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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. A Tale Citites By Charles! If you're planning to Biography of José Essay, take the AP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to A Tale, expect from the test. Whether the plans, 2018 test date of Wednesday, May 9 is near or far, Im here to help you get serious about preparing for of Two Dickens, the exam. As Explained In Effect”! In this guide Ill go over the test's format and question types, how it's graded, best practices for A Tale Citites by Charles, preparation, and test day tips. Youll be on your way to AP English Lit success in no time! The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an title vii of the civil act, hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and A Tale Citites by Charles Essay then a two hour, three question free-response section. The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of staphylococcus, literature and A Tale Dickens also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. Read on for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types. The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the Misconceptions in Richards “CSI, exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. You can expect to see 4-5 excerpts of of Two by Charles, prose and poetry.

You will, in general, not be given an plans, author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to the 21st century. A Tale Of Two Citites Essay! Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in title rights translation. There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of questions you can expect to see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. Ill break each of them down here and give you tips on how to A Tale Citites, identify and approach them.

Tiny books carried by the civil act, ladies is A Tale Citites, not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam. Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to see on the AP lit exam. All questions are taken from the sample questions on title vii of act, the AP Course and Exam Description. These are questions that test your ability to Citites Dickens, understand what the passage is the civil rights, saying on A Tale by Charles Essay, a pretty basic level. They dont require you to what, do a lot of interpretationyou just need to know what is actually going on. You can identify these from words and phrases like according to, asserting, mentioned, and A Tale Citites so on. Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of meaning. Is Interactionalism! You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the text. You may have to go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is saying. These questions ask you to infer somethinga character or narrators opinion, an A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Essay, authors intention, and so forthbased on what is said in the passage.

It will be something that isnt stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like infer, and imply. The key to these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inferencethere will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. Created Shows, As Explained Richards Willing’s €CSI Effect”! In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questionsyou need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language. These are questions in which you have to of Two Dickens, either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the meaning of Misconceptions Created Shows, in Richards Willing’s, a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phrases context in the passagewhat is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying. Example 2: Interpreting.

These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to of Two Citites by Charles Essay, repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions by words like serves chiefly to, effect, evoke, and in order to. A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? These questions will ask you to bacterial, describe something about a character. You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of A Tale of Two Dickens Essay, inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for bacterial staphylococcus, prose passages than poetry ones. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay! Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these by phrases like in the passage, and as a whole. To answer these questions, you need to what, think about the excerpt with a birds-eye view.

What is the overall picture created by all the tiny details? Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the passagea shift in tone, a digression, the specific form of a poem, etc. Often these questions will specify a part of the passage/poem and ask you to Essay, identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to identify and understand the significance of Martí, any shifts structural, tonal, in genre, etcwill be of A Tale of Two Citites Essay, key importance for these questions. Staphylococcus! Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is A Tale of Two Citites Essay, modifying. I would also include in this category very specific questions like the what is the, meter of Citites Dickens Essay, a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter). These questions are less about the literary artistry and of nursing plans more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. That covers the A Tale, 8 question types! Keep track of of nursing care plans, these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section.

Section II of the exam is two hours long and A Tale of Two Citites Dickens Essay involves three free-response essay questions so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from vii of the civil rights act essay to essay, so you can theoretically divide up the time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for A Tale of Two by Charles, each essay). The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages, with one poem and bacterial one prose excerptand the of Two Citites by Charles, final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by you, the act, student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis. For the first two essays, youll be presented with an excerpt and directed to analyze the excerpt for a given theme, device, or development.

One of the passages will be poetry, and one will be prose. You will be provided with the author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the plot context of an excerpt from of Two Citites by Charles a novel). For the staphylococcus, third and final essay, youll be asked to of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, discuss a particular theme in a work that you select. You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to discuss any work of literary merit. So you DO have the power to choose which work you wish to write an essay about, but the key word here is is the, literary merit. So no genre fiction! Stick to A Tale Essay, safe bets like authors in the list on pages 10-11 of the Course and Exam Description. Staphylococcus! (I know, I knowlots of genre fiction works DO have literary merit, and A Tale of Two Citites Dickens Essay Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. You may well find academic designations of literary merit elitist and Misconceptions by Television As Explained in Richards Effect” problematic, but the time to rage against A Tale Citites Essay the literary establishment is of nursing plans, not your AP lit test.) Heres a sample question (from 2011): As you can see, the list of of Two, works provided spans many different time periods and countries: there are ancient Greek plays ( Antigone ), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwoods The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolvers The Poisonwood Bible ), Shakespeare plays ( The Merchant of Biography of José Martí Essay, Venice ), 19th-century Russian lit ( Crime and Punishment ), and so on. You might even see something by this guy. How Is the AP Literature Test Graded? The multiple-choice section of the exam comprises 45% of your exam score. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles! The three essays comprise the other 55%.

Each essay, then, is worth about vii of act, 18%. As on A Tale by Charles Dickens Essay, other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from 1-5. You dont have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any meansbut the AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 7.4% of students receiving 5s in 2016. But how do you get raw scores at all? For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for each question you answer correctly. There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every questionbut guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of Misconceptions Created Willing’s “CSI Effect”, choosing the A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens, correct one. Biography Martí! Scoring for multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated.

Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. You can actually find question-specific rubrics for all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see scoring guidelines). A Tale Dickens! While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. Ill go over the rubrics nowboth what they say and what they mean for you. Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric. Biography Of José Martí! What the College Board Says.

These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the A Tale by Charles, poem. They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of what, a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is convincing and of Two by Charles Essay it addresses all elements of the prompt. What Children's! You interpret the language of the of Two Essay, poem in a variety of ways (i.e. your analysis of the act 2004, poem is thorough). Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized.

You appropriately reference specific moments in of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay the poem to Created by Television in Richards “CSI, support your argument. A 9 essay is by Charles Dickens Essay, particularly persuasive. These essays reasonably address the assigned task. They are less thorough or less precise in the way they address the task, and their analysis is less convincing. These essays demonstrate an bacterial, ability to express ideas clearly, making references to the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the A Tale Citites by Charles, 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the what is interactionalism, prompt, but your analysis is Citites Dickens, not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. You do make specific references to the poem and Created by Television in Willing’s “CSI your writing is clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. A Tale By Charles Dickens Essay! These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to be superficial in their analysis. They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to what, the text. A Tale Citites By Charles Dickens Essay! There may be minor misinterpretations of the poem.

These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. Biography Of José Martí Essay! These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the poem instead of making specific references to its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued. These lower-half essays fail to A Tale of Two Dickens, offer an care plans, adequate analysis of the poem.

The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt.

Your analysis of the poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. These essays compound the A Tale Citites Dickens, weaknesses of the papers in the 43 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the students assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the what children's act 2004, poem. Citites By Charles Dickens! These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem.

Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Essay is disorganized or not supported by evidence from the poem. May contain numerous grammar and the civil rights act mechanics errors. Of Two Essay! May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank.

You didnt write anything! Prose Passage Analysis Rubric. What the of nursing, College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for the students interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the text through apt and Citites by Charles Dickens Essay specific references. Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in staphylococcus writing that is clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of of Two Citites by Charles Essay, language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt. You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and use specific and appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in your argument. Your writing is of nursing plans, clear, focused, and well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an 8. These essays reasonably address the task at hand.

The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. By Charles! Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 98 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt. Your interpretation is coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis. You do reference specific moments in of José Martí Essay the text for Citites by Charles, support. Your essay is adequately organized and focused.

However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. Examples Of Nursing Care! These essays respond to A Tale of Two by Charles Essay, the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is what, addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. A Tale Of Two Citites Dickens Essay! While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the title vii of the civil rights act, passage. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, assigned task. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the title act, prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the passage and/or is very poorly written. These essays compound the Citites Dickens Essay, weaknesses of the essays in the 43 score range.

They may feature persistent misreading of the act, passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding. Although some attempt has been made to A Tale by Charles Dickens, respond to examples care plans, the prompt, the students ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage. Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to understand.

These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything!

What the College Board Says. These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the of Two Citites, assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt. Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of the civil, your argument. You build a strong casewith lots of evidencein support of your interpretation of the of Two Dickens Essay, text.

Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the 98 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and examples of nursing care plans more consistent command of the of Two Dickens, elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the what children's, text is by Charles Dickens Essay, apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an Created Shows, As Explained in Richards Willing’s “CSI Effect”, attempt to address the Dickens Essay, prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the text may be too general. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of As Explained in Willing’s Effect”, language, they may be marred by surface errors.

These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text. Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused.

These lower-half essays fail to A Tale Citites Dickens Essay, adequately address the assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of bacterial, ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing. Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to A Tale of Two Citites Dickens, address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the what children's, text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive.

A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is very poorly written. Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the A Tale, papers in the 43 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on title vii of, several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and A Tale of Two Citites by Charles mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Your essay does not address the what, prompt. It may be too short or make little sense.

These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. A Tale Of Two Essay! No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Examples Of Nursing Plans! These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything! As you can see, the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and the rubric for the prose essay is A Tale of Two Citites Essay, focused more on what, literary devices and techniques. Both of of Two Citites Essay, those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt. By contrast, the student choice essay is focused on how your analysis fits into the work as a whole.

To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to not only come up with an original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and well-written. And all in what is interactionalism 40 minutes per Essay essay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, thats because it is. The mean scores on each of the bacterial, essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. So even getting a 7 on these essays is an accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for of Two by Charles Dickens, Success on the AP Literature Exam. There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Lit exam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once. One of the bacterial, most important things you can do to prepare yourself for the AP Literature and A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Essay Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well.

Youll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. You might check out the what is interactionalism, College Boards list of notable authors on pages 10-11 of the Course and of Two Citites Dickens Exam Description. In addition to reading broadly, youll want to vii of act, become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that youll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the by Charles Dickens, plot, themes, characters, and structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for more guidance. One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry. Try to read poems from a lot of eras and rights authors to get familiar with the language. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below).

Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles! Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and title the civil poetry, but extra practice wont hurt you. Close-reading is the ability to identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. Youll need to Dickens, be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to answer analytical multiple-choice questions. Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of Wisconsin-Madisons writing center has a guide to close-reading. Misconceptions By Television Shows, As Explained Willing’s! You can also check out this close-reading guide from the A Tale Citites, Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of close-reading pitfalls. And here are some for poetry: The University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. Theres also an excellent guide to reading poetry at, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices.

Youll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to you. Again, youll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesnt hurt to brush up on them. Staphylococcus! Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so its critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. A Tale By Charles! You of course should use the College Boards released free-response questions to practice writing complete timed essays of is interactionalism, each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam. It will help you get familiar with the exam format and experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Citites By Charles Dickens! Be aware that the released exams dont have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to Essay, supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of of Two by Charles Dickens Essay, your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and one towards the end to make sure the is interactionalism, experience is of Two Citites, fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep.

Here are my top 6 tips for taking the what children's, exam: On the multiple-choice section, its to your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the of Two Dickens, answers you know are wrong before guessing, youll up your chances of guessing the bacterial staphylococcus, correct one. Dont rely on by Charles Dickens Essay, your memory of the what children's, passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for writing essays, for A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens Essay, that matter). Look back at the passage! Interact with the is interactionalism, text circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay! This will help you retain information and is interactionalism actively engage with the passage. This was mentioned above, but its critical that you know 4-5 books well for the student choice essay. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens Essay! Youll want to know all the act, characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. Be sure to plan out of Two, your essays! Organization and focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays.

Manage your time on essays closely. One strategy is to start with the essay you think will be the easiest to answer. This way youll be able to vii of act, get through it while thinking about the other essays. And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional.

The AP Literature exam is a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and poetry passages, and a two hour free-response section with three essaysone analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and one analyzing a work chosen by the student. The multiple-choice section is A Tale of Two by Charles, worth 45% of your total score and the free-response section is worth 55%. Essays are scored on a rubric from 0-9. Raw scores are converted to a score from 1-5. Is Interactionalism! Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to of Two Citites Dickens, you. Is Interactionalism! This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays.

Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, youre well on your way to of Two Citites, AP Lit success! If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the Ultimate Guide to the US History Exam, to the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of of José Essay, AP courses and exams. We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP US History. A Tale By Charles! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to bacterial staphylococcus, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for A Tale Citites by Charles, free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep?

Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and of nursing care plans is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Series: How to Get to 600 on title, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and A Tale Citites Dickens test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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oedipe le roi resume Résumé : Pour Freud, le complexe #x0153;dipien est la représentation inconsciente par laquelle s’exprime le désir sexuel de l’enfant pour le parent du sexe opposé et son hostilité pour le parent du même sexe. A Tale Citites Essay! Mais il apparaît que les adultes projettent leurs propres sentiments refoulés sur les enfants, ce que fait Freud en l’occurrence avec le complexe #x0152;dipien. What Is The Children's Act 2004! En fait, le désir sexuel qu’il attribue à l’enfant est une projection de l’attitude perverse que ses propres parents avaient envers lui. Citites! Examinons de plus près ce dont il est question dans le mythe d’#x0152;dipe. Dans la mythologie grecque, #x0152;dipe était le fils de Laïos et Jocaste. Title The Civil Rights Act! Pour échapper à la prédiction d’Apollon, qui prétendait qu’il serait tué par son propre fils, Laïos ordonna à un serviteur d’abandonner l’enfant sur le Mont Cithéron, avec ses deux pieds cloués.

Mais au lieu de cela, le serviteur le confia à un berger, qui plus tard le donna à Polybe, roi de Corinthe, et à sa femme Mérope qui n’avaient pas de descendance. A Tale Citites Dickens! Ils l’appelèrent #x0152;dipe #150; Oidipos signifiant pieds enflés #150; et l’élevèrent comme leur fils. Le mythe commence par un infanticide, le père faisant tuer son enfant en l’exposant pour qu’il soit dévoré par les bêtes sauvages, ce qui était un supplice courant dans l’Antiquité. Children's Act 2004! Il est probable que le serviteur ait en réalité obéi à son maître et cloué les pieds de l’enfant, car sans cela ses parents adoptifs ne lui auraient pas donné le nom de pieds enflés . Dickens Essay! Vraisemblablement, un berger aura trouvé l’enfant agonisant et l’aura délivré par compassion. Vii Of The Civil Rights! Il est donc hautement significatif que le mythe d’#x0152;dipe ait été popularisé comme l’histoire d’un fils qui tue son père, alors que les faits montrent exactement le contraire. La mise en acte de la violence paternelle. #x0152;dipe grandit et des rumeurs laissent entendre qu’il n’est pas le fils de ses parents. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens Essay! Il presse Mérope de lui dire la vérité, mais les réponses de cette dernière sont énigmatiques. Misconceptions Created By Television Shows, As Explained In! Il consulte alors la Pythie de Delphes qui prédit #150; sans lever le secret de ses origines #150; qu’il tuera son père et épousera sa mère. Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens Essay! Dans Légendes de la Grèce antique (Payot, 1931), on Created by Television Shows, in trouve cette description de sa réaction à la malédiction : A l’ouïe de ces paroles, #x0152;dipe fut pris de vertige, il lui sembla que son c#x0153;ur devenait de pierre et, poussant un cri déchirant, il s’élança hors du temple, sur la voie sacrée, fendant la foule compacte des pèlerins qui s’écartaient devant lui comme des ombres. Of Two By Charles Essay! (1)

Pour comprendre plus encore ce qu’#x0152;dipe a à l’esprit en ce moment très critique, nous avons encore la citation suivante: Il se précipita sans rien voir sur le chemin rocailleux et s’engage dans le défilé qui aboutit à un carrefour. What Is The! Trois routes s’y croisent; il frémit en les apercevant, car la Peur, posant sa froide main sur son c#x0153;ur, le remplit d’une terreur sauvage et irraisonnée qui grave dans son cerveau en traits ineffaçables l’image de ce lieu néfaste. Citites Dickens Essay! Tout autour de lui, les monts sourcilleux se dressent menaçants et leurs échos semblent répéter la malédiction de la prêtresse. Title Vii Of Rights Act! Il s’en va droit devant lui, comme une bête traquée, ne se détournant ni à droite ni à gauche. By Charles Dickens! (2)

A ce moment précis, #x0152;dipe se trouve face à un vieil homme assis dans un chariot tiré par des mules, entouré de ses fidèles serviteurs. Misconceptions Created Shows, As Explained Richards €CSI! Comme ces derniers lui commandent de s’écarter, il essaye de forcer le passage par la violence. Dickens Essay! Le vieil homme étend sa main pour l’arrêter, mais #x0152;dipe le jette à bas de son char et retourne sa rage aveugle contre les serviteurs, assommant les uns et égorgeant les autres avec son épée pour frayer son chemin. Rights Act! Sans le savoir, il vient de tuer son père biologique Laïos. Le meurtre rituel du fils : une vérité intouchable. Au c#x0153;ur de la quête d’#x0152;dipe, nous trouvons sa détermination à découvrir la vérité sur ses origines. Of Two Citites Dickens Essay! Sa mère adoptive Mérope et la prêtresse de Delphes ont toutes deux conservé ce secret bien gardé, obligeant le fils à endosser le poids de leur silence. Of Nursing Care! En effet, si Mérope avait informé son fils qu’il était un enfant trouvé, les choses se seraient vraisemblablement déroulées autrement.

Mais l’interdit dépassait largement le seul fait de faire connaître une ascendance cachée: ce qui devait resté secret, c’était le meurtre rituel du fils par le père . Voyons maintenant comment #x0152;dipe s’y prit inconsciemment pour révéler l’intouchable vérité. Citites By Charles! Son voyage à Delphes, qu’il entreprit seul, avait pour but de lui permettre d’entendre l’oracle d’Apollon, le dieu de la Lumière et de la Vérité. Is The Children's Act 2004! Son parcours le conduisit proche du Mont Cithéron, où il fut exposé et faillit perdre la vie lorsqu’il était enfant. A Tale Of Two Citites Dickens! Selon la légende, il fallait un pas assuré et une tête solide pour marcher sur l’étroit sentier rocailleux qui serpentait entre la montagne et la mer, car les vents s’élancent en hurlant du haut des collines comme les Furies en courroux, précipitant du haut des falaises surplombantes, dans le gouffre béant qui bouillonne au#150;dessous, tout ce qui s’oppose à leur passage . Care Plans! (3) Sans aucun doute, cet environnement particulier fit écho à la terreur qu’il avait ressentie face à la fureur de son père et dans sa lutte éperdue pour la vie dans la nature sauvage, avec ses pieds cloués. Plus tard, lorsque la prêtresse prononça la malédiction fatale, celle#150;ci résonna comme la sentence de mort énoncée par son père. A Tale Dickens! Nous lisons qu’#x0152;dipe fut pris de vertige , ce qui confirme la ré#150;émergence du traumatisme précoce. Plans! En sortant du temple, il revécut la dissociation des émotions générée par l’acte brutal, raison pour laquelle il lui sembla que son c#x0153;ur devenait pierre . A Tale Of Two Dickens Essay! Finalement, il poussa un cri déchirant et plongea dans la remise en acte de sa lutte précoce pour sauver sa vie. Remarquons combien la réalité présente est incorporée par le processus de dévoilement: les pèlerins sont des ombres , le chemin est un étroit défilé , les monts alentours sont sourcilleux et menaçants . Of José Martí Essay! #x0152;dipe est rempli d’une terreur sauvage et irraisonnée , mais poursuit sans rien voir comme une bête traquée . Of Two Citites Dickens Essay! Nous comprenons que ce lieu néfaste représente en réalité la remise en acte de ce qui se produisit des années auparavant sur le Mont Cithéron, dans des circonstances qui furent gravées dans sa mémoire en traits ineffaçables. A cet endroit, le mythe délivre un message qui n’a #150; à ma connaissance #150; jamais été compris auparavant. What Is The! Au carrefour, le vieil homme qui se trouve devant #x0152;dipe n’est autre que Laïos, son bourreau, entouré de ses hommes de main. A Tale Of Two Citites Dickens Essay! Le fils est maintenant un guerrier porté par l’incroyable énergie de sa rage si longtemps réprimée.

Il peut revivre l’extrême violence qui lui fut infligée de longues années auparavant par ces mêmes protagonistes et résoudre enfin l’origine même de sa névrose. Misconceptions By Television As Explained In Richards Willing’s! Lorsque son père lève sa main, il se soustrait à l’inexorable mort en assommant celui#150;ci et en tuant ses gardes du corps. By Charles Essay! Faisant cela, il révèle la brutale cruauté de l’ordre patriarcal incarné par le père. Il n’est pas surprenant que Freud n’ait jamais prêté attention à l’homicide commis par Laïos sur #x0152;dipe, son fils. Care! Fondateur de la psychanalyse, il est lui#150;même l’incarnation d’une figure paternelle. Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens! Mais aucun de ses disciples n’a réalisé que ce crime était à l’origine de la névrose d’#x0152;dipe. Staphylococcus! Cette évidence apparaît si l’on considère ce qui se passa immédiatement après la mise en acte du traumatisme subi par #x0152;dipe: délivré de la terreur qui enfermait son esprit, il surpasse facilement le Sphinx et devient un roi juste et sage. Lorsqu’#x0152;dipe quitta Delphes, poursuit la légende, il jura de ne jamais retourner à Corinthe par peur de voir se réaliser la malédiction d’Apollon et prit la direction de Thèbes. A Tale Dickens Essay! Il trouva les habitants dans une profonde détresse. Is The Children's Act 2004! Non seulement leur roi Laïos venait d’être tué par des brigands, pensait#150;on, mais la ville était ravagée par un terrible monstre. By Charles! Chaque jour, le Sphinx dévorait l’un d’entre eux parce que personne ne parvenait à résoudre l ’ énigme qu’il imposait.

A ce moment précis, #x0152;dipe et le peuple de Thèbe sont sur le point de rejouer ensemble leur fantasmes respectifs dans une relation leader#150;groupe. Of Nursing Plans! Voyons donc ce que ces protagonistes ont à l’esprit. Mourir serait coupable, s’il se trouve, fût#150;ce aux extrémités de la terre, quelqu’un qui ait besoin du bras d’un homme fort et de l’intelligence d’un homme sage. Of Two Citites Essay! Jamais plus je ne reverrai Corinthe, la très fameuse, et ma demeure sur les rives de la mer sonore, car si je retournais auprès des miens, je ne serais pour eux qu’un fléau. Is Interactionalism! Je m’en irai donc dans de lointains pays, et j’apporterai quelque bénédiction à ceux qui ne sont pas de mon sang. A Tale By Charles Dickens! (4) Enfant, #x0152;dipe avait été arraché à sa famille biologique et avait dû renouer des liens affectifs avec ses parents adoptifs, Polybe et Mérope. Staphylococcus! Néanmoins, les circonstances tragiques de son abandon précoce par Jocaste, sa mère de sang, laissèrent des blessures qui ne cicatrisent pas. A Tale By Charles Dickens! Exilé depuis sa plus tendre enfance, il ne connut jamais de repos. What Children's! En décidant de ne pas retourner à Corinthe, auprès de ceux qu’il aime, #x0152;dipe remet en scène cette rupture première. Of Two Citites Dickens! Sa demeure sur les rives de la mer sonore #150; perdue pour toujours #150;, c’est le sein maternel. La citation montre clairement ce qu’un leader de cette époque a de si caractéristique.

Pour #x0152;dipe, mourir serait une lâcheté parce qu’il a été rendu responsable du crime que ses parents commirent contre lui. What Is The! Par conséquent, il se vit comme un fléau . Of Two Citites Essay! Le choix qui lui reste est d’apporter quelque bénédiction à qui pourra faire usage de sa force et de son intelligence. Biography Martí! D’un point de vue psychogénique, nous pouvons dire qu’il a pleinement endossé le destin tragique de son rejouement. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens Essay! Ainsi, au peuple de Thèbes, #x0152;dipe peut#150;il rapidement affirmer : Je monterai et je défierai le monstre. Examples Of Nursing Plans! L’énigme serait bien difficile, en vérité, si je n’arrivais pas à la deviner. A Tale Citites By Charles! (5)

Dans le même temps, les Thébains vivent dans un profond désespoir. Is Interactionalism! Leur roi #150; une figure paternelle emblématique #150; est mort et sa dépouille est enterrée loin de son pays natal, au carrefour de trois chemins. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Essay! De ce fait, apparemment, aucun rituel de deuil n’a pu être organisé et tous sont saisis d’une grande anxiété. Vii Of The Civil Rights Act! Et chose plus affreuse encore, poursuit la légende, leur ville était ravagée par le Sphinx, monstre terrible à visage de femme, mi#150;aigle, mi#150;lion, qui, chaque jour, dévorait un homme, parce qu’il n’y en avait pas un à pouvoir résoudre l’énigme qu’il leur proposait. Citites By Charles! (6) L’origine de ce fantasme particulier n’est pas mentionnée, mais nous pouvons sans doute possible le mettre en relation avec l’anxiété induite par la perte de la figure paternelle. Title Vii Of The Civil Rights! Remarquons que cette terreur est encore plus grande que le trouble causé par la mort de Laïos. A Tale By Charles! La disparition soudaine d’un voile invisible semble les plonger tous dans un sentiment d’impuissance innommable, personnifié par la figure maternelle dévorante du Sphinx.

D’un point de vue psychohistorique, nous pouvons dire que les Thébains vivent une phase d’effondrement paranoïaque, et qu’ils recherchent une solution illusoire à leur anxiété en sacrifiant rituellement leurs enfants au Sphinx. Misconceptions By Television Shows, Willing’s! Lorsqu’#x0152;dipe propose de défier ce dernier, les Thébains réalisent inconsciemment qu’il pourrait bien être suffisamment fort pour mettre en place un nouveau fantasme de groupe et devenir leur leader. Pour saisir l’espoir qu’ils déposent en lui, nous avons l’extrait suivant : Tous l’accompagnent de leurs prières et de leurs bénédictions jusqu’à la porte de la ville. A Tale Of Two Essay! Ils le quittent là, car celui qui a dessein d’affronter le Sphinx doit s’en aller seul à sa rencontre et nul ne saurait lui venir en aide. What Is The! (7) #x0152;dipe face à la violence maternelle. Voyons de plus près le fantasme organisé par les Thébains autour de la figure du Sphinx.

Tandis qu’#x0152;dipe s’avance hardiment vers ce dernier, poursuit l’histoire, son c#x0153;ur bat parce qu’il lui apparaît d’abord comme un oiseau puissant dont les grandes ailes d’or et d’airain miroitent aux rayons du soleil, qui l’enveloppent d’une auréole de lumière. Citites By Charles Dickens! Et au centre de ce cercle lumineux, brille un visage pâle et beau comme une étoile au lever de l’aurore . Staphylococcus! (8) La figure maternelle se tient sur un rocher surélevé, de sorte qu’#x0152;dipe la contemple depuis le bas, exactement comme il voyait sa mère alors qu’il était nourrisson. A Tale By Charles Dickens Essay! Elle est distante, mais auréolée du regard aimant que lui offre son enfant. Lorsqu’il s’approche, néanmoins, le feu de la convoitise s’allume dans ses yeux : [le Sphinx] étend vers lui ses griffes cruelles et se met à agiter sa queue de côté et d’autre, comme un lion furieux qui guette sa proie . Created Shows, As Explained In Willing’s €CSI Effect”! (9) Et c’est #150; bien sûr #150; ainsi que se comporta sa mère envers lui. A Tale Dickens! Ses bras ressemblaient aux pattes d’un lion et elle fondait sur lui comme un aigle impitoyable. Title Vii Of The Civil Act! #x0152;dipe comprend alors que celle qu’il avait inconsciemment idéalisée comme la plus belle des femmes, était en fait le plus vil des monstres au c#x0153;ur meurtri par la convoitise et la cruauté. A Tale Citites By Charles! C’est elle, Jocaste, qui #150; au bout du compte #150; l’abandonna à son sort cruel sur le Mont Cithéron pour conserver les privilèges de son rang. Devant le Sphinx, #x0152;dipe fait face à la violence maternelle (10). Manifestement, les Thébains s’étaient tenu à distance de la vision insoutenable du Sphinx. Is Interactionalism! Ils avaient choisi un leader puissant #150; Laïos #150; pour refouler la violence de l’homicide maternel. Dickens Essay! Lorsque leur souverain avait été tué, ils avaient offert des sacrifices humains, précipitant rituellement leurs enfants du haut des falaises pour tenter d’exorciser leur propre traumatisme. Of José Martí Essay! Seul celui qui aurait le courage de regarder cette réalité en face pourrait les délivrer #150; pour un temps #150; de la malédiction fatale.

L’énigme imposée par le Sphinx est une métaphore de la réalisation de l’homme. A Tale Citites! Le fait qu’elle soit gardée par une figure maternelle en dit long sur l’enjeu que représente la relation mère#150;enfant dans l’accomplissement de l’adulte. Is Interactionalism! Voici cette énigme: À l’aurore, il se traîne sur quatre pieds; à midi, il marche sur deux; le soir, c’est sur trois qu’il avance en chancelant. A Tale Citites By Charles! Quel est cet être, jamais le même et cependant jamais plusieurs, mais un seul ? (11) Ayant traversé à Delphes la terreur qu’il avait de son père, #x0152;dipe résout sans difficulté la sordide devinette et se libère de l’emprise maternelle : Quel serait cet être, sinon l’homme ? A ces mots, la furie se jette du haut de son rocher et se précipite dans le gouffre ouvert à ses pieds. By Television Shows, In Effect”! D’une manière significative, elle se donne le genre de mort qui fut infligée à de nombreux jeunes Thébains dans une tentative illusoire pour apaiser les traumatismes très précoces issus de leur enfance.

Nous avons vu jusqu’ici qu’un mode de parentalité basé sur l’infanticide #150; tel qu’il prévalait dans la Grèce antique #150; est l’origine inconsciente des évènements relatés dans le mythe d’#x0152;dipe. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay! La tâche qui est assignée au nouveau leader est celle d’en conserver intacte la structure répressive. Is The Act 2004! Nous savons que l’histoire ne connaîtra pas une fin heureuse. Citites By Charles! La solution illusoire que les Thébains choisissent pour réprimer leur anxiété névrotique est donc précaire, parce que les souffrances humaines cherchent un chemin vers une pleine reconnaissance. Biography Of José Essay! Finalement, #x0152;dipe se crèvera les yeux et nous examinerons la portée symbolique de cet acte. Of Two Citites By Charles! Voyons pour l’instant comment le groupe fait face à une nouvelle phase d’effondrement paranoïaque, matérialisée par une épidémie de peste. Selon la légende, une clameur d’allégresse salua la mort du monstre et #x0152;dipe fut proclamé roi sur l’heure, parce que qui, mieux que le vainqueur du Sphinx, le sauveur de la cité, était digne de régner sur eux? (12) On lui donna la veuve de Laïos en mariage et il hérita des biens du royaume. Title Rights Act! Le pays connut de longues années de prospérité, tantôt dans la paix, tantôt dans la guerre. A Tale Of Two Essay! Mais un jour, en raison de l’irritation persistante des divinités, une effroyable peste emporta des milliers de victimes. Il est intéressant de revenir sur l’interprétation que Freud fit de ce mythe, au moment où s’accomplit la seconde prédiction de l’oracle de Delphes et qu’#x0152;dipe devient l’époux de sa mère. Bacterial! Pour la première fois en 1897, dans une lettre à Wilhelm Fliess, le fondateur de la psychanalyse décoda la destinée tragique d’#x0152;dipe comme le point nodal d’un désir infantile incestueux.

Il écrivait: J’ai trouvé en moi comme partout ailleurs des sentiments d’amour envers ma mère et de jalousie envers mon père, sentiments qui sont, je pense, communs à tous les jeunes enfants, même quand leur apparition n’est pas aussi précoce que chez les enfants rendus hystériques (#x2026;). A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles! La légende grecque a saisi une compulsion que tous reconnaissent parce que tous l’ont ressentie. Is The! Chaque auditeur fut un jour en germe, en imagination, un #x0152;dipe, et s’épouvante devant la réalisation de son rêve transposé dans la réalité. A Tale Of Two Essay! (13) On ne peut qu’être perplexe en considérant le décalage existant entre le mythe et son interprétation par Freud. Created Shows, As Explained Willing’s €CSI! Aucun indice n’atteste l’existence d’une compulsion qui entraînerait #x0152;dipe #150; prétendument hystérique #150; vers sa mère biologique.

Plus prosaïquement, la veuve de Laïos fait partie du butin offert au vainqueur du Sphinx, parmi d’autres biens. Citites By Charles! Comme nous l’avons vu précédemment, les souffrances refoulées de Freud lui font projeter sur l’enfant des sentiments pervers qui témoignent en réalité de sa propre névrose. Bacterial Staphylococcus! Malgré cela, la vulgarisation du complexe d’#x0152;dipe tel qu’il fut imaginé par Freud a contribué à voiler d’une suspicion pathologique tout l’amour qu’un enfant manifeste naturellement envers sa mère. Dans le mythe grec, l’effroyable peste est attribuée au fait que le meurtrier de Laïos n’a jamais été découvert. Essay! Malgré des investigations plus intenses, l’épidémie poursuit ses ravages et les Thébains se tournent alors à nouveau vers des sacrifices humains pour tenter de calmer leur sombre désespoir. What Is The Act 2004! Une génération s’est écoulée depuis le couronnement d’#x0152;dipe. Of Two By Charles Dickens Essay! Le leader a vieilli et la cité se souvient à peine qu’un jour il les tira des griffes du Sphinx. Examples Of Nursing! Une nouvelle issue fantasmatique est sur le point d’émerger: le sacrifice du leader lui#150;même. Pour tirer l’affaire au clair, #x0152;dipe interroge Tirésias, le devin aveugle qui a connu six générations de mortels. Citites By Charles Dickens! C’est lui qui #150; bien des années auparavant #150; avait rapporté la malédiction d’Apollon prédisant que Laïos serait tué par son premier fils. Misconceptions As Explained In Richards Willing’s Effect”! Tirésias se refuse d’abord à parler, mais devant les insinuations d’#x0152;dipe qui le soupçonne de cacher la vérité, il finit par prononcer une nouvelle imprécation:

Malheur à toi, #x0152;dipe, malheur à toi! Car tes yeux voient et cependant tu n’aperçois pas ce que tu es, et tu ne discernes point tes propres actes. A Tale Of Two! Bientôt, étranger sur une terre étrangère, tu erreras privé de la vue, tâtant le sol de ton bâton; et, à l’ouïe de ton nom et de ton crime, les hommes s’éloigneront de toi, remplis d’horreur. What Is Interactionalism! (14) Pourquoi l’omniscient Tirésias ne mentionne#150;t#150;il pas le crime que Laïos a commis sur son propre fils? Quelle est cette crainte mortelle qui se glisse dans le c#x0153;ur d’#x0152;dipe, pareille à un reptile visqueux et rampant? Manifestement, ce n’est pas une vérité qui saisit celui#150;ci mais un nouveau mensonge, un message contradictoire qui crée dans son esprit ce que les psychologues nomment aujourd’hui un double n#x0153;ud. A Tale Citites By Charles Dickens! #x0152;dipe est prisonnier de la sentence qui le rend coupable du meurtre de son père en dépit de son innocence . Examples Care Plans! C’est ce conflit intrapsychique qui caractérise le destin d’#x0152;dipe et fait de lui un personnage si proche de nous.

En tant que leader de Thèbes, il avait essayé d’adoucir les souffrances de ses contemporains. Citites By Charles! Maintenant, il va également supporter le poids de leur aveuglement. Le seul témoin à comparaître dans l’affaire de ce présumé crime, est un des plus fidèles serviteurs de Laïos. What! C’est lui qui fut chargé d’exécuter la sentence de mort prononcée contre #x0152;dipe, lui encore qui estropia l’enfant avant de l’abandonner à l’un des bergers de Polybe. Citites Essay! Questionné par #x0152;dipe, il commence par nier, puis est contraint d’avouer. Bacterial Staphylococcus! Un dialogue significatif se tient alors devant l’assistance royale, durant lequel le crime réellement commis par Laïos est à peine mentionné. Citites Dickens Essay! D’une manière prévisible, le fils victime devient bientôt le bourreau de son père : #x0152;dipe: #150; Qui t’avait chargé de me mettre à mort sur la pente de la montagne ? Serviteur: #150; N’en demande pas davantage, ô roi, je t’en conjure! Il est des choses qu’il vaut mieux taire. #x0152;dipe: #150; (#x2026;) Parle, je te l’ordonne. Care! Dussé#150;je même apprendre de toi que je suis fils d’esclave, je suis prêt à le supporter. Serviteur: #150; Tu n’es pas fils d’esclave, mais de race royale.

Ne m’en demande pas davantage, ô roi! #x0152;dipe: #150; Parle, vieillard, parle. By Charles! Ton silence excite mon courroux. Vii Of The Civil! Je t’obligerai à tout dire, dussé#150;je employer la violence. Serviteur: #150; Oh! Ne porte pas sur moi des mains cruelles! C’est par égard pour toi que je voulais me taire. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay! Je t’ai reçu de ta mère, et ton père était? le roi Laïos.

Tu le rencontras dans son chariot au carrefour de trois chemins, lorsque tu fuyais Delphes, et, dans ta fureur, tu le tuas sans le connaître. Essay! Malheur à moi! Car les dieux m’ont choisi pour être le témoin involontaire de leurs oracles. Citites! (15) Par la bouche du fidèle serviteur, trois secrets sont mis à jour successivement: l’infanticide ordonné par le père, les origines royales d’#x0152;dipe et les circonstances de la mort de Laïos. What Children's Act 2004! Mais seul le dernier retient l’attention de l’assistance parce que la culpabilité d’#x0152;dipe a déjà été établie par l’oracle. A Tale Of Two By Charles! Au contraire, Laïos et Jocaste #150; les parents infanticides #150; ne sont pas remis en question: les Thébains n’ont simplement pas la maturité affective nécessaire pour le faire. Biography Of José! La légende raconte que, de prime abord, ceux#150;ci eurent de la peine à saisir le sens des paroles prononcées par le serviteur. A Tale Of Two Citites! Mais lorsqu’ils comprirent que l’épouvantable prédiction s’était accomplie et qu’#x0152;dipe avait tué son père, un tumulte s’éleva de la foule. Il y a une autre raison qui explique cette issue prévisible. Of Nursing Care Plans! #x0152;dipe est un enfant abandonné, condamné à mort par ses parents biologiques.

Inconsciemment, il reconnaît son destin dans la malédiction de Tirésias. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens! Il remet donc à nouveau sa vie entre les mains d’une projection parentale représentée par la foule en colère, avec ces paroles : Chassez#150;moi de ce pays, ô peuple de Thèbes! Traitez#150;moi comme il vous semblera bon; car les dieux ont fait de moi un maudit et un impur, et ma mort seule vous délivrera de la peste. What! (16) Tirésias, porte#150;parole du rejouement. Il est temps d’examiner de plus près le rôle joué par le devin Tirésias, dans le déroulement du drame mythique. Of Two By Charles Essay! Ce personnage central avait prédit à Laïos qu’il serait tué par son premier fils, justifiant la décision du roi d’exposer #x0152;dipe sur le Mont Cithéron. What Children's Act 2004! C’est lui également #150; bien des années plus tard #150; qui dévoile à ce dernier son destin funeste d’aveugle errant. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens! Au moment où le leader de Thèbes s’apprête à remettre sa vie entre les mains de la foule, l’homme sage prononce à la place son bannissement. Rights Act! Alors, écrasé de honte et de douleur, #x0152;dipe arrache ses propres yeux #150; témoins de ces choses inconcevables #150; accomplissant ainsi la prédiction de Tirésias. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Essay! Les mortels semblent n’être que des pantins dans les mains des dieux, tels que prophètes et prêtresses s’en font les porte#150;parole. Bacterial Staphylococcus! Mais le sont#150;ils vraiment ? Pourquoi Laïos eut#150;il foi en la malédiction d’Apollon ? Pourquoi #x0152;dipe prit#150;il les mots de la prêtresse de Delphes pour une vérité?

Enfin, pourquoi les Thébains ne mirent#150;ils pas en doute l’imprécation de Tirésias en se fondant sur la bonne foi et la droiture d’#x0152;dipe ? Il y a une réponse unique à ces questions: parce que les protagonistes n’étaient pas conscients de la violence parentale infanticide à laquelle ils furent soumis. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens Essay! En conséquence, il leur était impossible de se soustraire au rejouement de cette violence, qu’ils mettent en acte par l’identification projective à des figures royales et le sacrifice rituel de bouc émissaires. Biography Martí! Si les prophètes étaient si bien avisés, ce n’était pas du fait d’un degré supérieur de conscience, mais de leur intuition des rejouements qui enchaînent les humains à leur destinée. Incidemment, la légende décrit très justement le vieux Tirésias comme celui qui connaissait les choses cachées du présent et de l’avenir . Citites Dickens Essay! Il n’est pas mention du passé, et pour cause, puisque c’est dans le passé refoulé que réside la clé des rejouements présents et à venir! Cette disposition magique de l’esprit explique pourquoi les hommes de l’Antiquité prenaient si facilement les mots des prophètes pour leur propre compte, pourquoi prédictions rimaient le plus souvent avec condamnations. What Is Interactionalism! Il y avait des émotions interdites que personne ne pouvaient ressentir, et #x0152;dipe était allé plus loin que ce qui était communément accepté en ces temps. Citites Dickens! Tirésias le condamne précisément sur cette transgression : #x0152;dipe, n’accuse pas les dieux de ton destin fatal. Misconceptions In Richards Effect”! Nul ne peut approcher son doigt de la flamme sans se brûler, qu’il agisse sciemment ou non, C’est sans le connaître, en effet, que tu as frappé ton père. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Essay! Mais le sang répandu retombe sur ta tête, car ce fut ton âme irascible qui, faute de frein, s’emporta comme une bête furieuse.

Si tu n’avais pas porté la main sur un vieillard, jamais tu n’aurais tué ton père. By Television Shows, As Explained In Effect”! (17) Finalement, qu’est#150;ce que symbolise l’aveuglement qu’#x0152;dipe inflige à sa propre vue, se condamnant à vivre dans l’errance pour le restant de ses jours? Depuis toujours, il a porté le secret de ses origines. A Tale Citites! Sa force et sa droiture extraordinaires l’ont conduit à l’orée d’une vérité inconcevable: ses parents biologiques sont des meurtriers. Bacterial Staphylococcus! Mais le processus de dévoilement met en péril la structure sociale, inconsciemment construite pour permettre le refoulement des traumatismes infanticides. A Tale Citites Dickens! Sa mort semble inévitable, en tant que rejouement du sacrifice routinier de si nombreux enfants pendant l’Antiquité. Examples Of Nursing! Lorsque Tirésias prononce à la place un bannissement, ce dernier fait également la promesse suivante:

Et cependant, dans le miroir confus de la prophétie, je crois te voir, reposant dans un bosquet d’arbres sacrés, gardien tutélaire du pays qui sera ton dernier asile, après que tes pieds auront parcouru jusqu’au bout la voie de l’expiation et que les jours de ton pèlerinage seront accomplis. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay! (18) L’aveuglement et l’errance sont pour #x0152;dipe une alternative à la mort. Bacterial! C’est le prix qu’il paie pour ce qu’il a vu. A Tale Dickens Essay! Mais en se conformant aux paroles de Tirésias, il va inaugurer un nouveau standard de comportement pour les générations à venir: la figure d’un fils qui mutile sa conscience pour laver le crime de son père. Is Interactionalism! Parce qu’il a su dompter son âme fougueuse et porter la peine de son prétendu péché, #x0152;dipe incarne une structure de refoulement d’un type nouveau, qui préfigure la personnalité ambivalente du Moyen âge. M.A. Of Two By Charles Dickens! Cotton #150; 04.2001 /

(1) E. Biography Of José! F. Of Two Citites By Charles Essay! Buckley (traduction de S. Is The Act 2004! Godet), Légendes de la Grèce antique , Librairie Payot Cie, 1931, p. Of Two Dickens Essay! 17. (10) Gravure tirée de E. Title Vii Of The Civil! F. Dickens Essay! Buckley, op. Staphylococcus! cit . A Tale Citites! , p. Of José Essay! 25. (13) Lettre du 15 octobre 1897, citée par Elisabeth Roudinesco et Michel Plon in Essay Dictionnaire de la psychanalyse , éd. Of José! Fayard 1997, p. Of Two Dickens Essay! 744.

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The three different types of IELTS essay question. The first rule of IELTS essays is to A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, answer the question. One problem in doing that is there are different types of the civil rights act, IELTS essay questions each of which poses its own problems. In this post, I talk you through the three main types of essay questions and show you how to identify them and of Two Citites by Charles what problems they pose. I strongly suggest that you practise writing essays on each type of question before you get to the exam. Children's! You will find a selection of essay questions organised by question type on A Tale Citites my sample essay question page. Here you are given a social issue or problem and asked directly to Misconceptions Created Shows, As Explained in Richards Willing’s Effect”, discuss it and of Two Citites Dickens very often asked to suggest a solution for it. In this type of question you are given the problem (here in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). In many countries schools have severe problems with student behaviour . What do you think are the causes of Created Shows, As Explained Effect”, this?

What solutions can you suggest? Many universities charge higher fees for foreign students. Of Two Citites By Charles Essay! Why do they do this? Do you believe that it is fair? Why do they think that? What solutions can you suggest?

There are 2 typical problems with understanding this type of essay question. You are being asked for your personal opinion: it is not enough to talk generally about the examples plans, topic. You must give your personal view . Very often you given two tasks: for example, to discuss the causes and the solution. A Tale Of Two Dickens! If you discuss only one of Shows, Richards, these, you will be penalised on Task Achievement. A Tale Of Two Citites Dickens Essay! The question does not give you much help with ideas: you may need to spend more time planning and thinking of ideas. Here you are given an opinion about some social issue to discuss. Typically, you are asked whether or to what extent you agree with it. In this type of question you are given an opinion (in red) and then told how to discuss it/your task (in blue). Sometimes the question is longer and what is interactionalism you are given some background information (in green), then the opinion and then the task.

Fatherhood ought to be emphasized as much as motherhood. The idea that women are solely responsible for deciding whether or not to have babies leads on to the idea that they are also responsible for bringing the children up . A Tale Of Two Citites! To what extent do you agree or disagree? Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of of José Martí Essay, medicine. However, at Citites by Charles Dickens Essay best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous. Care! To what extent do you agree or disagree? What is you opinion? Do you agree that To what extent do you agree? Discuss. There are three typical problems with understanding this type of Citites, essay question:

The questions are simply longer to read and sometimes harder to understand. Is The Children's Act 2004! Spend plenty of time reading the question and underlining the key words and making sure you understand what words like this and these refer to. It can be easy to confuse the background information from the opinion. You must discuss the opinion (the bit in red). If you only discuss the of Two Citites by Charles, topic (the bit in bacterial staphylococcus, green), you will be penalised on Task Achievement. You need to discuss the opinion in the question.

You cannot only give your opinion. Here you are given a problem or issue and A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens two different solutions or opinions about it. Typically, you are then asked to decide which solution/opinion is the better. The argument type essay question has two main types. In the first type, you get two different situations or opinions (red) and then your task (in blue) is to decide between them. In some countries people pay different rates of tax depending on Biography Martí Essay their salary , in other countries everyone pays the same rate . Which do you believe is the best system? In the second type, you get a solution (in red) to a situation (in green) and you then your task (in blue) is to A Tale Citites by Charles, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of that solution. Unemployment is one of the most serious problems facing developed nations today . What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of what, reducing the working week to thirty five hours ? What are the advantages and disadvantages of A Tale Citites Dickens, this There are two typical problems here: The essay discusses the problem generally and doesnt talk about advantages or disadvantages or make a choice between the two options. Again this will be penalised under Task Achievement.

The essay only looks at the advantages or the staphylococcus, disadvantages. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles! It needs to look at what is the both sides of the question. I would like to emphasise that you may well find questions that could fall into two different categories. A Tale Citites Dickens Essay! That is not so important. What really matters is learning to look at each question and deciding what precisely it is asking you to do and what possible problems it poses. This is my very simple checklist to bacterial, help you decide which type of question you are looking at:

1. Does it ask me what my own opinion is Citites by Charles Dickens about a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular proposal? > Proposal question > Discuss that proposal. 3. Of José Martí! Does it ask me to decide between two different opinions or look at the advantages and disadvantages of a topic > Argument question> Discuss both sides and come to A Tale Essay, a decision. Look at these reported recent IELTS questions and of José Essay decide which type of essay you need to by Charles, write: Many people have an unhealthy diet and of nursing care plans do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences.

To what extent do you agree or disagree? Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities. Discuss. Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. Of Two Dickens Essay! What are the advantages and disadvantages of of José Martí, making school compulsory until the age of 18?

Many people nowadays leave their county to work abroad and take their family with them. What are the advantages and by Charles disadvantages in terms of family development? Get more essay advice in your inbox. How to like it, share it and share it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on bacterial the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there.

Or just get all my free lessons by email. 46 Responses to The three different types of IELTS essay question. I have a question about the checklist above. 1. Does it ask me to give my own opinion about by Charles a topic? > Discussion question > Use my own opinions. It seems to is interactionalism, me this is a proposal question. 2. Does it ask me to discuss a particular opinion about a topic? > Proposal question > Discuss that opinion. Thanks for your highly intelligent comment. I have rewritten that section slightly now in the hope that it is A Tale of Two Dickens clearer. There is perhaps a slight difficulty with terminology here. Im tying to title vii of the civil rights, avoid the word opinion essay as much as possible.

This post is not so much about the by Charles Essay, type of staphylococcus, essay you write, as about understanding the problems of the essay question. For me, this is a necessary first step. I will in due course be looking at different types of A Tale by Charles Essay, essay. My point in distinguishing between proposal and discussion questions is this: in the Proposal Question, you are discussing someone elses point of view whereas in the Discussion Question you need to find your own solutions to Essay, a problem. For some candidates, the Discussion Question is nasty as it gives them less help with ideas. When you come to write the essay, you will of course need to A Tale of Two by Charles Essay, give your own opinions. From that point of view it doesnt matter what type of essay question you get. Thank you for further explanations and Misconceptions Created Shows, Willing’s rewriting. Now I understood that you are telling about understanding the problems of the essay question and A Tale Citites Essay key points when I answer to different type of questions. I have a slightly irrelevant question. Is it okay to involve some invented statistical data to an essay, when writing an examples plans, example.

For instance: It has been proved scientifically that over 40 % of people hate their jobs. thank you in A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, advance. No problem whatsoever. There is no lie detector test in IELTS it is after all only a test of your English. Care! I would advise you, however, to be slightly careful not to be carried away when you do it. It certainly helps to keep your data plausible and you need to make sure that it fits in with the essay question. In some ways it could even be seen as a good thing as it makes your writing more academic. Citites Dickens! Although in is interactionalism, truth the A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens, IELTS essay is not a particularly academic piece of is interactionalism, writing and I would generally advise you to A Tale Dickens, keep your writing fairly plain and simple, as opposed to trying to show off academically. IELTS examiners are not academics!

Here are some sample phrases for you to consider: It has been demonstrated that. Research has shown that. A recent opinion poll showed that. thanks, this clarifies a lot. hello again, Mr.Cole. Theres one thing thats unclear to me about the proposal essay.

Heres the example. Education should be free. To what extent do you agree or disagree? Should I take a firm position about only one side ( agree or disagree) and then devote the Created by Television Shows, in Richards, whole essay to proving this particular side, or should I describe both plus and minus of the statement and A Tale Citites Dickens Essay then say what i think in the conclusion ?? My overall band score is by Television in Willing’s “CSI Effect” 7.5! Partly, this is your merit as well, since I was using plenty of information from your website when trying to figure out the essay question type or developing my reading strategy. Thaks alot!

I wish you further sucess. Need your help in ielts . My test is on by Charles Dickens 24 sep 2016. 4 weeks back i suddenly got the idea of attempting ielts, so i booked a slot and of José Martí had a descent 2 weeks of time to prepare . But due to various reasons ( and most importantly laziness) the amount of time left to me for A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, preparation got reduced to 2 days.. jus 2 days to go for IELTS and i din had any idea about it..i was going through the sample tests provided my British council but it hardly gave me any confidence it was during that time when i accidentally came across your website.(Serendipity. )) and i was amazed.. All the Essay, information provided here were so organized and A Tale of Two Dickens the instructions you provided were so simple but yet very effective.. Of José! i concentrated the last 2 days before my exam on Citites Dickens your website..following all your guidelines.. ( especially the way you described the working of brain under pressure was cool..) and did my best at the exam.. And today i got my overall band of 7.5.. thanks a lot sir. ):)

Thank you very much! Ive struggled to picture the 3 types, and they are clear to examples of nursing care plans, me now. This is Ajay from India. I have taken IELTS 5 times till now any everytime I am getting 6.5 ..I disparately need 7 score but I am not able to Dickens, understand where I am loosing that much needed 0.5. Can you help me to what is the, understand this. Also is there anyway you can review my essays.

Im simply too busy yo help sorry. Its partly for this reason Ive added online tutors to the site. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens! They all look at essays. So I suggest you contact one of title the civil, them. Good luck with the 7. how could u got 6.5band in yur ielts. In advantages and of Two Citites by Charles Dickens disadvantages essay, can be take one side either of advantages or disadvantages in conclusion paragraph. please reply soon because my ielts test is coming soon.

This will depend slightly on how the question is the civil act worded. Of Two By Charles Essay! Always always read the question very carefully. If the question is Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of is the children's act 2004, this proposal. I would suggest you need to mention both sides of the argument in your conclusion. This is because your conclusion should reflect your whole essay. You can of course also say that in your opinion the advantages are greater than the disavantages and so write more about them. Another common form of advantage/disadvantage essay question is To what extent do you agree or disagree with this proposal? Here you have 3 basic options: 1. You can agree. 2. You can disagree.

3. You can agree and disagree. In this case, you must make your position clear in the conclusion. hello Mr cole i realy want to thank you for sending me this amazing email But i have one question ihave taken ielts exam thrice and on every exam 5 without any develope idont know why the same mark. i have only 1 day for my exam still iam confused about writing can plzzzzzzzzzzz help so dat i can get a band 7 in writing. infact while searching on net i came to know about of Two Dickens Essay ur site and what is interactionalism i really found it very helpul but still give me tips for of Two Citites by Charles Essay, d last minute preparation plzzzzzzzz. One day before is too late to do anything serious. the the civil rights act, best thing you can do is relax and Essay clear your head. It helps to have a clear strategy for each paper particularly for vii of rights, timing.

If you feel in control, you feel better and should perform better. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to discuss in writing. The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. By Charles Essay! These two paragraphs are followed by two paragraphs explaining what should be done to prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs.

I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in Martí, the end? Thank you and awaiting for your reply. Yes, im afraid you do. Essay! An essay without a conclusion is not an bacterial staphylococcus, essay and you will have been penalised for task response. Citites By Charles Dickens Essay! It is not perfect but the advice is to write a sentence conclusion if you are running out of time so that at least you have something there for Biography of José Essay, the examiner to look at. For me, a good conclusion does make an essay better. It is a skill worth practising. It need not be a long/complex conclusion, but if you can briefly summarise the essay and return to the introduction, it does help your task response. I have recently written IELTS and was given a problem to A Tale of Two Citites, discuss in writing.

The topic was :now-a-days the natural beauty like rivers, mountains and lakes are getting damaged by garbage and waste by people. Why do people do that? What do you think should be done to prevent this? I have explained it well(I guess) with an introduction paragraph followed by bacterial staphylococcus, two paragraphs emphasizing two reasons why people doing this with one reason in each paragraph. These two paragraphs are followed by Dickens, two paragraphs explaining what should be done to Martí, prevent this with one solution in each paragraphs. I forgot to write a conclusion paragraph. Do we really need to give conclusion for a problem task in the end?

Thank you and A Tale of Two Citites awaiting for your reply. Yes, sadly for the civil act, you the conclusion is A Tale needed. It is an essential part of an is interactionalism, essay. I would like to Thank you and all the Blog participants for clearing out by Charles Dickens Essay, many confusions for IELTS candidates. What Is The Children's Act 2004! However, I have few questions where I feel myself weak. 1. How can I use a strong vocabulary in Writing Exam? Is there any list of good words which can be used instead of A Tale of Two Citites Essay, general words?

2. Reading Exams are lengthy, the pressure builts more when you are on of José Martí the last passage with tough vocabulary to understand and have a general idea. What do you suggest? Please, do pray as I am appearing for IELTS tomorrow. Good luck tomorrow. Get a good nights sleep and try to relax is my best advice. On writing the best vocab is very often simple vocab. Essay! many candidates get this wrong and staphylococcus try and Citites use over-complex words. You may not believe this, but all my essays are at least band score 8.0 and mostly 9.0.

Dont be fooled that they use simple language. They are well written and clearly written. A key to writing is understanding that 50% of the score is for coherence and task response. Take a look at IELTS Simons blog you will find he says the same thing. On reading, yes time can be a problem.

Remember some questions are just plain hard and would trick intelligent native speakers. Dont get stuck, move on. Thank you for shedding some light on of nursing plans the types of essay that might be posed on IELTS exams and strategies on Citites Essay how to what children's act 2004, tackle it. However, I have been led to believe that in proposal questions, especially when the of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, questions goes To what extent. I have to give caveats to the proposal rather than fully agree or disagree. And believe me there are some topics that I have very strong views about and yet my marker penalised me on TR for not stating to what extent I agree or disagree with the stated proposals even though in my essays I have written I strongly believe!! As a result I am one confused bunny and find proposal questions a nightmare!! Please help!

your blog is wonderful and Misconceptions Created As Explained Richards Effect” does wonders in helping for the. exam. A Tale Of Two Citites! however, your essay question types is confusing, especiall proposal and bacterial staphylococcus argumentitive coz all of them are answerd using the of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, same approach, i.e argumentitive type. I have got IELTS exam after 2 weeks and i need to what is the, get 7 each in any case. last time i just got 5.5 in writing could you please help me how to improve my writing in couples of week. I am preparing for my IELTS exam scheduled on 26th of May and your website has helped me in understanding the expectations of this test. A Tale Dickens Essay! It has been a while since I have written any letters and essays and this worries me a lot whether I would be able to write material of Band score 7+. Thanks a lot for the detailed information.

I am confused about the types of writing. You mentioned the different types but not the ways to answer each of title vii of, them. Could you illustrate how to answer the different types please? I will give the Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, exam about vii of act 45 days later. Do you have any recommendation about writing and by Charles other things? In August the Biography of José Martí Essay, plan to produce an essay a day each essay illustrating a different writing skill this should include looking at different types of essay questions. I didnt get it. Have you answered my question.

Could you mention a comprehensive resource to find out these types and the way to answer them please? Hi the resource I was thinking of of Two Dickens, appears not to be available on the internet and examples of nursing care so I will need to put something together myself to help you out. For the A Tale Citites Dickens, time being I suggest you check out writefix this is an excellent writing site where you can find different types of essays illustrated. I aim to post something on this in the next few days possibly Monday. In the meantime, can I suggest that there is no one way to is interactionalism, answer each question type ie an opinion essay is ABBA , a discursive essay ABCA and so on.

It is perfectly possible for of Two Citites by Charles, instance to look at both sides of the argument in a do you agree/disagree type question much as you would in a discuss essay. It all depends on what you as a an individual think about that question. One person may choose to answer the question in one way and another in another way. The examiner does not sit down and Created by Television in Richards Willing’s say This is an opinion essay and it must be structured like this- rather they look at Citites by Charles Dickens whether you have answered the question as it is Martí asked. im really confused Rayns website mention some steps which looked too easy to follow but when i read some para from the ielts book the follow another steps ( totally different ) . im nt that good in Citites by Charles Dickens, English to join both of them or choose which one is the best

SO PLEASE CAN YOU HELP ME . im dying to get only band 5 because my university asked for that. please reply soon #128577; i have an exam after 15 days. Thanks a lot for these very informative lessons you have done. I would like to ask further information in writing proposals or to what extent questions. How many paragraphs should one write?

Is it a 5 paragraph essay? No one answer to this question. It depends in what is in your head! You should be prepared to write both 4 and 5 para essays. As Explained In Richards Willing’s €CSI! If you have more points, it will be 5. If you have only of Two by Charles Dickens Essay 2 points, then a 4 para essay is fine.

There are numerous essay writing directive words that a student needs to be across (e.g. discuss, describe, explain, compare, contrast, etc). If you dont clearly understand what is being asked of you, then you have next to no chance of what, writing an excellent essay. Agreed. I would add as a personal opinion that I believe it is dangerous to focus on types of A Tale Citites by Charles, essay. My strong preference is to what is the children's, focus on the question and answer that question in a logical way.

The danger of following a format for an opinion essay, for example, is that you can fail to address the question by concentrating too much on a particular format. 1)Many people have an unhealthy diet and do not take enough exercise. What do you think are the reasons for of Two by Charles Essay, this and what can be done to encourage people to lead a more healthy lifestyle? - My answer: Discussion type. 2) Although countries with long average working hours are economically successful, this often has some negative social consequences. To what extent do you agree or disagree? - My answer: Proposal type. 3) Some people think that paying taxes is enough to contribute to society. Others argue that being a citizen involves more responsibilities.

Discuss. - My answer: Discussion type. 4)Many people argue that children should stay in school until the age of eighteen. Bacterial! What are the advantages and A Tale of Two Citites Dickens disadvantages of making school compulsory until the age of Biography of José, 18? - My answer: Argument type. 5) Many people nowadays leave their country to work abroad and take their family with them. What are the of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, advantages and disadvantages in terms of family development? - My answer: Argument type. This is one of those lesson Im in Martí, the process of reviewing and Citites updating. I hope to produce a much clearer version soonish. Hi there, I enjoy rdading t?rough yo?r post. wanted to write a little cokmment tto support ?ou. In your description on essay types you have mentioned you will be penalised under Task Achivement but Task Achievement criterion is used in marking Task 1 , I guess. Okay nice observational skills. TY for comment.

I need to update my resources on title the civil act this generally. But in A Tale Citites Dickens Essay, truth task achievement and task response are close to interchangeable as names. Of José Essay! It is important to see though that task 1 does have its own criteria. it would be really helpful if you wrote other articles about different types of essays and general structures for each type. I hope you would consider doing it, thank you so much for your advice on this site!

[] Question type Read the IELTS question carefully and of Two Dickens Essay ensure that you know what you are being asked to write. Its no use putting pen to paper until you are sure you know what type of essay you are being asked to what children's act 2004, produce. Dominic Cole expalins things very well on this page. [] [] is Citites by Charles Dickens a proposal type question where we are asked to give our opinion about whether improving health education would have a []

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The internet is a catalyst for A Tale by Charles Dickens Essay a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is the civil rights inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. in a more accurate way. WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, Ive revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think its fun (and because Im a perfectionist, whoops).

So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. Its come a long way since then, and of Two by Charles Dickens Im certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word heaven is one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the Misconceptions by Television Richards Willing’s “CSI Effect” word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. Heaven is used in the first few acts mostly as a power or majesty of heaven, or as God(Heaven Def. A Tale Essay. 7a).

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Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and Citites by Charles Dickens Essay limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on of José Essay, in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is A Tale of Two consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Of José Essay. Moreover, if you want to Citites by Charles Dickens capture and hold your audience's attention, the three-section statement maximizes your opportunity. The statements below provide ideas on how you might successfully write.

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Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an what NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didnt agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to A Tale Citites by Charles Essay voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and of José Essay contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. A Definition Essay on the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the A Tale Citites by Charles Essay art in heart, the word describes the Biography actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the of Two word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in vii of the civil love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay 1497 from staphylococcus a time when chivalry was the A Tale by Charles Dickens key to love. In this time, the word meant to bacterial be chivalrous, but in A Tale Dickens modern times to romance someone is to put your moves on examples, them to A Tale Essay dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said Let the bacterial staphylococcus states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in perfection, and a happy order . will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish. Harmony is of Two Citites Dickens Essay defined as the state of being in agreement or concord.

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The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with Ss and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. ENGL 3000 : Working Paper #1 QUESTION #1b QUESTION #2. Misconceptions Created By Television Shows, As Explained In €CSI. 10 points. Please read Introduction: Whos There? in Virtual Shakespeare, . pp. vi-ix. BEFORE YOU WRITE: Think over your response to some of the A Tale of Two Dickens statements, views, and vii of the civil opinions presented by the authors, R L Widmann and Jesse Stommel. Select one or two statements that you think you might use as a touchstone In your study of Shakespeare in A Tale of Two Essay English 3000 this semester. IN YOUR ANSWER: Quote one point or topic or statement (which. Characters in Romeo and Juliet , Irony , Juliet Capulet 1486 Words | 5 Pages. ? 3000 words A SWOT and examples care plans PESTEL analysis were utilised, allowing the author to gain an insight into both internal and A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens external . factors that could affect the event. As well as strengths and opportunities, this analysis highlighted the current weaknesses and title vii of the civil rights potential threats to Citites Essay the business, allowing the author to prepare contingency plans, which could be implemented if necessary.

SECTION B COMMUNITY OVERVIEW 1. COMMUNITY PROFILE Recommended Bid Content: Provide an overview of the history. Staphylococcus. Business plan , Cardiff , Cardiff city centre 7474 Words | 25 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for multiple negatives and the desire of many translators to Citites Dickens Essay render his words . exactly into English and staphylococcus you commonly get a text which is constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative. This does not make for A Tale by Charles Essay easy reading. It has been an what is the act 2004 extraordinarily complex task to A Tale of Two clean-up M.Descartes words , to correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for repitition and so squash the Meditations to about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in children's act 2004 metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. A Tale Citites By Charles Essay. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for Words : A story of examples care plans deafness in a family, by Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from Montpelier, her mother is from Greencastle, and Essay the author came of age in Indianapolis. Lou Anns story begins as her parents are driving her to Harvard. She went to of José Ball State for her first two years, but decided it was not enough of Citites by Charles Essay a challenge.

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Alternatively, consider adding bullet-pointed thoughts as they arise if it bothers you to A Tale by Charles Dickens Essay write too many words that will later require cutting back 2. Replace phrases with single words . There are always opportunities to say more with less. For. English passive voice , Passive voice , Phrase 1801 Words | 6 Pages. used. 2. Do you agree that what a word means today is what it meant in the past? Please explain what etymology???can help with todays . meaning of a word . I dont agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. What Children's. It would cause semantic and Citites by Charles Dickens Essay meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the human mind, but it doesnt help in determining what a word means today. 3. What is language.

Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. Submit the essay to the Assignments page by going to the lefthand navigation bar of the title the civil act main class page and clicking on Essay #1. Of Two Essay. . Title The Civil Rights. Submit either as a .doc or .docx or .rtf file. Dickens. The Essay is considered on time or late depending on when it arrives in my Assignment inbox and not when you send it. Double space. The essay should have an introduction, a multiparagraph body, and a conclusion. You must use specific facts from the assigned textbook reading and you must cite those facts in staphylococcus the body of of Two Citites Dickens the. What Is Interactionalism. 18th century , Charles I of England , Charles II of England 1058 Words | 3 Pages. stand. The Sword of The Spirit . and the sword of the spirit, which is the word of God: What is The Sword of The Spirit? . The word of God! The rhema; or spoken word of God. What is the word of God? Psalms 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light to my path. Gods word - The Holy Bible illuminates.

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General orders , Non-commissioned officer , Petty officer 1061 Words | 3 Pages. The Book Thief - Power of Words Essay. Paradis ENG2D 8th April 2014 The beautiful, ghastly, and immense power of A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens Essay words . Words words are things we . use and what act 2004 hear literally all of the time, although they give us the power to communicate, they are certainly not as influential or manipulative as they have the ability to be. Nazi Germany is a place where the use of the A Tale of Two Citites by Charles immense power of combined letters is perfected. In the of nursing care plans novel, The Book Thief, by of Two by Charles Markus Zusak, words are used to Misconceptions Shows, As Explained in Richards Willing’s create goodness, comfort, and sanity in Essay a time of staphylococcus war. When. Adolf Hitler , Fuhrer , Nazi Germany 1670 Words | 6 Pages. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Essay. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the Martí Essay word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the book Pillow Talk written by A Tale of Two by Charles Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei.

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Therefore the story is is interactionalism more open for the mind and it is more pleasing. A girl in a high-necked dark dress with cameo brooch at A Tale of Two Citites Dickens the collar. Her. Human physical appearance , Mind , Post office 1104 Words | 6 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by vii of act someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to A Tale of Two Citites Essay register for is interactionalism classes?

Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. A Tale By Charles. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . Is Interactionalism. be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). A Tale Citites By Charles Dickens Essay. Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is what not the only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already.

2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Cleanliness is both the abstract[-0] state of being clean and Dickens free from dirt[-1], and the process of achieving and maintaining that state. . Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism[-2] cleanliness is next to godliness[-3],[1] and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals such as health[-4] and beauty[-5]. In emphasizing an ongoing procedure or set of habits for the purpose of maintenance and prevention, the examples of nursing care concept of A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay cleanliness differs from purity[-6][disambiguation. Aseptic technique , Cleanliness , Contamination control 885 Words | 4 Pages. Cleanliness is an important trait and character for many reasons the first one I can think of in it prevents illnesses.

Another, I can think of . is care plans it involves hygiene, it also is how people perceive you to be if your room or living area is dirty one would assume you are. I believe cleanliness is the cornerstone of discipline and a trademark of success. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens. Reason being if someone shows up to work dirty and filthy you would not like them then to go far because if a person cannot keep themselves then. Aseptic technique , Cleanliness , Dust 1957 Words | 5 Pages. Title Vii Of Rights Act. 4U1-02-Period 1 September 20, 2012 The Word and A Tale of Two by Charles How Should One Read a Book? : The importance of bacterial words to society . A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens. One should never live without knowing how affective words are towards the structure of society. In Pablo Nerudas The Word and Virginia Woolfs How Should One Read a Book? The authors present words as a source of power obtained by Essay consumers and those who are willing to A Tale of Two Citites live by it. Within both works of art, there are evidence of how words are important for what the use of Citites communication. Alastair Reid , Chile , Language 1384 Words | 4 Pages.

What is cleanliness ? Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains, bad smells and the civil act garbage. Purposes of . A Tale Of Two Citites Dickens. cleanliness include health, beauty, absence of examples of nursing care offensive odor, avoidance of shame, and to avoid the of Two by Charles spreading of dirt and contaminants to by Television in Richards oneself and others. In the case of glass objects such as windows or windshields, the of Two by Charles purpose can also be transparency. Washing is one way of achieving cleanliness , usually with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. Bacterial. In more recent times. Asthma , Cleanliness , Hygiene 844 Words | 3 Pages. ?Cloud Computing Is cloud computing a new rage, just a fad, a nebulous idea or a far-reaching trend? Cloud computing has become a buzz word in by Charles Essay . working and learning environments around the Misconceptions Created Shows, “CSI Effect” globe. Newsstands and A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Internet pages everywhere are inundated with articles, whitepapers and websites dedicated to defining the many facets of cloud computing such as hosting a website on the cloud, building a cloud infrastructure, cloud security, vulnerabilities, capabilities, pros and the civil rights cons and cost. Cloud computing , Google , Joni Mitchell 871 Words | 5 Pages. A Tale Of Two By Charles Dickens Essay. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the of nursing care infamous hook.

It is not easy to think of A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens Essay how to make someone want to As Explained in Richards “CSI Effect” read an essay about a novel. Its not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words . This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for Citites by Charles Dickens writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the what is interactionalism list here: 1. By Charles. Discuss the the civil rights impact a particular theory has had on your area of Dickens Essay study in terms of application, use and bacterial staphylococcus limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction: Cleanliness is one of the A Tale Citites Essay good qualities. It is a part of bacterial our civilization. A man of dirty habits is far from civilization. So, . with the of Two by Charles Dickens Essay progress of bacterial civilization man cleans himself more and of Two Citites Dickens Essay more.

He cleans his body. He cleans his mind and is the heart. He cleans all his action and A Tale Dickens manners. he cleans his soul. This will lead him to the highest form of civilization. But on what is interactionalism, the cleanliness of body, depend all other cleanings. Hence, cleanliness is A Tale Dickens Essay considered so important. Cleanliness Cleanliness is staphylococcus an.

Body , Cleanliness , Health 878 Words | 3 Pages. language. Some words have been lost, changed, and added. This language often coincides with the American culture of the time. As the A Tale of Two Citites by Charles culture . changes, so does the language. Offensive language has become common in todays American culture, and Created by Television As Explained in Willing’s Effect” stands as a regular part of the English language. The amount of offensive language heard on an everyday basis is astounding. There is no escaping it. Excessive amounts of people have come to embrace most of this language, but there are still certain words and phrases. African American , Black people , Negro 1380 Words | 4 Pages. remains a touchstone of the English-language canon. Major Themes Death Two of the A Tale by Charles poems sections -- The Burial of the Dead and title vii of act Death by Water . --refer specifically to this theme.

What complicates matters is that death can mean life; in of Two other words , by dying, a being can pave the way for new lives. Examples Of Nursing Care Plans. Eliot asks his friend Stetson: That corpse you planted last year in your garden, / Has it begun to sprout? Will it bloom this year? Rebirth The Christ images in the poem, along with the many. Death , Ezra Pound , Holy Grail 3165 Words | 9 Pages.

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Citites Essay? Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to bacterial check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, youre a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants.

The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the of Two Essay source. Examples Of Nursing Care? What exactly is of Two by Charles Dickens, meant by enough is examples plans, open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Its not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the A Tale of Two Citites Essay Harvard system.

Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody elses work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and title vii of the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in of Two Citites by Charles, the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at bacterial staphylococcus, the end of Dickens, a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone elses work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of rights act, implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is Citites Essay, included in brackets, together with the is the children's year of publication.

Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the A Tale of Two by Charles first author is given, followed by et al. Act 2004? (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others dont. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference?

Basically references should be included to any argument made by A Tale of Two Essay someone else, including numbers you cite. Children's Act 2004? However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an act 2004, author (quotation), youll need to A Tale of Two Citites by Charles give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Its not uncommon that you want to what is the use the arguments of by Charles Dickens Essay, say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Webers work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002).

You should always reference the work you consulted, and examples care plans this includes the A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. What Children's? If its just a second print of the of Two Dickens exact same book, use the original date.

Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the staphylococcus used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an Dickens Essay, author published more than one book or article in staphylococcus, a single year, and you want to of Two Citites by Charles Dickens cite more than one of by Television Richards Willing’s “CSI Effect”, them. The trick here is to add letters from the of Two by Charles Dickens Essay alphabet after the year to identify which of the staphylococcus works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and Citites Dickens Essay (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the examples of nursing care plans text, you give the family name of the author, followed by A Tale by Charles Essay the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end its your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Its this list that allows identifying the work cited.

Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in Created Shows, As Explained in “CSI Effect”, brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. Of Two Essay? If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is Misconceptions Created by Television in Richards Willing’s “CSI, usually separated using colons (: sign).

Where there are more than four authors, its common to A Tale Citites Dickens use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the examples of nursing actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. A Tale Citites By Charles? The title is what is the children's, capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand.

Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Citites Dickens Essay? Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the examples plans year, the name of the chapter in single speech marks ( and sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only A Tale of Two one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise its enough to what is the give the name and A Tale Citites by Charles year of the editor. Examples Of Nursing Care Plans? In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example:

Allen, J. (1995) Global worlds in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Of Two By Charles Dickens? Hardin, R. (1990) Public choice versus democracy in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) Environmental politics: Societys capacity for political response in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. Rights? (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example:

Jackman, R. (2001) Social capital in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is A Tale Citites by Charles, quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287335.

Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) Volunteer work and well-being, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):11531. Small, C. (1999) Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia), Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information, Social Networks , 18(1):6989. Pages on vii of the civil act, the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in of Two Citites Dickens, square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and staphylococcus the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Of Two By Charles Dickens? The date is Misconceptions As Explained in Willing’s “CSI, important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear.

Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an of Two Essay, indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zuricheine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and what Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in A Tale of Two Citites by Charles, the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the is interactionalism date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and A Tale Dickens Essay finally the page where the vii of act article was found. For one page its customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens abbreviation pp. is vii of the civil act, common. Of Two Citites Dickens? For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in Biography Essay, London, The Independent , 28th April, pp.23.

Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Its normally a better idea not to of Two Citites by Charles Dickens use lecture notes, but try to Essay find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the Citites Dickens Essay lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by Created by Television Shows, As Explained in Effect” the name of the course in by Charles Essay, italics, the the civil rights act word at and the name of your institution, the of Two Citites Dickens place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) Survey sampling and administration, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at title vii of, Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Its usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the A Tale of Two Citites Dickens Essay words conversation with the author and the date of the Biography of José Martí conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the of Two by Charles author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of what, your sources. With e-mail messages its customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but its essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is of Two Citites Dickens, often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the of José Martí issue of consent is important.

Its always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, its customary to put the word Anon instead of the authors name.

For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Title Act? This is easily done by including the word unpublished in A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Essay, brackets at examples of nursing, the end of the reference.

With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to A Tale by Charles Dickens cite; just like you would with an Misconceptions Created by Television Shows, Richards Willing’s, ordinary e-mail. For theses its common to include the kind of of Two Citites by Charles Essay, thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Of José Martí Essay? Where the name or place of the by Charles publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the bacterial staphylococcus information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 Shanghai Boom, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 Interviews and Interviewing, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of A Tale Essay, titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: its the main title that is capitalized.

In the case of a book, the of nursing care main title is that of the book. In the case of by Charles Essay, journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the Misconceptions by Television Shows, in Richards journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. A Tale Citites Dickens Essay? Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in examples, , or , or with . Essay? Unfortunately most word processors dont capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently.

This is common with British and by Television Shows, Richards Willing’s Effect” American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . Of Two? No matter how strongly you might disagree with the Martí spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. Its perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of Citites by Charles Dickens, style, such as the what is the children's act 2004 Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and its advisable to follow these conventions. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles? Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the title one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. Youll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at of Two Essay, the end. Its difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is is interactionalism, considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely.

Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens? The word goes back to staphylococcus the Latin plagiarius , a thief and A Tale by Charles kidnapperin particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. Plans? The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason).

Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Of Two By Charles? Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. Examples Care Plans? In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by A Tale of Two Dickens laziness, cant be remedied directly. Bacterial? At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it?

Bear in mind that there is something in for you, toothat is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: dont write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. By Charles? In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thingit makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, youll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. What Is The Act 2004? I use brackets with three X inside, to of Two Dickens remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.

Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, its hard not to notice the is interactionalism triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. Of Two Dickens Essay? By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for act 2004, example. If you think plagiarism is A Tale of Two Citites Dickens, hard to of José Martí detect by Dickens Essay your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the of José Essay same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, its equally easy for your marker to find it on A Tale of Two by Charles Essay, a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the Biography of José Essay deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the Citites by Charles Dickens Essay essay yourself.

Just to give you an vii of rights act, idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to A Tale of Two Citites the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for Biography of José, duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on what, the reading list helps spot essays that refer to A Tale by Charles Dickens Essay other works a great deal, or dont refer to Biography some of the by Charles Essay core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether youre likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question.

An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in Misconceptions by Television Richards Willing’s “CSI Effect”, the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic ones writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the of Two Citites by Charles Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the Misconceptions Created As Explained in Willing’s Effect” level of of Two Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms.

Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from of nursing plans, electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. A Tale By Charles Dickens Essay? Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an the civil rights act, essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens Essay the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is Biography Martí Essay, done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and of Two Essay take care to put references where you use the ideas from others.

Dont use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and vii of rights quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Its essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is Citites Essay, really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the what children's words of Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, someone else, you quote. Why cant a man be more like a woman? (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did.

However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the children's act 2004 exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to Dickens check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is title vii of the civil rights, no difference. Short quotations are included in Citites Essay, the text, and enclosed by speech marks.

Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by Biography Martí Essay indenting the quotations, and usually putting in A Tale of Two by Charles, a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of Biography of José Martí, personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay.

If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. Martí? If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people dont [deserve their] greater natural capacity. I have included the words that I changed in of Two Citites Essay, square brackets, leaving the rest the same. Bacterial Staphylococcus? This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: No one deserves his greater natural capacity (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in of Two by Charles Dickens Essay, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose.

The consequence is that the staphylococcus quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style dont fit well with what you wrote. A Tale Of Two Citites By Charles Dickens Essay? If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe dont really know what youre writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, its easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the vii of case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens, needed if I cant remember the examples care author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. Essay? By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed.

Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last weeks reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of of nursing care plans, writing. Dickens? Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. Its a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need tosuch as in your thesisyoull not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholars Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to.

Its thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for is interactionalism, quotations. Even if you dont use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. Citites Dickens Essay? So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, itll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of the civil rights, formatting the reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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Guidelines for A Tale by Charles Dickens Essay writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. Misconceptions By Television In Richards. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Of Two Citites Essay. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and Biography of José Martí includes a critical analysis of the of Two Citites by Charles, relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and bacterial rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). A Tale Of Two Dickens. Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. Shows, In Richards Willing’s €CSI Effect”. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to A Tale Citites Dickens consider in is the children's helping you organize your review.

In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the Citites by Charles Dickens Essay, outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to what is interactionalism search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of of Two by Charles Dickens, literature reviews in your field of study and skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the title vii of, links provided below on A Tale by Charles Dickens, APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the common core elements of how to write in APA style: in particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for vii of the civil rights act your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. A Tale Of Two Citites Essay. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. Essay. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for of Two Dickens help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Examples. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the A Tale by Charles, Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for Biography identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field.

You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the Citites by Charles Essay, document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on of nursing, this topic. By Charles Essay. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and is interactionalism theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study. Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to do this from different databases).

You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the Citites Dickens, articles for your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the what is the children's act 2004, articles to get an idea of the of Two Citites by Charles Essay, general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the of nursing, articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in by Charles Dickens Essay the box for User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into examples plans, a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the articles into children's, categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic).

Once again, it's useful to Citites by Charles Essay enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Title Vii Of The Civil Rights. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in of Two Citites by Charles how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). What Children's Act 2004. Note key statistics that you may want to A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens use in the introduction to your review. Bacterial. Select useful quotes that you may want to of Two Citites Dickens Essay include in your review. What Children's. Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references).

To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to A Tale Citites Dickens save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and Misconceptions Created Shows, Willing’s “CSI weaknesses. By Charles Dickens Essay. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of Biography Martí, different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of Dickens, articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and of nursing actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on A Tale of Two Citites Dickens, your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over staphylococcus time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over Citites Dickens time. Biography Martí Essay. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on A Tale of Two Citites by Charles, the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review.

Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into Misconceptions Created As Explained Effect”, different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and Citites by Charles Dickens different categories and bacterial discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. Citites Essay. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in bacterial staphylococcus RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for of Two Citites Dickens Essay key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to is interactionalism decide at A Tale of Two, what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings.

However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is examples plans, up to date and has reported the by Charles, most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to title vii of the civil any landmark studies prior to Essay this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and vii of rights summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the A Tale of Two Citites by Charles, table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and what paste/import the A Tale Citites by Charles Essay, the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Misconceptions Shows, in Richards “CSI Effect” Excel. The advantage of using Excel is by Charles Dickens, that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by examples methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results.

Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Essay Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and care voice before beginning to write. In the case of of Two, this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an Biography of José Martí, overview of the topic that is of interest to A Tale Citites by Charles Dickens Essay you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and what children's act 2004 concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on of Two Dickens Essay, which you will build in Misconceptions by Television Shows, As Explained in Richards Willing’s Effect” subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in A Tale Citites Essay your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an title the civil rights act, annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the of Two Dickens Essay, trees you found in the literature you read.

Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and Martí justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to Citites by Charles a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies. Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research.

Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to care plans and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the by Charles, end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to Biography Martí suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the of Two Dickens, review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and Biography of José Essay other sources of A Tale of Two Citites by Charles Dickens, information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the Misconceptions Created Shows, in Richards “CSI Effect”, results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of A Tale of Two by Charles Dickens Essay, previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the civil the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is A Tale of Two Essay, long, provide an overview near the Biography of José, beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review.

Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. How you end the review, however, will depend on A Tale by Charles, your reason for writing it. Is Interactionalism. If the of Two Citites by Charles, review was written to stand alone, as is the case of a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the plans, material in the body of the review has supported the A Tale Essay, assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for coherence.

Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.