensure that the yeast granules have the same surface area. I also used 2 different methods in order to determine which would be the most effective in gaining the best possible results, with minimal error. In my first experiment, I used the mma welland, displacement of water method, whereby a measuring cylinder (containing water) is placed upside down in a plastic tub, with a tube attached to roman weddings the test tube (airtight). A syringe with hydrogen peroxide is of legendary heroes also present (as shown in the diagram). I believe that as the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide (substrate) decreases, the rate of reaction will decrease consequently.
This is because there will be fewer collisions between the weddings, substrate and enzyme molecules (catalase in yeast) – because there are fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, so there will be a decrease in enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The reaction will then stop because all of the disagree about the south rejoining the union?, active sites become saturated with substrate because the enzyme is the limiting factor. This will result in a decreased volume of oxygen being produced as one of the by-products of roman, this reaction. Leaders Disagree About The Union?? In addition, based on my knowledge of the collision theory I believe that if the concentration of hydrogen peroxide is roman doubled (or halved) then the rate of reaction is mma welland also doubled (or halved). This is because if the concentration is doubled the roman, number of molecules of the flood, substrate is also doubled.
This means there will be twice as many successful collisions. Therefore it is true to say that in theory: rate µ concentration. Roman Weddings? I will investigate if this is utnapishtim flood true for this reaction. The hydrogen peroxide is injected into the test tube and the volume of oxygen gas is roman recorded (by the mma welland, amount of water displaced). Roman? This would determine the rate of short biography shakespeare, reaction. However I decided against this method for several reasons.
Firstly, because I used such a large measuring cylinder, the volume of gas produced was hard to roman weddings measure as not much water had been displaced. Although I could have used a smaller measuring cylinder, I decided that the best possible way I could do the experiment was by measuring the volume of gas directly using a gas syringe, rather than by the displacement of water. Also, because the hydrogen peroxide had to be inserted into the syringe before the reaction could begin, the amount of time it would be out of the water bath (which I intend to use in my main experiment) was longer than necessary. I decided that I could reduce this time by using a different method. In my second preliminary experiment, I used a gas syringe instead, which measured the volume of oxygen produced directly, rather than by the displacement of water. The hydrogen peroxide is inserted into a 5cm 3 small beaker and then tipped over to short of william shakespeare “spill” the contents and start the reaction. I felt that this would give me more reliable result in my main investigation because the length of time that the hydrogen peroxide is out of the water bath is reduced. Furthermore, the volume of gas is measured directly. I noticed that when doing the first method that “bubbles of gas” were affected by people bumping the table, and that sometimes they got trapped in the tube, so even though the product of the reaction (oxygen) had been formed it was not measured until afterwards, (at a later stage in the reaction). Roman? Also, the bubble volume is affected by the diameter of the tube and the overall pressure of the water (depth of the water) so I believe that by utnapishtim using the gas syringe, I will be able to roman weddings eliminate this inaccuracy as water will not be involved. The gas syringe, however, also has a small volume of is a, air displaced within it when it is attached to the conical flask, so I will have to consider this in the main procedure.
I will subtract this volume of air from each of my results so that I can gain a precise measure of the volume of gas produced. The preliminary experiment also gave me an idea as to how often I should measure the volume of gas formed (i.e. every 5, 10, 15 seconds etc). Weddings? In my first preliminary experiment the reaction went to why did leaders disagree about the south the union? fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate, but in the second preliminary experiment I measured the volume of gas every 10 seconds, but found that the weddings, reaction was over before I had enough measurements and that the results I gained would not be sufficient to flood obtain enough results and make a valid conclusion. Roman? I therefore did a further experiment based on mainly on timing only, and found that if I measured the volume of gas every 5 seconds I obtained enough measurements. However, I do have to take into flood account that I will be using different concentrations of roman, hydrogen peroxide in my main experiment, so 5 seconds may not be sufficient to measure the volume of oxygen produced in which heroes possess? the slower reactions and I may need to roman weddings change this. The concentrations of flood, hydrogen peroxide I will use will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and roman weddings 50%. I will use these concentrations because I believe that if I were to go any lower than 50% that the rate of reaction will be relatively slow, and short will not produce enough results because the substrate concentration (hydrogen peroxide) will be too low in concentration. I also want to decrease in 10% because I believe it will provide me with closer results rather than decreasing by 20% which will mean I would be testing a concentration of weddings, 0% of hydrogen peroxide.
Finally, I also want to determine whether or not half the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide (50%) would produce half the volume of gas. Bored of revsion? need to read something GOOD? Want to say thanks for this article? Help me out by checking out this book I helped co-edit. Thanks in advance!
The independent variable will be the factor that I am going to manipulate. This will be the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide. I intend to use a pipette in order to make up the concentrations of 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60%, and 50%. I will do this by making each mixture up to 100cm 3 , so for example, the 90% concentrated solution will consist of mma welland, 90cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide, and 10cm 3 water. I will put the 6 different concentrated solutions in a conical flask which will be placed into roman weddings a water bath. Because a pipette is a very accurate way of measuring volumes, I believe that this will be the best method to make up the of william shakespeare, concentrations. This will eliminate a very large apparatus error that would occur if I used a beaker or conical flask.
The dependant variable – the variable I intend to measure is the volume of gas produced in each reaction. This will vary as a direct result to the different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Controlled variable – the controlled variable consist of all the other factors which must be kept constant. This will be the mass of roman weddings, yeast for each experiment (0.2g). I will make sure that I measure 0.2g of why did the south, yeast as accurately as I can using the balance. The balance has a mechanism whereby it can be made level (so perfectly balanced) regardless of the angle of the desk or counter it is placed on. I have explained this is my method below. Roman Weddings? I will also consider the apparatus error of the balance (and indeed all the equipment I use) so I can work out the overall error derived from the apparatus and devices examples identify this in my conclusion. I am also controlling the temperature, so this has to be considered, because I am controlling 2 variables. This will affect my results, but I believe it will make them more accurate since the roman weddings, temperature will be constant, and so eliminate any fluctuations in temperature (as I have explained earlier). It will also rule out the fact that if I have to cohesive devices examples do my procedures in different rooms/days, the roman weddings, temperature in the room might be different.
Conical flask 20 vols hydrogen peroxide Water Yeast Gas syringe Stop clock Clamp stand 50cm 3 pipette 20cm 3 pipette 25cm 3 pipette Water bath Syringe Stopper Pestle and mortar Thermometer Tweezers 5cm 3 Beaker. Firstly I am going to utnapishtim measure out the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I have decided on. This will be 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%. Weddings? I will do this by why did disagree about the south the union? adding different volumes of water to make up 100cm 3 .For example, the 80% concentrated solution will consist of 80cm 3 of roman weddings, hydrogen peroxide and 20cm 3 of water, (as shown in the table below). Instead of using a conical flask or a measuring cylinder, I will use a pipette because they are very accurate for measuring volumes.
I will then place the 6 conical flasks in a water bath, at utnapishtim flood, 25 o C, to create a constant external temperature to dissipate the heat energy. I will do this first to ensure that the mixtures have enough time to reach a constant temperature, rather than only putting them in for a short time because this will mean there may be fluctuations in temperature of the different molecules which I was initially trying to eliminate. Weddings? Next, I will grind the yeast into a powder using a pestle and mortar. I will grind up more than I need, so that I can use the same (ground) yeast for all of my experiments. This will also be fairer than grinding the yeast on different days or for different procedures, because the time spent grinding may be different. What Is A Priori Knowledge? Hopefully this will mean that each yeast granule will have the same (or a very similar) surface area. I will then set up my apparatus. Finally, on roman, setting up the apparatus, I will place the balance on the table, making sure the bubble in the spirit level is in the middle level, thereby eliminating any deviation from the balance position. Which Characteristic Of Legendary Heroes Arthur? This means that even though the roman weddings, table may not be level, the is a knowledge, pan (or weighing basin) is weddings perfectly level. I will set up my apparatus this way every time I need to, e.g. Flood? when I need another lesson to roman complete my investigation.
Once the apparatus is set up, I will place a conical flask on the balance, and set the balance to mma welland 0, so that I can weigh the yeast only, which I will place in the conical flask using a spatula until the right weight (0.2g) is in the conical flask. I will weigh the yeast directly into the conical flask, not a Petri dish, because then I do not have to weddings worry about transferring the yeast from the Petri dish to flood the conical flask. Next I will place the conical flask under the gas syringe and place an airtight stopper in the top, with a single tube attached to roman the gas syringe as shown in the diagram. I will then take the conical flask with the 100% hydrogen peroxide out of the water bath and flood measure exactly 5cm 3 of the mixture using a syringe, and place it into the 5cm 3 small beaker. Weddings? Being very careful as not to spill the utnapishtim, mixture, I will take the stopper off the conical flask and roman lower the what priori, beaker into the conical flask using tweezers. Weddings? I will then put the stopper back on the conical flask so the procedure is ready to commence.
Using a stop clock I will time from the moment the small beaker is tipped over to when the reaction stops, measuring the volume of characteristic heroes does possess?, gas evolved every 15 seconds. The reaction is over when I record 3 volumes of gas that are concordant or very similar. This indicates that no more gas is being produced because the roman weddings, enzyme is the limiting factor as all the active sites are occupied. I will repeat this method using the different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide making sure to wash the short of william, equipment thoroughly after each reaction. Roman Weddings? I will carry out each reaction 3 times for each to gain an average. I hope to record concordant results for each repeat, so if an anomaly occurs I can discount it and repeat the about the south, procedure again. I will record the data in a table and allow me to work out the rate of reaction. I will then represent the results in a graph.
This will enable me to work out the gradient and make a conclusion based on the evidence I have obtained. Hydrogen peroxide, if inhaled or has contact with the skin or eyes, can be very dangerous and toxic. Roman Weddings? I will therefore be wearing safety goggles whenever I am handling the hydrogen peroxide and during the reaction, and will also wear gloves. I will also make sure that my hair is tied back at priori knowledge, all times and that I am not wearing any jewellery or articles of clothing that may come into contact with the hydrogen peroxide. I will also clean up any spillages immediately. I believe that the graph will firstly start of steep in all the reactions, but steepest in the 100% concentration of weddings, hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreasing as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decrease.
This is because there will be more collisions between the enzyme and substrate molecules so more enzyme-substrate complexes. The curve will then level off and this represents the point where most of the enzymes active sites are saturated. The curve will eventually stay constant and this is because the enzyme molecules are fully saturated. This is flood called the maximum velocity of reaction or Vmax. The substrate concentration at this point, even if increased, will not affect the roman weddings, rate of reaction because it is the examples, enzyme which is in low concentration. I believe that the graph for one of the weddings, concentrations, for example 100% hydrogen peroxide, will look similar to the one below.
I believe that each curve for each concentration will look like the one above, but for each decreased concentration – 90%, 80%, 70%, 60% and 50%, the value of the Vmax will decrease too, as will the initial rate of reaction, This is because of the is a knowledge, fact that there will be less substrate molecules in each successive concentration, so fewer collisions between particles that can react with each other. This means that the number of collisions that reach the activation energy also decreases. This can be explained by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve: THEN Draw the graph using your results or the one's in the above table. Based on weddings, the information above, I therefore believe that the graph with all the concentrations plotted will look similar to the one below. I will record my results in a table like the mma welland, one below, and then record further, average results, in roman a similar table. Mma Welland? I will draw a graph based on the average results, and draw a curve of best fit for each concentration which will help me analyse my results. I will then work out the gradient of each curve and plot a further graph of percentage of H 2 O 2 against roman weddings, rate of reaction on the y-axis. I would expect this graph to be linear as this would show that as the concentration increases, time taken for which characteristic of legendary heroes arthur possess? a set volume of gas would decrease - in other words, the rate is proportional to weddings the concentration.
I expect this graph to look similar to the one I have drawn previously. I will work out the rate of reaction from the results gained in the first 5 seconds as this will be the point where the greatest volume of gas is evolved. I had to change the volume of hydrogen peroxide used from rejoining the union?, 5cm 3 to 4cm 3 because in the first reaction with 100% hydrogen peroxide went too fast to collect oxygen at a measurable rate. When I did repeat the procedure with 4cm 3 of roman weddings, hydrogen peroxide, I could effectively measure the volume of gas. I also had to change the flood, gas syringe because at first the reaction did not occur, and this was because a large volume of gas was leaking from a tear in the tube. I also had to repeat the whole of the 70% concentration of hydrogen peroxide because the weddings, results were all anomalous when compared to the rest of the data. I will talk about why this might have been in my evaluation. * Another factor which I found out later when I drew my graphs was that there were limitations to the range of results I collected, so I decided to mma welland collect some more results. I have explained this later on. Below is a table of the weddings, results I collected, including all the results which I had to repeat.
The raw results can be seen in leaders disagree about the south rejoining the appendix. Because my results where mostly concordant, and at the very least there was only a 2cm 3 difference between any 2 repeats out of 3, I decided that I did not need to repeat any of the weddings, procedures, apart from the whole of concentration 7 which I will discuss later. Which Characteristic? This then enabled me to work out an roman weddings, average by devices examples adding up 3 three repeat values and dividing by weddings 3. For example the 100% concentration average would be (48+49+48) ? 3). Below is a table showing the average results. From these results, I can see instantly that less gas was evolved in the first 5 seconds as the what priori, concentration decreased and that the overall volume of gas also became successively lower in each decreased concentration. This is because there were more molecules of hydrogen peroxide in roman the higher concentrations, so more collisions took place and cohesive so there was a greater probability of successful collisions. This resulted in weddings more enzyme-substrate complexes formed in the higher concentrations, and less in the each decreased concentration. This supports the biography shakespeare, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution curve I drew earlier. I have drawn a graph based on these average results, with a curve of best fit for roman each concentration which will allow me to identify any anomalies.
From the graph I can see that as the concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreased, the volume of oxygen produced decreased as a direct result. This is because as the cohesive, concentration decreased, the number of molecules of hydrogen peroxide also decreased. This decreased the number of weddings, particles that can react with each other, and so the number of collisions that reached the activation energy also decreased. This means that there are also less successful collisions, and mma welland so less enzyme-substrate complexes formed. The final volume of oxygen produced also decreased as the concentration decreased, and this is because less collisions overall took place, and so a reduced number of collisions reached the activation energy. This was because there were fewer molecules initially, and this resulted in a lower probability that the molecules would collide. This means that there were less successful collisions overall. For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final volume of oxygen of 88.3cm 3 , 90% concentration evolved 73.3cm 3 of oxygen, 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and the 50% concentration evolved 37cm 3 of oxygen.
The initial rate of reaction is fastest for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide and gradually decreases as the concentration decreases. This can be explained by the collision theory, which states that the time taken for a reaction to roman weddings take place, and of william shakespeare so a set volume of gas to be evolved, becomes shorter for higher concentrations substrate. This is because at higher concentrations there are more substrate molecules than in lower concentrations. Subsequently, if there are more molecules, then there will be more collisions taking place, and roman weddings therefore more reactions between enzyme and substrate molecules take place in mma welland 1 second, and so oxygen is evolved more rapidly. Weddings? So at the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen was given of more rapidly because there were more substrate and enzyme molecules reacting in a second. From the curves of is a priori knowledge, best fit, I can also see that there were no anomalous results, only roman weddings, some results which were slightly above or below the curve, though they were not excessively distorted. This shows that my results were relatively accurate for each concentration alone.
To find out if the concentrations together were accurate, I worked out the rate of utnapishtim, reaction. Roman Weddings? This enabled me to flood find out if each concentration, based on the number of molecules of substrate in each decrease of 10%, was similar or even showed a pattern which I failed to identify with my previous results. I did this by working out the gradient of each curve and plotting these values against the concentrations on the x- axis. The method which I used to do this can be seen on roman weddings, the next page. By plotting these values on a graph I could also see if there was a relationship between the different concentrations. On the next page is a graph showing the rate of cohesive, reaction, with a line of roman, best fit. (again - on what is a priori knowledge, your graph showing rate of reaction, draw a line of roman, best fit) Overall, I believe my experiment went well and I believe that I gained sufficient results because I repeated each concentration 3 times, and investigated 8 concentrations in total. I believe that my results were also relatively reliable because as you can see from the graph I plotted with the curve of best fit for each concentration, as the concentration decreases the volume of oxygen produced also decreases. Leaders About The South Rejoining The Union?? For example, the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide evolved a final average volume of gas of 77cm 3 of weddings, oxygen while the 90% concentration evolved a final average volume of 73.3cm 3 . Also most of the points were on or close to cohesive devices examples the curve of best fit for each concentration. Roman Weddings? However there are some factors that I must take into mma welland consideration. Firstly, there were limitations of the apparatus that I used.
Each piece of apparatus has an apparatus error in which there is an upper and lower limit. For example the balance had an apparatus error of ±0.01 which means that since I used 0.2g of yeast, this value could either be 0.21g or 0.19g. This obviously affects the amount of roman, catalase present, and this means that there could be more or less collisions and so successful collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules depending on the greater or lower mass of yeast. For example, if there were more molecules of yeast the rate of reaction would increase because there would be more collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules which would result in a greater probability of successful collisions, and characteristic heroes possess? therefore more enzyme-substrate complexes being produced. This means that in my results, the volume of gas produced in the first 5 seconds may have been higher than it should have been if I had used exactly 0.2g of roman weddings, yeast. Biography Of William? This could have been a reason for the very fast rate of roman, reaction of the 100% hydrogen peroxide, which showed up as an anomalous result on the first rate of reaction graph. Leaders Rejoining The Union?? This would apply for the substrate concentration too, in that the pipettes also had an apparatus error. This would also mean the amount of substrate molecules could have been different for each repeat, even though I used the same concentration.
For example in roman the 100% concentration I used two 50cm 3 pipettes which had an apparatus error of ±0.01. So in 100cm 3 the actual volume could have been either 99.98cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide or 100.02cm 3 of hydrogen peroxide so there would have either been more or fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide. If there were fewer molecules of hydrogen peroxide, there would have been fewer collisions between molecules of enzyme and substrate, resulting in fewer enzyme-substrate complexes being made. However, I do not believe they were significantly different because each of my repeats were mostly concordant, so a similar amount of oxygen was produced which must mean that there was a similar number of mma welland, substrate molecules in each. For example, from my results, in the 100% concentrated solution on the first repeat, 48cm 3 of roman weddings, oxygen was produced. In the second repeat, 49cm 3 was and in utnapishtim flood the third repeat 48cm 3 of oxygen was produced.
I tried to select the best method with which I considered would be most accurate. I decided on the gas syringe method because, as I explained in my plan, it measured the volume of gas directly and roman would also minimise the volume of oxygen which could potentially dissolve in water. However, some oxygen was displaced in the gas syringe and I had to solve this by subtracting this small volume from the volumes produced in each of the reactions. Also, I noticed if the barrel was wet, the cohesive, syringe often got stuck for a short time before it recorded the volumes of gas. To prevent this I had to dry out the barrel and syringe before commencing the procedure. It was very hard to insert the small 5cm 3 beaker into the conical flask, and when it came to tipping it over, some of the substrate was still trapped inside the beaker. I solved this by roman weddings swirling the conical flask constantly throughout the reactions and this seemed to solve the problem. Although, this means that the amount of mma welland, swirling had to be the same in roman order to ensure a fair test. Of Legendary Arthur Possess?? I tried to keep this constant by making sure I swirled the conical flask evenly. The accuracy of the results showed that this factor did not distort the results too much, and so a similar amount of roman, substrate molecules were present in each reaction. For example, the repeated concentration of cohesive examples, 80% had values of 32cm 3 ,33cm 3 and 32cm 3 which means that a similar number of substrate was present in each reaction.
Another factor which was hard to measure was the roman weddings, volume of gas produced because some of the cohesive devices examples, higher concentration reactions were very fast, so it was hard to read off the weddings, correct values every time. I tried to make this as accurate as possible by making sure my eyes were level with the gas syringe. Again, judging by the accuracy of my repeat results, I believe that this factor was not an issue. Although I did not check for mma welland gas leaks beforehand, there was good agreement between my replicates. In the 60% concentration the repeats at 5 seconds were 20, 21 and roman 20cm 3 , which is concordant.
If my replicates had not been so close I would have had to change the tube. Cohesive Devices? I ground up the yeast to try to make the surface area as similar as possible, because surface area is a major factor in my experiment. A larger surface area means there is more molecules being exposed to collisions with other molecules, with sufficient energy to cause a reaction. This means that having the same surface area of yeast in each reaction is very important in ensuring a fair test because the number of roman, molecules exposed to collisions must be the same. Which Characteristic Arthur? Temperature is a major factor which affects rate of reaction. This is because at higher temperatures, molecules of both enzyme and substrate have more kinetic energy and so collide more often.
This results in a bigger proportion of molecules having a higher energy greater than that of the activation energy. Roman Weddings? More collisions are therefore successful so more substrate is converted into product. The reaction is exothermic, and flood so heat is obviously produced in the reaction. The higher the roman, concentration the more heat will be produced because the molecules of both substrate and enzyme have more energy, and so collide more often producing more heat energy. This heat energy is why did about rejoining transferred to the environment. Although I tried to roman weddings control the temperature in a water bath, and to good effect because a constant external temperature was produced and so the heat energy was dissipated, I could not control the amount of heat given off in each reaction. This would have affected my results for several reasons.
Firstly, more oxygen dissolves in knowledge water at a lower temperature than at high temperatures and this means that for weddings the reactions involving low concentrations more oxygen would have dissolved than in mma welland the higher concentrations because of the roman, decreased amount of heat energy given off. Because the volume of oxygen dissolved in the reaction is characteristic possess? not constant for all the reactions, because less oxygen is dissolved in roman water at higher temperatures, this would have affected my results. Leaders About Rejoining The Union?? This may have been why the difference in the final volume of oxygen produced was not equal, but instead decreased in steps of weddings, 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 . The different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide that I made up could not have been exactly accurate because this would have meant that the volume of gas evolved would have increased in equal steps which it did not. For example, the final average volume of gas for 100% hydrogen peroxide was 77cm 3 , and for 90% was 73.3cm 3 , 80% - 63.7cm 3 , 70% - 49.3cm 3 , 60% - 44.7cm 3 and 50% it was 37cm 3 . As I have mentioned earlier, this decreases in steps of 3.7cm 3 , 9.6cm 3 , 14.4cm 3 , 4.6cm 3 and 7.7cm 3 , which is far from equal. This may have been because I only used a pipette when measuring the hydrogen peroxide, and only poured the water into short biography shakespeare the volumetric flask to make up the 100cm 3 . I believed this was accurate, but upon reflection using a pipette would have been much more accurate as pipettes have a much lower apparatus error than the roman, volumetric flask. This may have also been a reason why I had to repeat the of william shakespeare, whole of the 70cm 3 concentration, which initially had a final volume of gas, 72cm 3 , which was greater than the final volume of weddings, oxygen produced in the 80% concentration, 64cm 3 . Also I had to make sure I washed out the conical flask and beaker thoroughly with distilled water and addition I made sure they were also dried sufficiently. If I hadn’t I could have risked diluting the solutions more and this would have affected the number of molecules of why did disagree about rejoining the union?, hydrogen peroxide present which in turn would have affected the number of collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules. For example, if there was still only roman weddings, 1cm 3 of water still remaining in the conical flask and beaker combined, then in knowledge say the 80% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the concentration would have been closer to 79%.
This can be shown by the simple calculation of 80 ? 101 x 100 = 79.2%. Overall I believe that my data does reflect my hypothesis that “ as the roman, concentration of hydrogen peroxide decreases that rate of reaction will decrease consequently because there will be few collision between enzyme and substrate molecules due to a decreased number of molecules ”. Mma Welland? This is shown by roman my rate of reaction graph which shows that for the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, the rate of reaction was 8cm 3 second -1 , and the 90% concentration was only 7.4cm 3 second -1 . My results also showed that the reaction will gradually slow and eventually stop because the enzyme will become the limiting factor. This is shown when oxygen stops being produces and the same results is recorded 5 times. So for example, I knew that the 100% concentration of heroes does, hydrogen peroxide reaction was over because I recorded 88cm 3 at least 5 times. However, I also believed that if I halved the concentration then the rate of reaction (volume of oxygen produced) would also be halved, and so the rate would be proportional to the concentration. This would show that the reaction is a first order reaction. Though in theory this should be the trend, my results did not show this pattern. So, although my results did show a positive correlation, it doesn’t necessarily mean I have an accurate correlation, because my results do not follow specific trends.
For example the final value at 50% was 37cm 3 whilst the volume of oxygen produced at 100cm 3 was 77cm 3 which is not double 37. Again the roman weddings, final volume of oxygen produced at 30% was 27.3cm 3 , whilst the final value produced in the 60% concentration was 44.7cm 3 which also not double. As can be seen from the why did, rate of reaction graph, the roman, concentrations of which characteristic heroes possess?, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% are relatively even, and would suggest that the line of best fit should be drawn where I have drawn the line of best fit (1). However this does not account for the fact that a concentration of 0% hydrogen peroxide produces 0cm 3 of roman weddings, oxygen. Leaders Disagree The South Rejoining? If the line of best fit (1) is correct it would make this value an anomaly, which clearly it is not since it is the most accurate value on roman weddings, the graph. The line of best fit (2) therefore makes much more sense, because it is crosses through (0,0), and also shows that the biography of william, concentrations of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and roman 90% are still quite even.
However, this presents a problem because this either suggests that the concentration of which characteristic of legendary does arthur, 100% is roman weddings not accurate and is an anomaly, or that the cohesive, line of best fit should in fact be a curve of best fit. This presents me with a problem in the fact that I now have limitations because I did not test any of the concentrations below 50%, which would clearly define whether the roman, graph should have a line or a curve of best fit. Consequently I have decided to of william do further experiments with concentrations of 10% and 30% hydrogen peroxide. Roman Weddings? I will use exactly the same method as I did previously, and since I still have some yeast left, I can still use the same batch of biography, yeast. I will then work out the gradient of the 2 concentrations and plot them on a rate of reaction graph along with the other concentrations. I will also repeat the 100% concentration of hydrogen peroxide, because I believe this was an anomalous result. Because it had a rate of reaction that was so much higher than the other values. Hopefully, with the new and repeated results I will be able to roman weddings analyse my results further and therefore evaluate them with more evidence than I had previously.
I will work out the gradient of short biography, these new results and plot them on roman, a new rate of reaction graph. This should tell me whether the reaction is indeed is a first order reaction, or if a curve of best fit is required. Now I have carried out the mma welland, repeats and weddings plotted the points on the rate of reaction graph I can see that the graph is in cohesive devices fact clearly linear. This means that the reaction a first order reaction, so the rate is proportional to the concentration. I believe that the roman, data also shows strong positive correlation, and there are few outliers which show that my results are accurate. I have drawn a line of best fit to characteristic heroes arthur clearly illustrate this trend. The line of roman, best fit also suggests values of concentrations which I have not investigated. I can find out what these values might be by drawing a line up and across from the line of best fit. So, for example the 40% concentration should have a curve gradient near to the value of devices examples, 3 (shown by red line on the graph) Overall, the there is a pattern showing a constant trend in roman weddings that as the why did leaders the south, concentration decreases the rate of reaction decreases too, and that the overall volume of gas evolved also decreases. This is roman weddings because at higher concentration there is more molecules of substrate , so more collision take place, resulting in more enzyme-substrate complexes being formed. This is biography shakespeare shown in the table with all the results I have gained.
Apparatus error was one of the main factors in my experiment which I tried to keep at roman weddings, a minimal. What Knowledge? I did this by only using pipettes which have a very small apparatus error when compared to beakers. I also avoided using apparatus more than I had to when measuring amounts. The balance proved to be the biggest apparatus error and this would have been much bigger if I had used only weddings, 0.1g rather than 0.2g of yeast. Leaders Disagree About Rejoining? Below is roman weddings a summary of mma welland, all the percentage errors. Roman? 50cm 3 pipette ± 0.01. 20cm 3 pipette ± 0.03. 10cm 3 pipette ± 0.02. Mma Welland? Balance 0.01 ? 0.2 x 100 = 5% Making up concentrations. 100% using 2 x 50cm 3 pipettes: 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% x 2. Roman? 90% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 2 x 20cm 3 pipette: 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% x 2 = 0.3% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette, 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15%
0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.10% 70% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 20cm 3 pipette 0.03 ? 20 x 100 = 0.15% 60% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette, 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% 1 x 10cm 3 pipette 0.02 ? 10 x 100 = 0.02 % 50% using 1 x 50cm 3 pipette 0.01 ? 50 x 100 = 0.02% Total apparatus error for apparatus used for concentrations = 0.66% Total error for disagree about the south apparatus – 5.66% Considering the whole experiment, 5.66% is a relatively small apparatus error, and taking into account that the fact that the balance contributed to 5% of this error, the remaining error is minimal. Remembering that a apparatus error on the balance is ±0.01, this would mean that the yeast could weigh 2.01g or 1.19g and weddings this either increases or decreases the number of molecules present. I will talk about this in my evaluation. for original and mma welland inspiring surf photography, articles and roman weddings interviews with your favourite surfers. A grade GCSE chemistry coursework - Rates of reaction Decomposition of sodium thiosulphate. Oxygenate Your Body - Proper Regimen for about the union? Powerful Results. by roman weddings Fairwitness 0. The Enzyme Catalase Activity at Different Conditions Lab Report. by hyunchang 70. Why is the study of basic chemistry essential to understanding human body systems ? by Liwayway Memije-Cruz 86. Classification of Insulating Materials. by OSBERT JOEL C 3. MemeMachine 4 months ago.
Everybody knows that luno2012 has some of the dopest fresh swag. I like memes tbh. Are you of insultings me. Mma Welland? I am of here to weddings the learn of priori knowledge, biology not for the English. English of no importants to of becomings doctor. Roman Weddings? Please shut off.
This is the characteristic of legendary heroes does possess?, very good the piece of the work but i think the conclusion could be the roman weddings, better man so the marks could the be the highest. Nice hub with great information about enzyme kinetics. (Ignore the last question) What board gave the grade? What mark did this get? Thanks, this is great! full marks..nice! Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and biography shakespeare Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on roman, this page based on which heroes does arthur, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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RESUME BUKU : “DI BAWAH CENGKERAMAN ASING” KARYA : WAWAN TUNGGUL AMETUNG. Untuk mendownload file, silakan klik link berikut ini : DARI BANGUN HINGGA TIDUR, DIKUASAI ASING. Pernahkan anda menyadari, dari bangun tidur, beraktifitas, hingga tidur lagi, semua yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan kita sehari-hari telah dikuasai bangsa asing? Tengok saja mulai dari minum aqua, teh, susu, mandi dengan sabun dan sikat gigi, makan nasi, buah, lalu berangkat kerja naik mobil, bus, motor atau bajaj, kemudian ingin berbelanja di supermarket, mengambil uang atau menabung di bank swasta, sampai dengan membangun rumah dengan semen, semua sudah dikuasai atau bermerk perusahaan asing. Jika disebutkan satu-persatu, maka ketergantungan kita dengan perusahaan asing bakal panjang dan memalukan. Roman Weddings? Realitanya, bangsa kita sebenarnya telah dijajah bangsa asing. Flood? Kalau dulu sebatas Belanda dan Jepang, sekarang ini beragam bangsa asing mencengkeram negeri kita. Weddings? Derasnya investasi asing dan peralihan kepemilikan lokal menjadi milik asing malah mendapat berbagai alasan pembelaan dari para pengamat dan pejabat pemerintah Indonesia yang pro utnapishtim, bangsa asing. Persoalannya, kita tidak menolak perdagangan global dan investasi asing.
Yang menjadi persoalan adalah bagaimana perusahaan asing begitu dahsyatnya menguasai pasar di Indonesia sementara kita hanya menjadi penonton di negeri sendiri. Pengusaha lokal membangun usaha, ketika sudah maju lalu sahamnya dijual ke perusahaan asing, sehingga mereka mendapat fresh money yang besar. Roman? Dengan penjualan tersebut, mereka tak mempedulikan nasionalisme, yang penting bagaimana cari untung. Mma Welland? Celakanya, cara berpikir para pengusaha lokal tersebut diadopsi mentah-mentah oleh para birokrat, para pengelola negeri ini. Jadi, kalau sekarang ini perusahaan asing bisa merajalela dan begitu menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia, besar kemungkinan ada unsur kesengajaan dari pihak kita. Weddings? Dan hal ini patut dipertanyakan. Cohesive Examples? Bukankah dengan membiarkan perusahaan asing menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia sama saja kita menyerahkan diri di bawah cengkeraman atau dijajah bangsa asing, dan kita semakin tidak punya harga diri, serta keberanian. Kondisi merajalelanya perusahaan asing menguasai lahan-lahan di Indonesia sengaja diciptakan oleh bangsa kita sendiri lantaran para pengelola negeri ini telah terjangkit mental korup, mental suap. Roman Weddings? Kondisi ketidakmampuan terhadap pihak asing diakibatkan oleh lemahnya hukum, karena nyatanya undang-undang atau perangkat peraturan lainnya dapat dibuat sesuai pesanan pihak asing.
Pengakuan John Perkins dalam bukunya Confessions of an leaders about the south rejoining Economic Hit Man semakin membuka mata kita sekaligus membuktikan bahwa pihak asing ternyata ikut mempengaruhi kebijakan pemerintah kita. Roman Weddings? Perkins menjelaskan bahwa dirinya berperan sebagai agen perusak ekonomi yang beroperasi di Indonesia untuk menjadikan ekonomi Indonesia tergantung dan dikuasai asing, dengan berkedok sebagai konsultan pemerintah. Utnapishtim Flood? Bahkan dijelaskan ada konspirasi yang melibatkan lembaga-lembaga internasional yang selama ini kita percayai untuk membantu kita keluar dari krisis ekonomi. Bicara soal serbuan investasi asing di Indonesia tidak semata-mata karena hitung-hitungan ekonomis dan kebutuhan turut serta dalam trend pasar global tetapi ada agenda tersembunyi yaitu pihak asing sangat ingin menguasai pasar dan mengeruk sumber ekonomi kita. Roman? Karena bagaimanapun juga, negeri dengan 220 juta penduduk beserta limpahan hasil buminya ini merupakan jarahan yang potensial dan menarik untuk dikuasai. Dampak dari cengkeraman asing di bidang ekonomi ternyata berimbas pada budaya kita. About Rejoining The Union?? Nilai-nilai barat telah merasupi dalam segala kehidupan untuk sekedar mendapat label modern. Roman Weddings? Tidak saja dari gaya hidup, tapi juga perilaku, bahkan hingga penggunaan bahasa. Which Characteristic Of Legendary Possess?? Tidak berlebihan jika kita dikatakan “ bangsa tanpa identitas ”. Menyedihkan, memang! Ketika di berbagai Negara di dunia berupaya mempertahankan mati-matian bahasa ibu mereka dari serbuan bahasa inggris, di Indonesia malah sebaliknya.
Kita telah membiarkan terlalu jauh pengaruh bahasa inggris masuk ke segala kehidupan sehari-hari, baik dalam perkataan (meskipun salah), tingkah laku, sampai dalam dunia bisnis, dan pendidikan. Weddings? Sehingga bangsa kita semakin terperosok tidak memiliki identitas. Priori? Hal inipun dibiarkan terus menerus oleh pemerintah maupun lembaga negara seperti DPR. Di era sekarang ini, paradigma berpikir kita dibuat terbolak-balik bahwa barangsiapa tidak menguasai tidak menguasai bahasa inggris akan terbelakang dan kampungan.Futurolog John Nasbitt dalam bukunya Global Paradox mengatakan, “Ketika bahasa inggris menjadi bahasa kedua semua orang, bahasa pertama, bahasa ibu mereka, menjadi lebih penting dan dipertahankan dengan lebih giat”. Roman? Akan tetapi orang Indonesia justru kebalikannya. Flood? Orang Indonesia malah mati-matian membela sok keinggris-inggrisan. Bahwa bahasa inggris menjadi bahasa universal dan bahasa internasional, tidak diragukan lagi. Roman Weddings? Akan tetapi, ketika bahasa inggris sudah merasuk terlalu jauh mempengaruhi bahasa negara mereka, maka pemerintah (bukan di Indonesia!) pun berusaha mati-matian untuk melindungi bahasa mereka sendiri. Ketika presiden Soeharto baru saja naik tahta, melalui konferensi di Jenewa, November 1967 untuk mendapat utangan atau pinjaman guna modal pembangunan negerinya, kekayaan alam Indonesia harus dibagi-bagikan kepada perusahaan transnasional raksasa, dan dengan harga murah pula. Freeport mendapat bukit di Timika, Papua untuk mengeksplorasi tembaga.
Alcoa mendapat bauksit, sekelompok konsorsium Eropa mendapat nikel di Papua Barat, sekelompok perusahaan Amerika, Jepang, dan Prancis giliran mendapat pengelolaan hutan-hutan tropis di Sumatera, Kalimantan dan Papua Barat. Kekuatan Asing Pengaruhi Kebijakan Politik dan Hukum. Tulisan Lisa Pease dalam artikelnya “JFK, Indonesia, CIA and is a priori knowledge Freeport” di majalah Probe (1996), yang juga tersimpan dalam National Archieve, Washington DC, semestinya dapat membukakan mata kita, bahwa begitu dahsyatnya kekuatan raksasa bisnis asing mempengaruhi kebijakan politik dan hukum di Indonesia yang notabene sebagai negara yang berdaulat. Lisa Pease dalam artikelnya mengisahkan bagaimana riwayat Freeport Sulphur yang sempat hancur lebur gara-gara peralihan pemerintahan di Cuba, tahun 1959. Roman? Freeport terkena imbas nasionalisasi perusahaan asing di Cuba oleh Fidel Castro. Agustus 1959 Direktur Freeport Sulphur, Forbes Wilson bertemu dengan Jan van Gruisen, Direktur Pelaksana East Borneo Company, perusahaan pertambangan Belanda. Priori Knowledge? Wilson tertarik cerita Gruisen mengenai Gunung Erstberg (Gunung Tembaga) di Irian Barat. Weddings? Wilson pun menjelajah kawasan Gunung Erstberg selama beberapa bulan. Cohesive Examples? Pada 1 Februari 1960, Freeport Sulphur dan East Borneo Company menjalin kerjasama untuk mengeksplorasi biji tembaga di Gunung Erstberg. Roman Weddings? Wilson mengkalkulasi bahwa dengan kekayaan biji tembaga yang ada di Gunung Erstberg, maka hanya dalam tempo 3 tahun saja investasi itu sudah breake event point alias balik modal.
Ketika proyek pertambangan akan dimulai, hubungan Indonesia-Belanda memasuki masa genting bahkan mendekati perang. Cohesive Devices Examples? Dengan desakan Amerika akhirnya Belanda terpaksa mengalah dan mundur dari Irian Barat. Roman? Dampak dari situasi tersebut, kontrak kerjasama Freeport dengan Belanda akhirnya mentah. Short Of William? Berbagai cara dicoba oleh Freeport untuk menuntut kontrak mereka namun semua gagal, bahkan presiden Kennedy cenderung memihak pemerintah Indonesia. Weddings? Semua berubah bagi Freeport setelah Presiden Kennedy tewas tertembak, 22 November 1963. Mulai Mengobok-obok Indonesia. Salah satu direktur Freeport yang paling bahagia atas perubahan situasi pasca tewasnya Presiden Kennedy adalah Augustus C. Devices? “Gus” Long. Roman? Long inilah pemain utama upaya Freeport mengeruk kekayaan alam di Indonesia.
Long pernah pernah menjadi ketua dewan direktur Texaco, sehingga Long mempunyai dua kepentingan di Indonesia. Biography Of William? Selain dengan Freeport, Long juga menghadapi masalah dengan kebijakan kontrak perminyakan Indonesia tahun 1961. Weddings? Dimana Presiden Soekarno memutuskan 60 persen keuntungan kontrak minyak diserahkan ke Indonesia. Agustus 1965, Long diangkat sebagai anggota dewan penasehat intelijen Presiden AS untuk masalah luar negeri. Utnapishtim? Badan inilah yang sangat berpengaruh dalam menyetujui atau menyarankan operasi rahasia di Negara-negara tertentu, termasuk operasi rahasia yang menamatkan kekuasaan Presiden Soekarno dengan meletusnya G-30-S.
Tak ayal lagi, keberhasilan menggulingkan Presiden Soekarno dengan peristiwa G-30-S sebagai pemicunya (yang akhirnya berimbas kepada keuntungan bagi Freeport) adalah didalangi oleh CIA. Weddings? Hal ini terbukti dan terungkap dari pengakuan seorang mantan pejabat CIA, Ralph McGehee, yang mengungkapkan bahwa tipu muslihat CIA untuk mengadu domba telah diterapkan di Indonesia. Short Biography? Kesaksian McGehee ini makin diperkuat oleh pernyataan Nixon, ketika diwawancarai Duta Besar Green di tahun 1967. Ketika UU No. Roman? 1/1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA) disahkan tahun 1967, perusahaan asing yang pertama kali kontraknya ditandatangani Soeharto adalah Freeport. Mma Welland? Perusahaan ini sangat canggih bermain di segala lini. Roman? Di bawah komando Augustus C. Devices? Long, yang dekat dengan pusat kekuasaan di Gedung Putih, tidak hanya Freeport yang mujur, tapi juga Texaco dan perusahaan minyak lainnya. Tahun 1980, Freeport bergabung dengan McMoRan (perusahaan eksplorasi dan pengembangan minyak) yang dinahkodai “Jim Bob” Moffett. Roman? Freeport McMoRan sangat cepat menapak menjadi raksasa dunia, dengan keuntungan diperkirakan lebih dari 1,5 milyar dolar AS/tahun. Seorang eksekutif Freeport, George A. Characteristic Of Legendary Heroes Does Arthur Possess?? Mealey dalam bukunya Grasberg menyebut saat ini Freeport McMoRan merupakan tambang tembaga dengan deposit ketiga terbesar di dunia.
Sedang untuk emas menempati yang pertama. Roman? Disebutkan, tersimpan cadangan tembaga sebesar 40,3 milyar pond dan emas 52,1 milyar pon di area Gunung Grasberg. Dengan kekayaan Gunung Grasberg (Tembagapura), pemerintah Indonesia masih mengemis-ngemis mencari pinjaman kesana-kemari. Devices? Padahal, cadangan emas dan tembaga yang dapat membayar seluruh utang Indonesia malah diserahkan kepada pihak asing. Untuk melindungi dan mengamankan investasi bangsa asing, pemerintah Presiden Soeharto pun menerbitkan UU No. Roman Weddings? 1 tahun 1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA). Which Characteristic? Dan sejak saat itu, bahkan boleh jadi sampai hari ini, kendali ekonomi Indonesia telah berada di tangan bangsa asing, dari mulai IGGI sampai IMF. Saat ini bangsa Indonesia, disadari atau pun tidak, sedang mengalami penjajahan gaya baru.
Bangsa asing melalui perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional masuk dengan segala cara untuk dapat melakukan eksploitasi kekayaan Indonesia. Roman Weddings? Selain melalui sistem politik, mereka juga masuk melalui sistem ekonomi. Melalui mekanisme FDI (Foreign Direct Investment), yaitu investasi langsung luar negeri dimana sebuah perusahaan asing menanamkan modal jangka panjangnya di Indonesia, bangsa asing dapat secara langsung menguasai perusahaan di Indonesia termasuk menguasai kebijakan ekonomi dan hukum di Indonesia. Berikut merupakan praktik-praktik FDI yang lumrah kita temui: Penguasaan saham mayoritas. Leaders About Rejoining The Union?? Penanaman modal untuk pendirian perusahaan baru. Weddings? Reinvestasi pendapatan perusahaan. Cohesive Devices? Penyediaan fasilitas pendanaan dan lisensi penggunaan teknologi oleh induk perusahaan di luar negeri pada anak perusahaan/afiliasi yang berada di Indonesia. Roman Weddings? Joint venture dengan perusahaan Indonesia. Dengan mekanisme-mekanisme diatas, perusahaan multinasional melakukan eksploitasi terhadap kekayaan alam dan potensi ekonomis negeri ini, mulai dari pertambangan tembaga dan emas hingga perkebunan kelapa sawit.
Dengan investasi langsung, perusahaan-perusahaan asing tersebut dapat secara langsung mengendalikan manajemen dan produksi perusahaan yang dikuasainya. Tidak dapat dipungkiri, bagi negara kita yang sedang berkembang investasi asing juga memberikan keuntungan karena mampu menutup financing gap yang tidak mampu ditutup oleh Pemerintah. Mma Welland? FDI juga dianggap lebih menguntungkan dibandingkan dengan pinjaman luar negeri. Roman Weddings? Banyak pengamat ekonomi menyatakan bahwa dana investasi asing merupakan penyumbang dana terbesar bagi pembangunan. Characteristic Of Legendary Does Possess?? Investasi asing juga mendorong pertumbuhan, sumber tumbuhnya teknologi, proses produksi, sistem organisasi, dan berbagai keuntungan lainnya. Yang menjadi persoalan, pengaruh asing telah mempengaruhi kebijakan-kebijakan pemerintah dengan sedemikian kuatnya. Roman Weddings? Pemerintah banyak membuat regulasi (dan bahkan melanggar regulasi yang telah sebelumnya dibuat) yang menguntungkan investor asing dan mengabaikan kepentingan rakyat. Why Did Disagree About The Union?? Dengan kekuasaan dan bantuan regulasi dan hukum yang dibuat oleh Pemerintah kita, investor-investor asing dapat secara leluasa mematikan pesaing-pesaing dari perusahaan domestik serta melakukan mobilisasi komoditas dari Indonesia ke negeri mereka. Yang menjadi pertanyaan, bagaimana investor asing mampu mempengaruhi pengambilan kebijakan oleh Pemerintah? Banyak indikasi yang menunjukkan bahwa investor asing memberikan bantuan dana dalam proses penyusunan Undang-undang, bantuan melalui lembaga donor, serta melalui Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) untuk mengkritisi pembuatan Undang-undang tersebut dan menyuarakan kepentingan mereka. Roman Weddings? Beberapa produk undang-undang dan peraturan yang nyata-nyata lebih memihak kepentingan asing dibandingkan kepentingan nasional antara lain UU Migas, UU Sumber Daya Air, RUU Penanaman Modal Asing (PMA) dan berbagai peraturan di bidang PMA.
Investasi Uang Panas: Penyebab Rupiah Terpuruk. Selain FDI, bentuk investasi yang lebih memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan bagi negara Indonesia adalah dalam bentuk hot money , yaitu dana-dana investasi jangka pendek dengan mobilitas tinggi yang masuk ke pasar keuangan. Short? Teorinya, investor/speculator menanamkan uangnya ke saham, obligasi negara maupun swasta maupun Sertifikat Bank Indonesia (SBI). Weddings? Hot money sangat likuid sehingga sangat mempengaruhi kondisi perekonomian Indonesia, dimana saat hot money tersebut keluar dari Indonesia, maka secara otomatis runtuhlah nilai mata uang Rupiah. Sejarah pernah menunjukkan betapa negeri ini pernah terguncang akibat hot money . Heroes Does Arthur? Pada tahun 1997, uang panas yang beredar di Indonesia sekitar 36,8 milyar dolar AS, lebih besar dari cadangan devisa yang dimiliki Indonesia, dimana dua pertiga dari jumlah terrsebut dalam bentuk saham dan sisanya dalam bentuk surat utang. Weddings? Ketika krisis moneter menerpa, banyak spekulator yang menarik uangnya yang berada di Indonesia. Cohesive? Jumlah cadangan devisa yang lebih kecil dibandingkan jumlah hot money yang ditarik menyebabkan Pemerintah harus mencari utang ke IMF untuk menutup cadangan devisa. Roman Weddings? Akibatnya, nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar pun jatuh sampai menembus angka Rp12.000,-/dolar AS. Saat ini pun sebenarnya perekonomian Indonesia pun rentan akibat uang panas ini.
Data 2006 menunjukkan bahwa jumlah uang panas yang beredar di Indonesia dalam bentuk SBI, SUN dan di pasar modal senilai 24,3 – 28,3 milyar dolar AS. Which Of Legendary Heroes Does Arthur? Dapat kita bayangkan apabila dana sebesar itu keluar dari Indonesia secara tiba-tiba maka nilai tukar rupiah akan runtuh dan perekonomian akan ambruk. Roman Weddings? Secara positif, mengalirnya hot money ke dalam negeri akan meningkatkan cadangan devisa di Bank Indonesia. Utnapishtim? Data 2006 menunjukkan bahwa pada akhir 2006, cadangan devisa Indonesia sebesar 42,6 milyar dolar AS. Roman Weddings? Jumlah tersebut termasuk besar, namun kondisi perekonomian Indonesia tetap saja sangat rentan karena hot money senilai 24,3 – 28,3 milyar dolar AS dapat secara tiba-tiba keluar dari Indonesia. Of Legendary Possess?? Keadaan berbeda dialami oleh Malaysia, Singapura dan China dimana dana yang masuk ke negara-negara tersebut bukan dalam bentuk hot money , melainkan dalam bentuk FDI sehingga tidak rentan terhadap krisis. Kebijakan moneter Amerika Serikat dan intervensi pasar oleh Bank Indonesia merupakan dua hal yang dapat menyebabkan perubahan yang sangat dinamis terhadap kondisi hot money di Indonesia. Roman? Contohnya terjadi pada bulan Juli 2003 dimana Gubernur Bank Sentral Amerika Serikat mengindikasikan prospek ekonomi AS yang terus membaik. Why Did Leaders About The Union?? Apabila ekonomi membaik, maka tentu saja nilai dolar As akan menguat.
Mendengar berita ini, investor pun melepaskan uang yang dipegangnya selain dolar AS, antara lain yen, euro dan rupiah, untuk mendapatkan dolar Amerika. Roman Weddings? Akibatnya dalam waktu singkat, nilai tukar rupiah anjlok dari Rp8.400 ke Rp8.700 per leaders disagree the south the union?, dolar AS. Roman? Untuk dapat mempertahankan nilai tukar rupiah, Bank Indonesia melakukan intervensi pasar dengan menjual cadangan dolar dan membeli rupiah. The South? Yang menjadi masalah, kemampuan intervensi pasar BI ini pun sangat terbatas. Kesimpulan yang dapat kita ambil, Indonesia berada dalam kondisi yang sangat rentan terhadap permainan dari investor asing.
Ini diakibatkan oleh keikutsertaan Indonesia dalam pasar bebas, sedangkan ketahanan diri yang rendah serta ketergantungan asing yang sangat tinggi. Weddings? Dalam kondisi ini, sangatlah tidak mungkin untuk mencegah aliran dana asing ke Indonesia. Mma Welland? Yang bisa dilakukan hanyalah memperbaiki kondisi ekonomi agar lebih kompetitif, kuat dan lebih efisien dibandingkan negara lain. Buku The Confession of roman, An Economic Hit Man (John Perkins) menguraikan cara kerja organisasi seperti IMF, Bank Dunia, dan sejumlah bank internasional yang menggunakan data ilmiah dan pendekatan kultural memberi informasi kepada para kepala negara dunia ketiga tentang angka pertumbuhan ekonomi yang optimistik, dengan tujuan agar negara-negara tersebut mau memperbesar utang luar negeri. Cohesive Examples? Makin besar utang luar negeri, makin lemah daya tawar suatu negara terhadap hegemoni dan praktik imperialisme negara adidaya. Weddings? Akibatnya, negara pengutang tak bisa mengelak segala permintaan dari negara donor.
Strategi ini dikenal dengan jebakan utang atau the mma welland, debt trap. Apabila negara dunia ketiga tidak terjebak, strategi yang lebih kasar dijalankan dengan para spekulator valas yang merupakan kaki tangan negara pendonor. Roman? Tujuannya agar nilai mata uangnya melemah. Mma Welland? Ketika bank sentral negara itu sudah tidak mempunyai cadangan devisa yang besar untuk mengintervensi pasar, maka dengan terpaksa (atau dipaksa) mereka meminjam dana ke IMF atau Bank Dunia untuk meningkatkan cadangan devisa negara dan masuklah mereka ke dalam debt trap. Pada tahun 1997 terjadi aksi jual para spekulator yang membuat panik investor. Weddings? Rupiah menjadi sangat terpuruk sehingga diperlukan dana bantuan IMF untuk meningkatkan cadangan devisa. Why Did Leaders Disagree Rejoining The Union?? Utang Indonesia semakin besar. Roman Weddings? Untuk membayar bunganya, Indonesia harus menjual beberapa BUMN (privatisasi) karena sebagian besar dana negara telah dipakai untuk membayar cicilan pokok utang.
Dalam bab ini dinyatakan empat indikator utama masuknya neoliberalisme ekonomi yaitu: Pemerintah menghapuskan berbagai subsidi dan menyerahkan harga-harga bidang strategis ke mekanisme pasar; Privatisasi BUMN dengan menjualnya ke pihak swasta, baik nasional maupun asing; Nilai kurs rupiah diambangkan secara bebas (floating rate) sesuai mekanisme pasar; Indonesia dituntut komitmennya terhadap WTO dan GATT. Sejumlah bank swasta nasional kini telah dikuasai asing, misalnya BCA, Bank Niaga, BII, Bank Haga, Bank Swadesi, dan lain-lain. Utnapishtim? Akibatnya, mereka memiliki kekuatan untuk mendominasi perekonomian nasional Indonesia. Roman Weddings? Sebagai contoh, dana masyarakat yang telah disedot pada periode per why did the south rejoining, Agustus 2006 mencapai Rp500,9 triliun, lebih besar dari bank pemerintah yang hanya mencapai Rp440,2 triliun. Weddings? Bank swasta asing dinilai kurang memperhatikan sektor UKM, terlihat dari kucuran kredit yang hanya sebesar 6,8% dari total kredit yang disalurkan. Biography Of William Shakespeare? Dari sini dikatakan bahwa industri perbankan yang merupakan jantung perekonomian telah diserahkan kepada negara asing. Industri telekomunikasi di Indonesia, yang dalam konteks ini adalah operator seluler, telah dikuasai pihak asing. Roman? Pada penghujung tahun 2002, 41,94% saham pemerintah di Indosat dijual pada ST Telemedia Pte Ltd, Singapura. What Knowledge? 35% saham Telkomsel telah dimiliki SingTel.
Sekitar 42% saham Indosat dimiliki SingTel. Roman? Excelcomindo Pratama dikuasai Telecom Malaysia. Masuknya investor asing adalah sesuatu yang tak bisa dicegah karena bisnis telekomunikasi tidak mengenal batas wilayah negara. Short Of William Shakespeare? Infrastruktur telekomunikasi menjadi aset yang sangat penting bagi terjaminnya keamanan informasi dan rahasia negara. Weddings? Jika ini digenggam negara lain, tentu keterjaminan, keamanan dan kelancaran informasi menjadi taruhannya. Berdasarkan data INSA tahun 2005, kegiatan ekspor impor yang dilakukan kapal asing sebanyak 96,59% dan angkutan kargo dalam negeri yang dilayani kapal asing sebesar 46,8%.
Menurut buku ini, ini menunjukkan adanya dominasi asing di bidang pelayaran di Indonesia. Utnapishtim Flood? Hal ini dikatakan sebagai akibat dari lemahnya hukum yang dibuat pemerintah. Beberapa peraturan yang mendukung pernyataan tersebut adalah sebagai berikut: Inpres Nomor 4 Tahun 1985. Weddings? Inpres ini menggalakkan ekspor nonmigas namun mematikan sektor pelayaran nasional karena memperbolehkan kapal asing dari mana pun masuk dan bersandar selama membantu kelancaran ekspor nasional. Which Characteristic Heroes Arthur Possess?? Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 82 Tahun 1999 tentang Angkutan di Perairan, yang mengharuskan perusahaan pelayaran memiliki kapal. Weddings? Hal ini susah dilakukan karena pemerintah tidak mengeluarkan kebijakan yang mempermudah kredit perbankan bagi industri pelayaran untuk memperbaharui kapal, dan harga kapal pun tidak murah. Priori? Inpres Nomor 5 Tahun 2005 tentang Pemberdayaan Industri Pelayaran Nasional. Roman? Inpres ini menyebutkan muatan pelayaran antarpulau di dalam negeri wajib diangkut dengan kapal berbendera Indonesia dan dioperasikan oleh perusahaan pelayaran nasional. Leaders Disagree About Rejoining? Terdapat pertanyaan berapa lama yang dibutuhkan untuk membangun industri kapal nasional tanpa kemudahan pembiayaan. Azas ini menyatakan bahwa pengangkutan muatan domestik hanya oleh kapal berbendera milik negara tersebut.
Ini telah diterapkan di antaranya di AS dan Cina. Roman Weddings? Penerapan azas ini di Indonesia diyakini akan mampu meningkatkan daya saing produk-produk dalam negeri. Menurut Undang-undang, seharusnya bidang penerbangan tertutup bagi pemodal asing. Examples? Namun pada nyatanya, perusahaan asing telah beroperasi dengan membawa penumpang lokal dalam penerbangan. Indonesia dan Singapura melakukan perjanjian kerjasama yang memperbolehkan maskapai Singapura untuk membawa langsung penumpangnya ke Indonesia, begitu pula sebaliknya dengan Garuda Indonesia pun diperbolehkan membawa penumpangnya ke Singapura. Roman Weddings? Namun setelah perjanjian tersebut mulai berlaku, Singapura mulai membawa penumpangnya ke Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar.
Indonesia pun melakukan protes karena Singapore Airlines telah menyalahi perjanjian kerjasama dengan melayani penerbangan ke berbagai wilayah di Indonesia; sementara Garuda Indonesia hanya ke Singapura. Short? Namun pihak Singapura pun berdalih karena dalam isi kontrak disebutkan bahwa rute penerbangan adalah Singapura – Indonesia, dan Jakarta, Surabaya dan Bali merupakan bagian dari wilayah Indonesia. Menurut Pasal 6 ayat 1 UU No. Roman Weddings? 1 Tahun 1967 tentang PMA dijelaskan bahwa sektor penerbangan termasuk ke dalam bidang usaha yang tertutup untuk penanaman modal asing secara penguasaan penuh. Devices? Pada Pasal 39 UU No. Weddings? 15 Tahun 1992 juga disebutkan bahwa perusahaan angkutan udara asing dilarang melakukan angkutan udara niaga di dalam negeri. Is A Priori? Namun hal tersebut bertolak belakang dengan apa yang dilakukan oleh Air Asia milik Malaysia yang telah beroperasi mengangkut penumpang lokal sejak tahun 2004. Roman? Hal ini bisa terjadi karena adanya peraturan yang bertolak belakang dengan peraturan di atas yaitu Keppres Nomor 118 Tahun 2000 yang menyebutkan bahwa dalam bidang penerbangan tidak termasuk dalam daftar bidang usaha yang tertutup bagi penanaman modal asing. Knowledge? Hal inilah yang menjadi acuan atas penyimpangan tersebut, lebih anehnya lagi sebuah Keppres dapat mengalahkan Undang-undang yang mempunyai kedudukan yang lebih tinggi.
Garuda Indonesia termasuk kategori maskapai terlemah di Asia. Weddings? Hal ini diperkuat lagi dengan kinerja keuangan yang negatif, sehingga ada kemungkinan untuk diprivatisasi. Short Shakespeare? Banyak pihak asing yang telah berminat untuk menguasai saham Garuda, ini berarti ada potensi keuntungan yang dapat diperoleh dari Garuda. Weddings? Kerugian yang dialami Garuda selama ini bisa jadi disebabkan adanya kesalahan dalam manajemen, sehingga keputusan untuk menjual saham Garuda ke pihak asing dirasa bukan solusi yang tepat. Pada tahun 2010 diprediksikan akan terjadi kekacauan yaitu berupa krisis listrik yang terjadi di Jawa dan Bali. Utnapishtim? Hal ini dimungkinkan karena ketidakbecusan Pemerintah dalam menata pembangunan khususnya dalam bidang ketenagalistikan. Roman Weddings? Berdasarkan data, PLN diperkirakan tidak sanggup untuk melayani permintaan pasokan listrik pada tahun 2010. Flood? Akibatnya, PLN akan melakukan penjatahan suplai listrik secara bergilir.
Kekacauan pengelolaan kelistrikan mulai terjadi pada tahun 1992 ketika pihak swasta dilibatkan dalam bisnis penyediaan listrik. Roman? Keppres No. Mma Welland? 37 Tahun 1992 dijadikan alasan untuk mengantisipasi kekurangan pasokan listrik bagi masyarakat. Roman? Namun, hal ini dimanfaatkan oleh beberapa oknum untuk keuntungan pribadi, dengan mark up setinggi-tingginya nilai proyek tersebut. Heroes Arthur Possess?? Perbuatan busuk ini baru terkuak setelah Orde Baru runtuh berkat temuan dari tim pengkaji ulang berbagai proyek listrik di tanah air. Setelah Keppres No. Weddings? 37 Tahun 1992, PLN bekerja sama dengan pihak swasta lewat PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) yang mengharuskan PLN membeli 100 % listrik yang dijual swasta.
Harga jual listrik swasta jauh lebih mahal dari yang dijual PLN ke masyarakat, sehingga menyebabkan kerugian bagi negara. Why Did Leaders The South? Menurut Kompas, perusahaan-perusahaan swasta tersebut ternyata dimiliki oleh para pengusaha yang dekat dengan penguasa Orde Baru saat itu, seperti Bob Hasan, Sigit Soeharto, Bambang Triatmodjo dan lain sebagainya. Roman Weddings? Kewajiban PLN untuk membeli listrik dari swasta ini mencapai 133,5 milyar dollar AS dan nilai itu belum termasuk kerugian akibat praktik korupsi pada tubuh PLN serta kerugian akibat nilai rupiah yang terdepresiasi terhadap dollar AS. Seharusnya setelah praktik mark up atas prolyek listrik tersebut terbongkar, penegakan hukum harus dilaksanakan. Of William? Namun, yang terjadi hanya dilakukan renegosiasi yang masih membebankan PLN. Roman? Hal ini terlihat pada klausul pembelian take or pay yang prinsipnya ada dua jenis pembelian, yaitu pembelian kapasitas dalam bentuk megawatt dan pembelian energi dalam bentuk kWh. Mma Welland? Klausul ini menyebabkan PLN harus membayar meskipun tidak menggunakan listrik dari swasta. Kekacauan ini terus diperparah dengan terbitnya UU No. Roman? 20 Tahun 2002 tentang ketenagalistrikan, yang tujuannya agar listrik bisa lebih cepat menjangkau wilayah Indonesia. Short Biography? Hal ini mengubah pandangan listrik dari obyek infrastruktur menjadi komoditas, sehingga profit merupakan bagian terpenting dalam pengembangannya.
Kita sebagai rakyat hanya bisa berharap agar krisis listrik dapat segera teratasi dengan tidak membebani rakyat. Keberadaan hukum adat perlu dipertanyakan karena banyak produk hukum pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam (SDA) justru bertolak belakang dengan hukum adat dan menciptakan kemiskinan masyarakat setempat. Roman? Produk-produk hukum dalam pemanfaatan SDA, seperti pertambangan, perminyakan, kehutanan, pertanahan dan sebagainya menyebabkan masyarakat setempat beserta hukum adatnya semakin terpinggirkan. Of William Shakespeare? Bahkan hukum tersebut dilakukan bersifat represif, sehingga menyebabkan pemiskinan secara sistematis terhadap masyarakat adat. Kehancuran sistematis bagi masyarakat beserta hukum adatnya mulai terjadi pada masa Orde Baru. Weddings? Produk hukum yang dihasilkan semakin terasanya dominasi kekuasaan Pemerintah dan menghancurkan hak-hak masyarakat adat.
Masyarakat yang telah sekian lama menempati tanah miliknya, harus mengalami penggusuran dan perampasan hak dengan mengatasnamakan UU hanya demi kepentingan penguasa pada saat itu. Dalam penggolongan kriteria hutan dinyatakan bahwa masyarakat adat dinyatakan tidak memiliki tanah tetapi hanya menguasai dan memanfaatkan tanah berdasarkan hak ulayat. Mma Welland? Namun semakin hari hak masyarakat adat untuk menguasai dan memanfaatkan tanah tersebut juga dirampas baik oleh pihak perusahaan swasta asing maupun lokal dengan dalih bahwa tanah tersebut milik mereka. Roman Weddings? Dan ketika masyarakat adat ingin mengambilnya, maka muncullah tuduhan penebang dan penambang ilegal. Masyarakat adat sering berada pada dualisme hukum. Cohesive Examples? Sebagai masyarakat adat mereka harus menaati Hukum Adat dan sebagai warga negara Indonesia mereka harus menaati Hukum Nasional.
Hal inilah yang sering menyebabkan tombulnya konflik dalam masyarakat. Berdasarkan Pasal 33 ayat 3 UUD 1945, seharusnya konsep hak menguasai negara berarti negara “bukanlah pemilik” dari kekayaan yang terkandung di tanah air. Roman Weddings? Akan tetapi “negara diberikan hak dari rakyat untuk menguasai kekayaan alam” demi kemamkmuran rakyat. Biography? Dengan kata lain, masyarakat harus memberikan ijin terlenih dahulu kepada pihak pengusaha yang akan melaksanakan kegiatan eksplorasi di wilayah adatnya. Eksistensi Hukum Adat.
Saat penjajahan Belanda, keberadaan hukum adat selalu bertentangan dengan kepentingan penjajajah Hindia Belanda. Roman? Namun para pemimpin dan tokoh bangsa ini telah menyadarinya dengan mencetuskan Soempah Pemoeda 1928. Priori? Dan setelah merdeka, para pemimpin bangsa kita pun menghormati hak-hak masyarakat adat yang diaku pada Pasal 18 UUD 1945 beserta Penjelasan-nya. Weddings? Hak-hak masyarakat asli (indegenous people rights) ini juga diakui oleh PBB. Why Did Disagree? Lalu, Pasal 14 Piagam Hak Asasi Manusia yang menjadi bagian integral Ketetapan MPR No. Weddings? XVII/MPR/1998 yang menyatakan bahwa hak atas tanah ulayat dilindungi oleh negara. Examples? Begitu pula Pasal 14 Konvensi ILO Nomor 169 yang mengatakan bahwa hak kepemilikan dan pemanfaatan atas tanah oleh masyarakat adat harus diakui negara. Beberapa produk hukum Orde Lama seperti UU No. Roman Weddings? 5 Tahun 1960 tentang Pokok-Pokok Agraria (UUPA) memiliki pasal-pasal yang mengakui ketentuan hukum adat. Disagree About The South Rejoining The Union?? Begitu juga dalam bidang sumber daya hutan melalui PP No. Roman Weddings? 64 tahun 1957 tentang desentralisasi di bidang kehutanan.
Namun pada masa Orde Baru, PP ini dihapus melalui PP No. Short Biography Shakespeare? 21 tahun 1970 yang menghilangkan sama sekali hak-hak masyarakat. Weddings? Banyak produk hukum dari masa Orde Baru lainnya yang secara umum menghasilkan eksploitasi besar-besaran terhadap SDA dan sepenuhnya dinikmati perusahaan pengelola. Mma Welland? Produk-produk hukum ini pun tidak jauh berbeda dengan UU pada masa penjajahan Belanda dulu. Seharusnya dalam produk-produk hukum tersebut, para penguasa harus memperhatikan kesejahteraan masyarakat sekitar dan menambah prasyarat-prasyarat lain bagi perusahaan yang diberikan ijn serta memperhatikan dampak ekologi bagi lingkungan sekitar. Pertambangan dan perminyakan Indonesia merupakan bidang yang paling digarap oleh asing dengan 85,4 % dari 137 konsensi pengelolaan lapangan migas.
Menurut data BP Migas, hanya 20 perusahaan migas nasional yang saat ini mengelola ladang migas di Indonesia. Roman? Bahkan ada kemungkinan bahwa dengan berbagai kepemilikan saham, pihak asing menguasai 100 % ladang migas di Indonesia. Pada masa Orde Baru, hampir semua ladang minyak dikuasai perusahaan minyak asing raksasa. Priori? Namun pada zaman sekarang ini, sektor industri hilir migas pun diberikan kepada perusahaan swasta baik asing maupun lokal. Roman? Hasilnya, bermunculanlah pompa-pompa bensin merk asing, seperti Shell, Petronas, Total dan sebagainya. Which Of Legendary Does Possess?? Hal ini akan berdampak pada naiknya harga BBM akibat dicabutnya subsidi BBM. Produksi migas yang dihasilkan dari berbagai blok migas sebagian besar diekspor hanya untuk melipatgandakan devisa negara. Roman Weddings? Dan hal ini menyebabkan krisis energi yang merugikan rakyat. Why Did Leaders About The South? Di sisi lain, telah banyak kerugian yang terjadi akibat menyerahkan pengelolaan pertambangan dan migas ke pihak asing seperti penambangan emas dan tembaga oleh PT. Roman Weddings? Freeport. Which Characteristic Heroes Does? Pertaminapun tidak dipercaya untuk mengelola blok-blok migas seperti di Cepu.
Nasib serupa juga dialami dalam bidang batubara, yang pengelolaanya masih didominasi oleh pihak swasta seperti Bumi Resources Tbk. Roman? Salah satu alasan mengapa pihak asing yang banyak menguasai penambangan dan perminyakan di Indonesia adalah dikarenakan teknologinya yang mahal. Disagree The South The Union?? Hal ini menjadi kurang relevan jika dibandingkan dengan masa pengelolaan oleh pihak asing. Neoliberalisme Pengelolaan Migas. Dulu, Petronas pernah belajar dari Pertamina tentang konsep pengelolaan migasnya. Weddings? Namun sekarang ini, Petronas lebih maju dari Pertamina. Mma Welland? Hal ini disebabkan Pertamina yang dikelola secara korup. Roman Weddings? Lebih parahnya lagi, bukan korupsinya yang diberantas, akan tetapi aturan main atau sistem dasarnya yang diganti. Why Did Disagree The South? Di era Megawati melalui UU Migas No.
22 Tahun 2001, pengelolaan dan penguasaan migas dan produk BBM berubah drastis. Roman Weddings? Pertamina tidak lagi memegang Kuasa Usaha Pertambangan termasuk mengontrol para kontraktor Kontrak Production Sharing. What Knowledge? Bahkan saham Pertamina bisa dijual dan dimiliki siapa saja. UU Migas menyebabkan negara tidak lagi memiliki prasarana yang dapat menguasai dan memiliki sumber daya migas dan produk BBM. Roman? Hal ini sangat bertentangan dengan Pasal 33 UUD 1945. Mma Welland? Liberalisasi pun semakin masuk dalam pengelolaan migas di Indonesia sehingga dalam penentuan harga BBM ditentukan berdasarkan harga pasar. Roman? Salah satu cara masuknya neoliberalisme adalah dengan menghancurkan pengelolaan BUMN-BUMN strategis dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dengan cara memprivatisasinya. Cohesive Examples? Agen-agen asing seperti IGGI dan IMF yang didukung AS serta negara-negara pendonor sangat berperan dalam menciptakan neoliberalisme di Indonesia. Roman Weddings? Hal ini ditambah lagi dengan bantuan wakil rakyat di DPR dalam mengesahkan Undang-undang yang pro flood, neoliberalisme. Nasionalisasi Migas Keberanian Morales. Presiden Bolivia Evo Morales mengeluarkan dekrit nasional sektor energi Bolivia dan mengatakan bahwa penjarahan SDA oleh perusahaan-perusahaan asing telah berakhir.
Pengelolaan SDA di Bolivia sebenarnya sama dengan di Indonesia. Weddings? Namun yang membedakannya adalah Bolivia berani menasionalisasikan seluruh perusahaan migas asing. Morales memulai langkahnya dengan 2 cara. Pertama, menasionalisasikan perusahaan migas asing; Kedua, melakukan revolusi lahan. Mma Welland? Pemerintah Bolivia menetapkan batas waktu 6 bulan kepada perusahaan-perusahaan asing untuk menegosiasi ulang kontrak-kontrak mereka dengan perusahaan minyak nasional Bolivia. Perusahaan milik negara / YPFB harus emnjadi pemegang saham mayoritas dalam perusahaan-perusahaan energi yang beroperasi di Bolivia. Langkah Morales ini dikecam oleh pihak asing dan mereka mengatakan bahwa terjadi kemunduran ekonomi di Bolivia. Roman? Hal ini berbeda dengan yang terjadi di Indonesia, dimana justru para Pemerintah dan pengamat yang mengatakan hal itu untuk membodohi rakyatnya sendiri. Revolusi lahan dilakukan dengan cara dimana negara menyerahkan seperlima lahan negara kepada petani-petani miskin di Bolivia.
Kebijakan redistribusi lahan ini ditargetkan akan mendistribusikan lahan publik seluas 200.000 km 2 dalam 5 tahun. Why Did Disagree About? Pemerintah juga akan meredistribusi lahan-lahan pribadi yang tidak produktif, diperoleh secara ilegal, atau digunakan untuk spekulasi. Roman Weddings? Apakah indonesia akan mengikuti langkah Bolivia tersebut? UU Mineral dan Batubara yang Banci. Dengan adanya UU Minerba No. Shakespeare? 4 Tahun 2009, posisi hukum Negara menjadi lebih terhormat dan diakui kedaulatannya, dimana Pemerintah berdiri sejajar dengan pengusaha dan Pemerintah berkedudukan sebagai pemberi izin usaha pertambangan.
UU Minerba ini mengakhiri Kontrak Karya, Perjanjian Karya Pengusahaan Pertambangan Batubara dan Kuasa Pertambangan. Weddings? Namun dalam beberapa Pasal dalam UU Minerba ini masih ada upaya melindungi kepentingan asing dalam mengelola SDA. Seharusnya UU Minerba ini bisa mengembalikan dan menyelamatkan SD mineral Indonesia, dengan cara membatalkan kontrak-kontrak yang telah sangat merugikan negara. Mma Welland? Sayangnya, Menteri ESDM waktu itu Purnomo Yusgiantoro menyatakan bahwa UU ini tidak akan membatalkan KK pertambangan yang telah diteken Pemerintah dengan alasan menghormati hukum. Weddings? KK hanya bisa dibatalkan dengan tiga alasan. Short Of William Shakespeare? Pertama, jika terjadi pelanggaran pidana. Weddings? Kedua, jika pengusaha pertambangan tidak menaati pasal-pasal yang ada dalam kontrak. What Is A? Dan ketiga, kedua belah pihak sepakat untuk memutuskan kontrak tersebut. Roman? Hal ini membuktikan posisi Pemerintah yang lemah dalam mengatur pengelolaan SDA untuk kepentingan bangsa. What? Kesimpulannya, UU Minerba yang sekarang tidak akan banyak mengubah sistem pengelolaan pertambangan kita.
BUMN ITU (SEHARUSNYA) BOLEH RUGI, ASAL BUKAN KARENA DIKORUPSI. Sudah sering terdengar bahwa BUMN (seperti PLN, PT KAI, PDAM, TELKOM dll) menderita kerugian, maka pemerintah dibebani subsidi untuk perusahaan-perusahaan itu. Weddings? Yang menjadi pertanyaan adalah apakah salah kalau BUMN itu merugi sedangkan tujuan dibentuknya BUMN itu adalah untuk menyediakan kebutuhan rakyat dengan harga murah? Bukan keuntungan yang menjadi prioritas utama tetapi pemenuhan kebutuhan rakyat dengan harga yang terjangkau sesuai dengan semangat pasal 33 UUD 1945. Langkah pemerintah yang kemudian memprivatisasi BUMN sesungguhnya sangatlah merugikan. Short Biography Of William? Dengan alasan beratnya beban subsidi pemerintah telah mengorbankan kepentingan rakyat. Roman Weddings? Bisa kita lihat pada kenaikan harga BBM, tarif listrik, air, transportasi dll semakin membebani rakyat.
Pemerintah seharusnya melakukan perbaikan manajemen agar BUMN tidak lagi dijalankan dengan korup, bukan dengan menjual BUMN ini kepada pihak swasta. LECEHKAN HUKUM DEMI INVESTOR ASING. Faktor-faktor penghalang jika terjadi pengajuan judicial review terhadap PP No. Short Biography Of William Shakespeare? 20 Tahun 1994: Pemerintah berusaha menggagalkan (secara politik); Campur tangan kekuatan asing (secara ekonomi); Putusan hakim tidak populer. Akibatnya, jika sampai PP No. Weddings? 20 Tahun 1994 tidak berlaku, akan ada banyak opini bahwa hal itu tidak mendukung pembangunan ekonomi nasional karena sulit masuknya investor asing.Banyak produk hukum kita yang saling bertentangan (kontroversial) dalam investasi asing.
Contohnya, antara UUD 1945 pasal 33, UU No. Mma Welland? 1 Tahun 1967 tentang Penanaman Modal Asing, dan UU No. Weddings? 6 Tahun 1968 tentang Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri. UUD 1945 pasal 33 ayat (2) menyatakan bahwa cabang-cabang produksi yang penting bagi negara dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara. Arthur? Ayat (3) menyatakan bahwa bumi dan air dan kekayaan alam yang terkandung di dalamnya dikuasai oleh negara dan dipergunakan untuk sebesar-besar kemakmuran rakyat. Dalam UU No. Roman Weddings? 1 Tahun 1967 pasal 6 ayat (1) dinyatakan beberapa bidang usaha yang tertutup bagi penanaman modal asing secara penguasaan penuh, antara lain: pelabuhan, produksi, transmisi dan distribusi tenaga listrik untuk umum, telekomunikasi, pelayaran, penerbangan, air minum, kereta api umum, pembangkitan tenaga atom dan media massa. Which Characteristic Of Legendary Arthur? Anehnya, sektor pertambangan tidak tergolong dalam klasifikasi di atas karena dimungkinkannya kerja sama dengan pemerintah atas dasar kontrak karya. Roman? Ternyata hal ini untuk memuluskan masuknya Freeport ke Papua. UU No.
6 Tahun 1968 pasal 3 ayat (1) menyatakan bahwa perusahaan nasional adalah perusahaan yang sekurang-kurangnya 51% daripada modal dalam negeri yang ditanam di dalamnya dimiliki oleh negara dan/atau swasta nasional. Flood? PP No. Weddings? 20 Tahun 1994 menjamin investor asing boleh memiliki hingga 95% saham perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang pelabuhan, produksi, transmisi dan distribusi tenaga listrik untuk umum, telekomunikasi, pelayaran, penerbangan, air minum, kereta api, pembangkit tenaga nuklir dan media massa. Jelas-jelas ketiga produk hukum di atas saing bertentangan. Is A Knowledge? Dalam bidang yang penting bagi negara dan yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak, persentase maksimal kepemilikan saham asing semakin meningkat: 5% (UU No.
1 Tahun 1967), 49% (UU No. Roman? 6 Tahun 1968), dan menjadi 95% (PP No. Utnapishtim Flood? 20 Tahun 1994). Ada hal lain yang lebih memprihatinkan. Roman? Pemerintah Indonesia melalui International Infrastructure Summit (17 Januari 2005) dan BUMN Summit (25-26 Januari 2005) memutuskan untuk membuka investor asing masuk dalam proyek infrastruktur di Indonesia.
Dalam BUMN Summit juga dinyatakan bahwa seluruh BUMN akan diprivatisasi. Biography Of William? Jadi, barang dan jasa publik (yang penting bagi negara dan menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak) akan menjadi barang komersial dengan fokus utama bisnis ( profit oriented ). PENYIMPANGAN KONSTITUSI: PASAL 33 UUD 1945. Pasal 33 UUD 1945 menyiratkan adanya sistem ekonomi sosialis atau sistem berbasis kerakyatan. Roman? Hal ini diperkuat dengan amandemen keempat dengan dicantumkannya ketentuan perekonomian nasional yang diselenggarakan berdasar atas demokrasi ekonomi. Mma Welland? Namun, dalam praktiknya, belum ada implementasi dari pasal 33 UUD 1945. Berikut ini penjabaran pasal 33 UUD 1945: Kegiatan ekonomi berdasar atas rasa kebersaman; Adanya semangat kekeluargaan yang saling menunjang dan menguntungkan antarpelaku ekonomi; Hal-hal yang menguasai hajat hidup orang banyak dikuasai oleh negara dan dipergunakan untuk sebesar-besar kemakmuran rakyat; Penguasaan negara tersebut dilakukan melalui peraturan hukum; Tidak ada tempat untuk liberalisme. Pasal 33 UUD 1945 menjamin kepentingan rakyat dengan menciptakan kemakmuran dan kepastian penghidupan yang layak dan tidak menciptakan penindasan dan penghisapan ( exploitation d’lomme parlon ). Roman Weddings? Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta menyatakan untuk mengimplementasikan hal tersebut, diperlukan ekonomi berencana ( planned economy ) atau perencanaan terpusat. Utnapishtim Flood? Keperluan hidup yang vital, seperti sandang, pangan, papan, pendidikan, dan kesehatan mendapat prioritas utama dalam perencanaan perekonomian nasional.
Rakyat juga harus mendapat air, listrik, gas, dan BBM yang cukup dan murah karena barang-barang tersebut penting bagi rakyat. Weddings? Perusahaan transportasi juga harus berfokus pada pelayanan keperluan masyarakat, tidak profit oriented . Kerja sama ekonomi seharusnya dilakukan dengan cara bagi hasil ( production sharing ) antara Pemerintah Pusat, Pemerintah Daerah, Koperasi, Swasta Nasional dan Asing. Characteristic Heroes Possess?? Proyek-proyek didanai dari kredit luar negeri, sedangkan pembayarannya dilakukan dengan sebagian hasil dari proyek tersebut. Roman? Kepemilikan dan pimpinan harus tetap ada di tangan pihak Indonesia. Leaders About The South The Union?? Barang impor seharusnya hanya menjadi pelengkap produksi domestik. Roman Weddings? Walaupun demikian, ekspor dan impor harus berada pada hubungan yang seimbang, artinya ekspor diperlukan untuk membayar impor.
Seperti telah dikemukakan di atas, pasal 33 UUD 1945 belum mampu diimplementasikan. Cohesive Devices? Bahkan, dapat dikatakan baru sebatas normatif. Roman? Banyak cabang produksi yang vital dikelola oleh swasta atau investor asing. Priori Knowledge? Freeport, ExxonMobil, Newmont adalah contohnya. Dalam berbagai segi, pengelolaan ekonomi kita sekarang ini cenderung liberal. Weddings? Bahkan, Indonesia dianggap sebagai negara paling liberal di antara negara-negara liberal. Mma Welland? Hal yang ironis, di satu sisi kita tetap mempertahankan pasal 33 UUD 1945, namun di sisi lain, produk hukum di bawahnya justru menyimpang.
Pada tahun 1994 terjadi krisis ekonomi yang melanda Amerika Latin. Roman Weddings? Untuk mengatasinya, digulirkan suatu rekomendasi formula 10 elemen yang dinamakan Washington Consensus, antara lain: Disiplin fiskal, menjaga anggaran agar tetap surplus; Belanja APBN diprioritaskan untuk memperbaiki pendistribusi pendapatan; Reformasi sektor perpajakan; Liberalisasi sektor finansial; Pertimbangan daya saing dan kredibilitas dalam penentuan kurs mata uang; Liberalisasi perdagangan; Tidak ada diskriminasi investasi asing; Privatisasi BUMN; Deregulasi atau penghilangan segala restriksi perusahaan baru yang hendak masuk pasar; Perlindungan hak cipta ( property right ). Kesepuluh pilar di atas dapat dipersempit lagi menjadi tiga poin utama: (1) kebijakan fiskal yang disiplin dan konservatif; (2) privatisasi BUMN; (3) liberalisasi pasar. Berbagai perdebatan akan pro-kontra neoliberalisme tampaknya mengambil Washington Consensus tersebut sebagai tolok ukur. What Is A Knowledge? Contoh yang nyata: privatisasi BUMN. Masalahnya, apakah dengan sistem neoliberalisme, rakyat menjadi makmur dan tidak perlu terjadi krisis ekonomi? Korea Selatan mungkin kelihatan berhasil dengan sistem neoliberalismenya, namun ada campur tangan Amerika Serikat untuk menghadapi Korea Utara dan Cina. Weddings? Amerika Serikat memberikan bantuan dan perhatian yang besar untuk menumbuhkan perekonomian Korea Selatan.
Bagaimana dengan Indonesia? Dengan sistem neoliberalisme, siapa yang akan diuntungkan atau menjadi makmur: rakyat, asing, atau sekelompok pelaku ekonomi tertentu? Tinggalkan Balasan Batalkan balasan. Ringkasan buku ini memperlihatkan bahwa bangsa sudah terjajah secara lebih sistimatis,daripada apa yang terjadi pada zaman belenda maupun jepang,sudah masuk sampai kehulu hati dulu mungkin baru bagian badanya saja.Sekarang malah sudah merasuk jauh kedalam dan sangat sulit untuk di ubah seperti penyakiy kronis. Bajingan para kelompok negara maju itu artinya…mereka bullshit….mmberitakan negara mrk kaya raya katanya…. Is A Knowledge? hua…ha..ha..ha…