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What year did pythagoras live

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archers resume The information below is not intended for employment. Employers, agencies and other manpower recruiting resources must not treat this web site as for employment purposes. Thank you for viewing. To be part with in a dynamic progressive company where I can use and year did pythagoras live, apply my professional work experience. Seeking a position in line w/ engineering works such as; Planning Scheduling, Estimating, Consultancy/Design and Project Execution, also can do as Quantity Surveyor, Material expediting and Project package preparation.

To obtain a position in engineering, construction and Essay on Treks of Injustice, maintenance wherein my knowledge and experience will be used to the full extent. Summary of Experience. With dedicated work experience in what year did pythagoras, various technical and engineering disciplines. Works involved in causes, LNG Construction Process Area, Mining Plant Site, Mechanical Design, Piping, Chilled Water Piping (CHWP), Fabrication and Installation, Project Planning preparation with the did pythagoras live, use of Primavera V3.1, P5/P6 Microsoft Project in application of SAP System JD Edwards. Can be able to developed Designs and Drawings thru AutoCAD R.14 up to 2006 application also prepare invoices with coordination to client after project completion. Previously engaged with multi-national, int#8217;l. organizations or companies in; Oil / Gas, LNG, Power Plant, MM, General Shutdown and Maintenance; utilizing the international construction standard references as follows ASTM, ASME 31.1 31.3, ASME IX, AWS, ASHRAE, API ISO 9001:2002 certification. July 2011 Present MONADELPHOUS ENGINEERING. Address: Level 6 Lang Parade, Milton Queensland 4064 Australia. - Prepare tender schedules. Develop baseline schedule, monitor and Burke vs John Stuart Essay, coordinate with PM's and construction personel for the project's success. - Eurombah Creek APLNG Upstream Phase 1 Gas Fields Facilities JUL 2014 MAY 2015. - Lead Planner : Wandoan Interconnect Facilities APLNG FEB 2014 JUL 2014. - Wheatstone LNG Project 2013 - 2014. Sept.

22, #8217;08 Feb 2011 SNC LAVALIN INTERNATIONAL INC. ( Toronto , CA ) Client: OPG #8220;Owner Project Group#8221;( Sherritt Intn#8217;l., Sumitomo and Korea Resources ) Fokontany d#8217; Amboakarivo, Commune d#8217; Amboditandroho, TOAMASINA II - Madagascar. Report to Project Controls Manager, to ensure planning works for the E ngineering, P rocurement, C onstruction and M anagement of the Ambatovy Nickel/Cobalt Project. What Year! Fact about the project; The Ambatovy Project is Burke Mill a laterite Nickel/Cobalt open pit mining operation located in the east central highlands of Madagascar near the city of Moramanga. 220KM slurry pipeline will be constructed, which will carry processed ore from the mine site to what, the processing plant as well as the a port, an eight km railway, 130 km of access roads and repetition in the, an industrial complex. The processing plant will be constructed near the port city of Tamatave (Toamasina) located on the east coast of Madagascar . The US $3.38 Billion facility will produce 60,000 tonnes per year of Nickel, 5,600 tonnes per year of Cobalt and did pythagoras live, 185,000 tonnes per year of Ammonium Sulphate. Duties and reaction, responsibilities: - Develop, maintain, and implement the Project Code of Accounts. Develop, maintain, and implement the Cost Control Procedures.

Prepare definitive capital cost estimate and Project budgets. - Evaluate and what did pythagoras live, cost code capital cost commitments, expenditures, material quantities, contractor#8217;s man-hours, progress and ethics, performance, and project services. - Prepare Project trends and forecasts to update the Project final cost projections to be included in the Monthly Progress Report. Prepare Bid check estimates of Bid Packages; assist Contracts and Procurement in Bid evaluation and recommendations. Monitor the recording of commitments and expenditures in conjunction with the what year, Project Accounting Section. Monitor the ethics summary, Project scope and what did pythagoras, obtain approvals for is love a chemical reaction, Project Scope Changes. - Review Purchase Orders and Contracts for year live, compatibility with the budget. Also provide cost codes and budget breakdown values to Contracts and Essay on Treks of Injustice, Procurement for Bid analysis and what year live, award recommendations. - Monitor supplier#8217;s/contractors periodic reports to the Project Controls Department. - Update the following documents in a Monthly basis: o Master Summary Schedule (Rainbow). Another For Greed! o Engineering and Construction Progress Charts. o The Detailed Project (CPM) Schedule. o Early Activities Schedule. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! o Overall contract progress and performance curves. o Contractors#8217; proposed and actual schedules, progress charts. o Schedule requirements to repetition, reflect any contractual or legal documentation and requirements. - Produce the following documents: o Commitment Package Status Report.

Submit a Monthly Progress Report. What Year Live! List of Key Dates. Is Love A Chemical! o Establish Intermediate Milestones dates for Contract Documents. o Overall Home Office Progress Curve. Engineering Progress Curve. Manpower Status Report. o Critical Items List Analyze #8220;Actual#8220;against the Schedule and report critical delays and needs to enable Management to take corrective actions. Maintain #8220;activity sorting#8221; capabilities of the schedules. o Produce Gantt charts for various special project reporting. Dec. 20, #8217;06 Jul.12,'08 CTJV- Chiyoda/Technip Joint Venture RGX6. Client: Partnership of what year, RasGas and ExxonMobil Ras Laffan (III) Limited. P.O.Box : 22740, Ras Laffan Industrial City (RLIC), State of Qatar.

Snr. Construction Planner/Analysts Process. Report to Construction Manager, to ensure planning works of Construction Group for CTJV, Japan 's Chiyoda and France 's Technip Joint Venture, for the engineering, procurement and Edmund Burke Mill Essay, construction of the RasGas onshore projects trains 6 and 7. Two additional LNG trains, no. Year Live! 6 and no. 7. This is a new offshore wells, the largest producing wells in the industry. Each train is designed to produce 7.8 million tonnes per year of liquefied natural gas, making them two of the on Treks of Injustice, world's largest LNG trains. ($4 Billion USD Project). Year Did Pythagoras! - Works involve in Construction Project Planning, extract detailed work activities, with Primavera V.3.1 and Edmund Mill, MS (Microsoft) Project 2003. risk management plan. - Prepare/Conduct Monthly Top Management Joint Review Meeting for Project Status thru Microsoft Power Point Presentation. - Verify/extract work man-hours, work volume, quantities, critical activities, s-curves and histograms through P3. - Coordinate with various disciplines like; Civil Group, Piping Group, EI and Equipment Group. As well as coordinate to subcontractors relating to construction works for proper work execution at site and ensure proper planning. Coordinate with logistics for the Material and Equipments ETA (Estimated Time Arrival) and did pythagoras live, ATA (Actual Time Arrived) prior to allocating it to Laydown yard and/or installation. - Update/submit Weekly Progress Report for all discipline thru S-Curves and Edmund Burke Mill, Histogram as well as various plans, for Process Access Roads, Equipment Positioning and alignment at Laydown area with AutoCAD 2006 and (Bentley) Microstation.

Review and analyze Subcontractors Scheduling and planning documents (procedures, reports e.t.c.), monitor progress and control Project activities, verification of Milestones, identify potential delays, analyze and live, issue proposed corrective actions as required. Causes And Effects Essay! - Utilize i-DMS (Integrated Document Management System) for various company document search and needs. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! Also utilize and operate SPR (Smart Plant Review) for equipment and Essay on Treks, construction viewing to check for its virtual location, position and some information. What Live! Dec 30,#8217;05 Nov 05,'06 CAT International Co. Ltd. (CAT GROUP) 14 th floor ABN AMRO Building , P.O. Box 250 Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Planning Scheduling Engineer/Project Controls. § CONSTRUCTION OF UNDERGROUND CHILLED WATERPIPE NETWORKS AT DUBAI MOTOR CITY (DMC) AREA. - Client: Emirates District Cooling #8220;EMICOOL#8221;; Dubai , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 10 October 2006 to 17 August 2007. § DISTRICT COOLING SCHEME AD01: PIPE NETWORKS FROM AL JAZEERAH TO MUBADALLA/MAMOURA AREA. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , UAE. - Project Contract Duration: 01 August 2006 to 31 December 2006. § PHASE 5 TANK FARM EXPANSION DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION OF MECHANICAL, PIPING CIVIL WORKS. - Client: VOPAK HORIZON FUJAIRAH LIMITED, (VHFL); Fujairah , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 20 June 2006 to and effects, 19 December 2007. Year Did Pythagoras! § A D02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. Essay On Treks! - Project Contract Duration: 05 March 2006 to what year did pythagoras live, 30 June 2006. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 10 April 2005 to word, 26 July 2006. What Year! § TABREED DISTRICT COOLING SCHEMES AD04 GHQ - CHW ZONE DISTRIBUTION, ETS, RENOVATION OF THE EXISTING AC SYSTEM, AND CONNECTION OF THE BUILDING CHW SYSTEM TO TABREED DISTRICT COOLING NETWORK. - Client: TABREED; Abu Dhabi , U.A.E. - Project Contract Duration: 08 October 2005 to 07 October 2006. § Various Tendering Involved such as; - Emirates District Cooling LLC (EMICOOL) MOTOR CITY - DISTRICT COOLING PROJECT UNDERGROUND CHW PIPE NETWORKS at Dubai Investment Park , Jebel Ali, Dubai , UAE. Tender Planning Package. - ETS #8220;Energy Transfer Station#8221; Green West Project at Dubai , tender planning package. - International Media Production Zone (IMPZ) EMPOWER Project, tender up to level 2 package. Nicomachean Ethics Summary! - Engineering, Procurement Construction of PIG LAUNCHERS AND RECEIVERS FOR 13 Nos. Critical Main Oil Lines, tender planning package.

For (ADCO Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Oil Operations). - AD02- AL BATEEN AIR BASE NEW BUILDING CONNECTIONS. - TABREED NATIONAL CENTRAL COOLING: DISTRICT COOLING FOR UAE UNIVERSITY AT AL MAQAM CAMPUS AL AIN, EXTERNAL DISTRIBUTION PIPING. - Report directly to Project Manager. Execute document tendering. Preparation of year, Engineering, Procurement and Construction Project Schedule such as PERT/CPM, quantification, bar chart, progresses S curve, resources loading histogram, material take off, cost estimate and Monthly Cash Flow. - Monitor Weekly and in the, Monthly Progress status at what level 3 4 and procurement status. Gather and compile relevant data as per Burke Essay, project requirement.

Insure that all target dates as per schedule are properly executed. Conduct site ocular inspection Coordinate project heads. - Prepare recovery schedule to a certain project for what year live, client#8217;s approval if additional quantity and extended schedule or which ever cases may apply. - Prepare monthly invoice/billing to be submitted to the client for approval with respect to the monthly progress. On Treks! - Utilize Project Planning Software proficiently e.g. Primavera V3.1 and Microsoft Project 2000. Dec 03,#8217;02 Oct 12, '05 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. Ltd. What! Supplied to Client: Saudi ARAMCO Testing and Inspection (TI) and Projects Unit, Maintenance Div. Stuart Mill! Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Planning /TI and Projects Engineer.

§ Prepare Work Schedule for Tanks and various projects in accordance to SAES ( S audi A ramco E ngineering S tandards) and SAMS. § Prepares scope of work and letters for review by did pythagoras concern unit such as; Inspection Unit, Operation Maintenance Engineering with Loss Prevention. As well as, review and give comments on various project design packages in accordance to standards and specifications. § Follow-up the correct implementation of the maintenance plans and advises the Maintenance Team Leader of developments. Burke Vs John Stuart Mill! Gather work requests for what year, each of the trades and inform the appropriate sections of work to be carried out during planned shutdowns. Analyze resource requirements (Manpower Material, equipment Tools) for shutdown work and Essay on Treks, ensure their availability well in advanced. Prepare a shutdown work package in consultation with Site Engineers and Supervisors. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! § Prepare calculation sheet, cost estimate, service/purchase order draft and bill of word, materials. Receive and what year, analyze the monthly/quarterly cost control reports, review cost classification, compare actual costs against budget, and repetition, make appropriate comments to the concerned departments/services. § Prepare Long Form and what did pythagoras live, Short Form Contracts. Hypothetical Quantities and Company #8220;Saudi Aramco#8221; Estimate Cost for Tankage Repair Western Region Shared Contract. Prepare TI Planning and another, Projects Unit presentation. Verify check contractors#8217; invoice against actual quantity of works completed. § TEST Package, Mid-Year accountability and what, Operating Plan preparation. § Coordinate the requirement for contracted manpower follow-up Service Orders/Purchase Orders monitor expenditure in accordance with approved budget.

Mar 03,#8217;04 Apr 08, 2004 Saudi ARAMCO. Testing and Inspection (TI) Planning and Projects Unit, Maintenance Div. Rabigh Refinery, Kingdom of repetition, Saudi Arabia . What Year Did Pythagoras Live! GRTA Shutdown Planner/Cost Engineer. Duties and responsibilities: § Perform the elements of shutdown planning through communication, time, cost and quality. § Estimating and controlling shutdown and turnaround cost. § Cost performance measures of the following; 4. Material and supplies. 5. Rental and leasing costs. 6. General and repetition in the, Administrative. § Produce the following documents: 1. Progress daily report. 2. Contractors Back charges. Dec 26, #8216;01 Dec 02#8217;02 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! Ltd.

P.O. For Greed! Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Planner Engineer/Quantity Surveyor. Oct 2001 Dec 25, #8217;01 Al Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. Ltd. P.O. Box 269 Rabigh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . § Prepare work schedule various mechanical projects in Primavera V.3.1. Monitor the 1.2M Saudi Riyal Contract value Closed Drain System at Rabigh ARAMCO Refinery, Process Area. Year Live! § Interpret, review construction progress if in accordance to plan and report to Project Manager. § Responsible in Edmund Stuart Mill, maintaining communication with the Client SAUDI ARAMCO.

Mar 2000 Apr 2001 SALCON POWER CO. Poblacion Naga Cebu , Philippines. § Prepare work schedule for tanks and various projects in Primavera V.3.0 and what did pythagoras, Microsoft Project 2000. Burke Essay! § Up date and report work progress daily for year, #8220;all Project#8221; using Microsoft Excel. § Maintain coordination with the another for greed, project in-charge. What Year! § Prepare reports, in nicomachean ethics, daily, weekly and monthly report for what, mechanical work shop daily report. § Prepare Plant Integrity Assessment (PIA) report. Cebu Institute of reaction, Technology. Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering. SIENA School of Naga. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! Graduated March 1996. Naga Central Elementary School. Graduated March, 1992. Nicomachean Summary! Professional Regulation Commission December 14, 2001.

Registered Mechanical Engineer. Board of Mechanical Engineer, R.P. DATE PLACE OF BIRTH : September 07, 1979 ; Poblacion Naga. MARITAL STATUS : Married. Year Did Pythagoras Live! ELECTRO PNEUMATICS with PLC Apr 17, 2000-May 22, 2000. Cebu Institute of Technology.

LUBRICATION January 19, 1999. Cebu Institute of Technology. Automatic Computer Aided Design (AutoCAD) Mar 22, 1998-Nov 1998. Cebu Institute of Technology. MATERIAL DEGRADATION and PROTECTION November 19, 1998.

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Moral Courage Essays and Research Papers. AN OCCASIONAL ADDRESS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF TASMANIA FACULTY OF ARTS GRADUATION ON 14 DECEMBER 2010, BY Chief Executive Officer, Mrs Barbara Etter APM “The . Importance of Moral Courage in Leadership” Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, distinguished guests, graduates, ladies and gentlemen, girls and boys. Before I commence, I would like to what did pythagoras live, acknowledge the is love reaction traditional owners of what did pythagoras live, this land. For Greed! It is with great pleasure that I am delivering an occasional address this morning at this very important event – your. Aung San Suu Kyi , Courage , Ethics 1707 Words | 5 Pages.

? Courage (noun):- 1.The ability to do something that you know is what live difficult or dangerous. OR The state or quality of repetition in the, mind or spirit that . enables one to face danger or fear with self-possession, confidence, and resolution bravery. Did Pythagoras Live! 4. The power or quality of dealing with or facing danger, fear, pain, etc Examples of COURAGE 1. She has the courage to support unpopular causes. 2. It takes courage to stand up for your rights. Quotations No one can answer for his courage when he has never.

Courage , Ethics , Lahore 1553 Words | 6 Pages. To Kill a Mockingbird Essay-Emotional/Moral Courage. Mockingbird Essay-Emotional/ Moral Courage Webster's dictionary defines courage as mental or . moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. According to Atticus Finch, one of the main characters in To Kill A Mockingbird, Courage is when you know you're licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and you see it through no matter what. Nicomachean! (Chapter 11, Page 124) No matter how you define it, Harper Lee definitely portrays the theme of mental courage in this book. The book. Atticus Finch , Courage , Harper Lee 1404 Words | 4 Pages. Courage is the ability and what year willingness to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Physical courage is . courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death, or threat of death, while moral courage is the word ability to what year, act rightly in the face of popular opposition, shame, scandal, or discouragement.

In some traditions, fortitude holds approximately the same meaning as courage . Ethics Summary! In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers such as Aristotle, Aquinas. Cardinal virtues , Courage , Ethics 1089 Words | 4 Pages. Courage is of two kinds: physical and moral . The farmer is common to both man and beast; but the latter belongs to man alone. . Courage comes from the strength of year did pythagoras, mind or will. Physical courage depends on one's physical strength. A weak; and sickly person is hardly seen to be physically courageous. Because his ill health does not permit him to take an aggressive view in is love a chemical reaction, life, although he may be mentally bold. But a person, who is bold and strong, both in body and mind, is live normally found to be courageous.

Courage , Cowardice , Ethics 518 Words | 2 Pages. Courage , seven letters, two syllables, countless meanings. Courage can be shown in many different ways and summary contexts by different . What Year Did Pythagoras! composers. Both moral and on Treks physical courage are conveyed in many texts including the film “Life is beautiful” by Roberto Benigni, the novel “To Kill a Mocking Bird”, directed by Robert Mulligan, and the image “ Courage , bravery doesn't mean you aren't scared. It means you go anyway”. In the film ‘Life is Beautiful’, the concept of courage is personified through Guido’s. Courage , Cowardice , Low-angle shot 1063 Words | 3 Pages.

What is courage , is the question many people are asking today. Is there a proper definition to year did pythagoras, this spiteful action and mind consuming word? . And how do we explain this to on Treks of Injustice, others who ask what courage is and argue certain points on why someone might act courageously? In order to answer these questions, a person must first learn the what year points and ideas that the word courage brings forth. Courage is a chemical related to what year, belief, will, and danger and always having to go down the difficult path. When someone. Acts of the Apostles , Ancient Greece , Core issues in ethics 878 Words | 3 Pages. Integration of Faith and Learning 2: Courage and Marketing Liberty University BUSI 520 B 28 Strategic Marketing . Management Dr. David Johnson March 8, 2013 Leadership in general requires courage . Courage is defined in Burke Stuart, Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary as a mental or moral strength to venture, persevere, and withstand danger, fear, or difficulty. (Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary) Physical courage is live courage in the face of causes, physical pain, hardship, death.

Book of Judges , Courage , Israelites 803 Words | 3 Pages. Courage You gain strength, courage , and year confidence by every experience in which you really stop to look fear in the face. You . must do the thing which you think you cannot do. Eleanor Roosevelt Courage . What feeling arise in causes and effects, our hearts when we hear this word? Maybe you would feel admiration, respect, or fear, or maybe nothing at all. The word Courage has a very long history and its origin is from the Latin word coraticum. The root “cor” means heart.

So literally it means “an action. Courage , Ethics , Hero 1092 Words | 3 Pages. SUCCESS COMES ONLY WITH BOLDNESS, ABILITY AND COURAGE “. It is not because things are difficult that we do not dare; it is because we do not . dare because they are difficult.”-SENECA Success, ultimately, essentially and above everything else, fully depends on live the ability, boldness as well as courage for repetition, completion of any work. Stamina of mind, willpower, dedication and perseverance stimulate the boldness and courage and create ability which makes a man successful. What Year! The starting point of success. Courage , Cowardice , Dhirubhai Ambani 2067 Words | 5 Pages. Integrity and in the raven Courage . Did Pythagoras! Two core values that can be significant in today’s society. These specific core values in in the, the society really prove to be . a significant part of what year, all lives that surround us.

Between the person’s character and reputation, the person in today’s society without having a good example of both of them will not go far. Where integrity and Courage come into play really represent how a person is seen in the modern society that we are living in causes essay, today. I would propose for your consideration. Courage , Human , Integrity 1238 Words | 3 Pages. To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, explores how courage can be shown in multiple important characters during the novel. These . characters include Mrs Dubose, Atticus, Jem and Maycomb County itself. Harper Lee cleverly depicted several forms of what year did pythagoras live, courage during the novel such as childish courage , moral courage . The first highly important character in the novel known for nicomachean ethics summary, her split personality and great moral courage is year did pythagoras live Mrs Dubose. She was a morphine addict and was addicted to morphine.

Atticus Finch , Courage , Ethics 1173 Words | 3 Pages. To kill a Mockingbird essay on courage. ?The Courage Within Courage is defined as that quality of mind or spirit enabling one to meet danger or opposition with . fearlessness. According to Atticus Finch, one of the main characters in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper lee, Courage is is love a chemical when you know you're licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and what year you see it through no matter what.” (Lee, 124) No matter how one defines it, Harper Lee clearly portrays the theme of courage in her novel, To Kill A Mockingbird. Another! It is one of the most. Atticus Finch , Courage , Cowardice 1385 Words | 4 Pages. I wanted to see what real courage is, instead of getting the idea that courage is a man with a gun. What kinds of heroism and . courage are shown in what did pythagoras live, To Kill a Mockingbird?

Discuss. Courage is word defined as the quality of mind or spirit enabling one to meet danger or opposition with fearlessness. According to Atticus Finch, one of the main characters in To Kill a Mockingbird, Courage is when you know you're licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and year live you see it through no matter what. (pg. Atticus Finch , Courage , Cowardice 1582 Words | 4 Pages. Nov. 2012 The important aspects of nicomachean ethics, courage In the novel To Kill a Mockingbird written by Harper Lee was published in what year live, the 1960s when the . And Effects Essay! civil rights movement was growing and striving to attain equal rights for the African-Americans. In her novel, Lee shows that it takes courage to year did pythagoras live, stand up against injustice. First, the judgemental characteristic of for greed, Aunt Alexandra displays the live fear of rejection from her town which proves that she does not have the courage to stand up against the injustice and. American television actors , Courage , Harper Lee 1906 Words | 5 Pages. Does Modern Day Courage Still Exist.

?Modern Day Courage : Does It Still Exist? Salman Rushdie’s view on political and moral courage today brings up . Causes! many topics for year did pythagoras live, discussion, some of which I do and and effects do not agree with. The three main points made by Salman Rushdie are that physical courage is more admirable than moral courage in modern day society, we no longer agree on what it means to be good, principled, or brave, and that political courage is almost always ambiguous. I agree that in what year, today’s society, physical bravery is seen as. Courage , Elie Wiesel , Ethics 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Courage : An Extended Definition The current dictionary definitions of courage are inadequate because they only include . references to of Injustice, physical courage and omit instances of what did pythagoras, inner strength. Three contemporary dictionaries agree closely on the definition although they differ in the order of importance. Webster’s New World Dictionary describes courage as “an attitude of facing and dealing with anything recognized as dangerous, difficult or painful, instead of withdrawing from it,” and The American. Courage , Definition , Dictionary 717 Words | 3 Pages.

Courage and a chemical Its’ Many Forms My definition of courage is to did pythagoras live, be able to endure physical hardship to prevent harm from coming . to another and to have the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition. As you can see in my definition there are two themes. One is physical courage and Essay of Injustice the other is moral courage . I picked this concept because of the many opportunities courage has to offer. Courage is what year did pythagoras very specific; in some cases it could be instinct, or stupidity that is seen as courage. Cassie Bernall , Columbine High School , Columbine High School massacre 1112 Words | 3 Pages. Courage is a virtue As a kid, I watched a lot of Burke vs John Mill Essay, cartoons. Some were memorable and did pythagoras live had an and effects essay, impact on my life, while some were not. One of the . most memorable was a cartoon called ‘ Courage the Cowardly Dog’.

You can probably see from the title that this cartoon was very interesting. It has had a big impact on my philosophy as I have learnt life facts from watching it. I believe that I wouldn’t be the same person that I am today if I never came across it. Live! I think it’s safe to Essay, say that as a kid, I. Antagonist , Courage , Debut albums 1097 Words | 3 Pages. Courage Is an Important Theme in to Kill a Mockingbird. Courage is an important theme in to kill a mockingbird In To Kill Mockingbird courage is presented to year, us as a desirable . Reaction! quality. Harper Lee suggests that there is what did pythagoras live some misunderstanding as to what real courage in the community of Maycomb actually is. Word! Many aspects of courage are shown in To Kill a Mockingbird.

There are examples of physical courage , such as Atticus facing the rabid dog. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! There is also moral courage , an example of Edmund Stuart Essay, this would be when Atticus takes on Tom Robinson’s case and what year did pythagoras he sticks. Atticus Finch , Courage , Cowardice 2765 Words | 7 Pages. Courage When people hear the word courage , most think of soldiers in World War II, firefighters who risked their lives during . Summary! 911 or even police officers who go to work every day, not knowing if they are going to see their families again. Year Live! This fact astonished me because so many things in our world today require courage . “What is the definition of courage ,” some people may ask. Well, in my overall search for the meaning, I came across probably fifty to a hundred different definitions. One person. Courage , Definition , God 918 Words | 3 Pages. “It was not courage , exactly; the object was not valor.

Rather, they were too frightened to be cowards” (pg 22). This quote perfectly . embodies the view Tim O’Brien has on is love reaction courage , as he eloquently demonstrates in his book The Things They Carried. What Year Did Pythagoras! Although all the characters of this novel display O’Brien’s point of view, the three shining examples of this are Norman Bowker, Jimmy Cross, and Tim O’Brien himself. And Effects Essay! Tim O’Brien is fairly conscious of the difference between cowardice and bravery. Did Pythagoras Live! To.

Army , Courage , Cowardice 996 Words | 3 Pages. ? Courage Lives On A great man named Steve Jobs once said “Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't . be trapped by dogma - which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition” (Steve Jobs) Mr. Ethics Summary! Jobs advice is applicable to everyday life whether it be confronting a bully, asking out a crush or saving someone.

Atticus Finch , Courage , Gregory Peck 846 Words | 3 Pages. ?To Kill a Mockingbird - Courage “ Courage is live when you know you are licked before you begin, but you begin anyway and repetition in the you see it . through no matter what.” (P.149) Courage , the spirit and what year did pythagoras live soul of virtue, is one of the most significant themes in To kill a Mockingbird. Harper Lee uses many of the characters and a chemical circumstances in the book, as well as her own deed of writing this novel to year live, demonstrate all facets of courage . There is a physical courage which is demonstrated by word several characters. Atticus. Atticus Finch , Courage , Harper Lee 868 Words | 2 Pages. Is Amir a person we can look to for moral guidance? (Kite Runner) Word count: 843 Essay title: In Amir, has Hosseini created a character that we can look to for moral guidance? In the book, The Kite . Runner, Hosseini was able to put us, the year readers in Amir’s shoes as he takes us through his journey of self-discovery and his seemingly endless fight for redemption. Vs John Mill! In a way, it seems that Hosseini is portraying Amir as a character that we should look up to for moral guidance.

The development and changes in what did pythagoras, Amir’s personality and ideologies was clearly shown as. Courage , Cowardice , Ethics 861 Words | 3 Pages. How Does Harper Lee Present the Theme of Courage in to Kill a Mockingbird. How Does Harper Lee Present The Theme Of Courage In To Kill A Mockingbird Harper lee presents the theme of courage through . several of the characters within TKAM, such as Scout, Atticus, Calpurnia, and Mrs Dubose. Ethics! Within the book courage is shown in different ways such as Scout’s innocence and naivety or Atticus’ reluctance to carry out an action but still having to carry it out. One character to show courage is Atticus who shows courage twice as he shoots Tim Johnson and stands up to the lynch. African American , Atticus Finch , Caucasian race 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Lizzy Wood The Red Badge of Courage Essay 11.20.11/6th Hour At times he regarded the wounded soldiers in an . envious way. Did Pythagoras Live! He conceived persons with torn bodies to be peculiarly happy. Essay On Treks! He wished that he, too, had a wound, a red badge of courage . (Ch.9, Pg. 61) Jim Conklin, Wilson, and the tattered man are not only alike in some ways, but also have differences.

The purpose of this essay is to tell you the similarities between the tall soldier, the loud soldier, and. Courage , Guilt , Shame 1030 Words | 3 Pages. Courage is mental or moral strength to withstand danger, fear or difficulty. Harper Lee’s novel To Kill a Mockingbird shows many . examples about courage . Two very important characters Jem and Mrs. Dubose show courage throughout the novel. The first character to show courage is Jem. His courage changes as he matures throughout the book form childish courage to being mature. In the beginning of the book, Scout says that Jem had “never declined a dare” in his entire life, which shows childish courage. Core issues in ethics , Courage , Ethics 508 Words | 2 Pages. ? Courage Now and days when people hear the word courage , they automatically think of heroic acts and what year live super heroes. Not . that being heroic doesn’t require courage , is and effects essay just that it goes beyond putting your life at risk to save others, Although the what year dictionary defines courage as the ethics summary power or quality of what, dealing with or facing danger, fear, pain.

To me, courage is the in the raven most inner strength a human being can have. Year Did Pythagoras! Is the strength to face the greatest, as well as the another word smallest of fears. From doing the. Courage , Fear , Figure 8 537 Words | 2 Pages. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows and Courage.

Courage In most stories, there is did pythagoras live always the is love hero whom is not afraid to face challenges and defeat the bad guy. What Did Pythagoras Live! That hero is acting out of and effects, . courage . What! They do whatever they can to nicomachean ethics, save the day, regardless of did pythagoras live, what may happen to them. This is what most people think of when they hear the word courage , but to me, it is this and Burke vs John Mill Essay so, so much more. Courage is what live not knowing what the outcome might be, and still going through with that plan. Courage is of Injustice standing up for what is right, regardless of what those consequences. Courage , Harry Potter , Harry Potter and what live the Deathly Hallows 1295 Words | 3 Pages. Raising Ethical and Moral Children. their moral behavior.

If our children are not good, honest, self-disciplined, kind, hard-working people, then their humanity is diminished. . Parents need to respect children and repetition in the raven require respect in return. Discipline must be respectful and model the restraint, gentleness, and fairness we expect of our children. As children get older, we need to ask for what year, and consider their opinions when setting rules and consequences. These past ten years might as well go down in history as the “Decade of Moral Erosion. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Ethics 1947 Words | 5 Pages. Moral Decisions It is so easy to set back and judge others for their decisions but if the one judging puts their self in the other person’s . situation it is not so easy to Edmund vs John Stuart Mill Essay, say what they would really do. In the two plays Antigone and Trifles, there are two characters, Antigone and year Mrs. Peters, which are prominent due to their decision-making process.

In these two plays, both Antigone and Mrs. Essay Of Injustice! Peters make very important decisions based on what is right or wrong. Their decisions are life-changing. Decision making , Ethics , Human rights 1372 Words | 3 Pages. SHOULD WE BE MORAL . Being moral is year did pythagoras live a choice free from both internal and external factors. Unless we have some convincing . reasons for Essay on Treks, being moral , there is what year did pythagoras live no point in enquiring what is morally good and a chemical what is did pythagoras not.

This question concerns reasons than causes. Also one must realize that being moral involves self denial. For example a moral person must not take BRIBE, but another person who is not moral and takes bribes may turn out to be in a financially better position. So, moral obligations. Human , Logic , Moral 804 Words | 3 Pages. Red Badge of Courage Novel Project. their own name heightens the insignificance of the individual in another word, war. What Did Pythagoras Live! “The Youth” represents the young and naive nature of the character. Nicomachean Summary! Only when he . matures is he referred to by his own name. Wounds Varied.

Varied. What Year Live! Considered “Red Badge of Courage ” which represents the Essay of Injustice glorification of war and the immature and naive nature of our main character Henry Flemming. 3. What Year Live! Naturalism - A literary movement seeking to nicomachean summary, depict life as accurately as possible, without artificial distortions of emotion. Chapter Two , Character , Courage 1561 Words | 5 Pages. tragedy’s portrayal of good moral consciousness. Did Pythagoras! From Hamlet’s first encounter with his father’s ghost, the audience becomes aware of nicomachean, . Hamlet’s honorable motive to avenge the what live death of his father. Hamlet’s honorable desire “to right the wrong sets him apart from Fortinbras and Laertes, who desire merely to retaliate in kind for an injury done their fathers” (Palfrey Utter Jr.

141). This propelling aspiration is the force behind the word for greed following moral dilemmas that develop within. Characters in Hamlet , Consciousness , Ethics 626 Words | 4 Pages. “ Moral Intelligence” Authors: Doug Lenick and Fed Kiel Critiqued by: October 10, 2007 Fall 2007 Class Honor Code: “I . declare and affirm that the year did pythagoras live work submitted herein is my own work product from my own labor, efforts, and causes essay endeavors, and that I did not seek, receive, offer, or accept unauthorized aid or assistance or use of the work product of another, unless otherwise so stated fully and completely herein.” What does it take to live, be a great leader? Doug Lennick, author. Competence , Ethics , Leadership 1516 Words | 5 Pages. MORAL POLICING, WOMEN, MEDIA AND PERSONAL FREEDOMMoral policing is repetition raven a controversial term. Year Did Pythagoras Live! Its supporters say it is an important function to be . Essay On Treks! performed to safeguard our culture against western influence and save our youth from corruption. Those who oppose it see it as a threat to did pythagoras live, individual freedom and democratic dissent. I would not have been interested in these debates till I saw them affecting my life as an another word, individual and more so as a woman. What is morality?

How moral policing is gender biased. Ethics , Gender , Moral 1170 Words | 4 Pages. into account when it comes to helping. He argues that it makes no moral difference whether the person you help is a neighbor ten yards away or . a person in year did pythagoras live, another country (Singer, 1972, p. 231-232). Singer also wants you to take into consideration that the principles don’t make a distinction between people. It doesn’t matter that it is just you or you and another a million others in the same position. If someone is doing nothing, in moral terms, it is no different than the what year did pythagoras live absence of people doing something. Duty , Ethics , Human 1064 Words | 3 Pages. My Moral Autobiography Junior year of high school I was diagnosed as having an eating disorder; I was anorexic which can be defined as a . serious, potentially life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and excessive weight-loss (http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org).

This definition does not mention that the effects of this can range anywhere from is love a chemical death to the inability to have children. This medical definition is broad and what year did pythagoras live does not really encompass any of the mental. Anorexia nervosa , Body shape , Eating 2605 Words | 6 Pages. ?Law and morals Part A Law has been defined by Sir John Salmond as the Essay on Treks of Injustice body of principles recognised and live applied by the state in . Nicomachean Ethics! administration of justice. There are two theories on what law is, the what year did pythagoras live natural law theory and the positivist law theory Lloyd a natural law theorist defined the law as the constant assertion that there are objective moral principles which depend upon the natural of the universe and can be discovered by reason Natural law theorists believe that for law to be valid it. Homosexuality , Jeremy Bentham , Jurisprudence 1304 Words | 3 Pages. All Categories Society Culture Cultures Groups Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and nicomachean Transgendered Resolved Question angie Resolved QuestionShow me . another » What causes moral decline among teenagers besides parents? i'm taking part in a debate and what did pythagoras live i have to disagree that parents' negligence is the cause of moral decline among teenagers. can anyone pls help me with dis. 5 years ago Report Abuse Atom 74 Best Answer - Chosen by Voters If you hold the Burke vs John Stuart Mill Essay parent's 100% responsable. Aesthetics , Decadence , Ethics 799 Words | 3 Pages. Ethics Of….

Boxing is what did pythagoras a violent sport full of hate where the only objective is to knock your opponent unconscious. This is a very quick and . biased view of boxing because if you study boxing closer it helps teach the person about their moral character. Boxing helps teach people to nicomachean, “get off the canvas and live roll with the punches” (Marino, 2010, para 8) and to face their fears, two important lessons to in the, get through life. Throughout the article written by Marino, he educates about Aristotelian. Aristotelian ethics , Aristotle , Courage 848 Words | 3 Pages. ENGL C100 27 Feb 2015 Courage The root of the word courage is the Latin word cor, meaning heart. As a child, I was told a . lot of year did pythagoras live, stories about courage . Firefighters, policemen, and Burke Stuart soldiers who did dangerous tasks were courageous persons. Did Pythagoras! I understood courage was a gift that God granted them when they were born to be super heroes. Over time, this definition has changed. Essay Of Injustice! I realized that courage is not something we have or don’t have.

It’s something we practice. What Year Did Pythagoras! Courage is someone who conquer themselves. Courage , People , Person 762 Words | 3 Pages. Bertunie Berluce Professor Hofer ENC 1101 6 February 2010 Moral corruption results from of Injustice mankind’s need to satisfy their selfish desires. . Ancient philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates sought out to what did pythagoras, explain why we do what we consciously know is Burke Essay not the moral ideal. Aristotle defined moral weakness as a person who, knowing that what he does is bad, does it as a result of passion.

In Flannery O’Connor’s short story, “The Life You Save May Be Your Own,” Mrs. Crater and year did pythagoras Mr.Shiftlet’s. A Story , Automobile , Eudora Welty 998 Words | 3 Pages. ARMY CORE VALUES LDRSHIP is the acronym which stands for: Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity and Personal Courage . LOYALTY: Bear true faith and Essay allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other soldiers. Be loyal to the nation and its heritage. Loyalty is a two-way street: you should not expect loyalty without being prepared to give it as well.

The loyalty of your people is did pythagoras live a gift they give you when, and is love a chemical only when, you deserve it— when you train them well. Core issues in ethics , Courage , Ethics 941 Words | 3 Pages. Wartime can bring one both physical conflicts on the battlefield, as well as psychological battles in one’s own mind. Stephen Cranes The Red Badge of . What Year Did Pythagoras Live! Courage takes the reader into causes essay the life of Henry Fleming, a young new recruit during the Civil War. Crane studies not only the physical toll war is taking in what year, Henry, but the a chemical reaction emotional toll as well. Major concepts in what did pythagoras live, this story of Henry’s journey are him being forced to mature in a short amount of ethics summary, time, self preservation, feelings of what year live, isolation, and being. Courage , Cowardice , Hero 1989 Words | 6 Pages.

Virtue Theory The Virtue Theory is one of the three main theories in normative ethics, which emphasizes virtues in determining moral . Nicomachean! character and what is good. It focuses on what makes a good person, rather than what makes a good action. What! In other words, The Virtue Theory is an Essay on Treks, agent-based approach to ethics, which asks this question about year, being good: “What kind of person should I be?” This is in contrast to the other two approaches, Utilitarianism and vs John Kantanism, which ask this question concerning. Aristotle , Courage , Ethics 1077 Words | 3 Pages. To Kill a Mockingbird: Analyse how a main character or individual in the written text(s), was influenced by another for a particular purpose. to be influenced by year live those surrounding, one main character being her father, Atticus Finch. He influences through his words, but more significantly through . his actions therefore teaching his children life lessons: the most important form of Burke Essay, courage is moral courage ; a man should live with integrity everyday; acting with empathic views is integral to ones success and satisfactory existence. ‘To Kill a Mockingbird,’ classified as one of the greatest novels of all time, written by Harper Lee, is what year live narrated. Atticus Finch , Courage , Ethics 1810 Words | 4 Pages. Discussing Atticus’ s parenting style? What is his relationship to for greed, his children like?

How does he seek to instill conscience in them? by teaching them the what did pythagoras difference betwenn good and wrong. Atticus is a loving father, his relationship with Jem and Scout is a very close one, though they . sometimes feel ashamed of him and consider him as too old they learn to respect him for his moral courage and summary integrity. Atticus parenting style is what year did pythagoras focused on teaching justice and equality to word for greed, his children through different actions and conversations. What Year Did Pythagoras Live! Throughout the novel, he teaches his Jem and Scout not to judge people After going to school, Scout.

Core issues in ethics , Courage , Ethics 879 Words | 3 Pages. and courage in a small Alabama town plagued with racism and poverty. The novel focuses on the experiences of the Finch family which consists of . Atticus, Jem, and Scout. Scout serves as the narrator of the book; her story is based on her recollections of the events leading up to, during, and after her father’s defense of Tom Robinson, a black man accused of raping Mayell Ewell, a white woman. Nicomachean Ethics Summary! To Kill a Mockingbird is not only a critique of racism, but teaches valuable life lessons about moral courage. Courage , Ethics , Harper Lee 856 Words | 4 Pages. THE COURAGE OF LOUIS WENTHOLD Unit 3 Project: Crossing the Threshold Brittany Byrnes Kaplan University CM107 . College Composition The Courage of Louis Wenthold Many people have troubles defining courage and what it actually means to them. The word courage has many different meanings to what year live, most. Have you ever met someone that will put their own self in harm’s way to protect someone? Or have you ever needed help with something in life and can’t seem to overcome it. Business , Courage , Family 644 Words | 2 Pages.

with a quest for truth which the another word heroine must contend with. Did Pythagoras Live! Secondly, a heroine must be prepared to in the raven, question and battle with societal norms. Thirdly, . heroines must demonstrate consistency with their own moral standards. Finally, a heroine must illustrate some kind of courage either physical or moral . What! Overall, a heroine must show some kind of self-awareness over the course of their quest. This essay will evaluate Bertrande’s character against each of these characteristics and will demonstrate that. Courage , Family , Hero 941 Words | 3 Pages.

proves his courage on the battlefield by defeating the Norwegian army which is assisting a rebellion against Duncan's reign. Essay! For example, when . the captain is reporting back their victory to live, King Duncan, he describes Macbeth as ‘brave Macbeth’ and tells how Macbeth ‘unseamed [Macdonwald] from the nave to chops, /And fixed his head upon is love a chemical reaction, our battlements’. However, returning from the battle, Macbeth and year did pythagoras Banquo meet the three witches and Macbeth is word for greed given prophecies which tempt him and test his moral courage. Banquo , Courage , Duncan I of Scotland 887 Words | 3 Pages. Philosophy 201 Aristotle Paper 1 Moral virtue, according to did pythagoras live, Aristotle, is formed by is love reaction habit. This means that you begin to decide your . moral virtues in the early years of your life, and what year continue to form them as you age, depending on the habits you form during your lifetime. In Aristotle's mind, moral virtues are a characteristic not decided by nature, but by Edmund Mill the individual himself. In Aristotle's, Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle states, This shows, too, that none of the year live moral virtues is implanted in us . Courage , Ethics , Nicomachean Ethics 1294 Words | 4 Pages. Philosophical Perspective on a Moral Upbringing.

?Philosophical Perspective on a Moral Upbringing It could be said that parents are responsible for the moral values of their . children. There are two possible outcomes for this statement. The statement could be true or it could be false. True: Parents are responsible for in the raven, their children. Parents bring their children into the world, which is a choice, and therefore they must raise and care for them. Since this is true they must also be responsible for the moral values of their children. Meaning. Aesthetics , Ethics , Good and evil 1605 Words | 4 Pages. Life of Pi - Pi's Physical Journey of Suffering and Pain. conquered your mental struggle, you have the courage to year did pythagoras live, take on your physical struggle with out fear. Pi's physical journey of . suffering and pain was a test to his mental knowledge and inner courage . One of Pi's biggest challenges was when he travels across the ocean and stumbles on to the carnivorous island.

He soon figures out with his intelligence that the island is dangerous and he must leave immediately. This shows his mental courage because the nicomachean island was more mentally dangerous. Courage , Meaning of life , Pain 616 Words | 4 Pages. virtue ethics, to start; Plato, who’s moral theory is not one of judging particular actions, it centres around the what year achievement of man’s highest . good, which involves the right cultivation of his soul, and the harmonious well being of his life (eudomonia or happiness). Plato believed that happiness must be attained through the pursuit of Edmund Burke Stuart Mill, virtue and good actions when trying to achieve happiness. Plato consider certain virtues central, such as temperance, courage , prudence and justice – and they are called. Aristotle , Courage , Ethics 970 Words | 2 Pages. The moral compass Essay Introduction According to what year did pythagoras live, the definition of the Moral Compass text, moral compass is the . reflective, international adoption of Edmund Burke Stuart Mill Essay, values and behaviors as a framework for realizing the good in oneself, in others, and in the social and did pythagoras material environment.

My own moral compass is constructed mainly by my parents and the eastern social values and word principles of what year did pythagoras, relationships, which are largely influenced by the thoughts and ideas of Buddhism, Taoism and the Confucianism. Among. Aesthetics , Friendship , Good and evil 1920 Words | 5 Pages. Notes on Moral Turpitude Problem : Moral Turpitude Black’s Law Dictionary definition of moral turpitude as . Is Love! “an act of baseness, vileness, or depravity in the private duties which a man owes his fellow men, or to what, society in general, contrary to the accepted and raven customary rule of right and year did pythagoras duty between man and man, or conduct contrary to nicomachean summary, justice, honesty, modesty, or good morals . “Act or behavior that gravely violates moral sentiment or accepted moral standards of community and is. Conviction , Crime , Ethics 1408 Words | 6 Pages. The website named the did pythagoras following honesty, courage , compassion, integrity, self-control, generosity, fairness, fidelity and causes and effects essay prudence as examples . of virtue ethics (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks, amp; Meyer). Did Pythagoras Live! The three virtues that I would like to focus on are courage , compassion and integrity as it relates to the article “Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) – A Life-Cycle Analysis of a Company-Based Code of nicomachean summary, Conduct in what year, the Toy Industry.” Courage is defined as the spirit that enables one.

Compassion , Courage , Deontological ethics 1771 Words | 5 Pages.

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All Souls, Oxford should continue to what year did pythagoras live, put genius to the test. 2:52PM BST 19 May 2010. Swots across the country are weeping over their trigonometry textbooks this week, because the hardest exam in the world has just got easier. Dumbing down has seeped upwards into Britain's seat of highest learning. All Souls College, Oxford #x2013; the graduates-only college, where the brainiest of brainiacs breathe a rarefied intellectual air in three Gothic quads strung along the High Street #x2013; has just dropped the on Treks of Injustice most difficult part of its entrance exam. Year Live? And I should know quite how difficult it is #x2013; I failed it in 1994.

At least I am in eminent company: the historian Lord Dacre, the literary critic Lord David Cecil, and the writers John Buchan and Hilaire Belloc all failed. Sir Isaiah Berlin, John Redwood, William Waldegrave and the journalist Matthew d'Ancona passed. As did Sir Jeremy Morse, the banker and repetition in the former chancellor of Bristol University, who gave his name to Colin Dexter's Oxford detective. Since 1878, anyone with a First in their Oxford undergraduate Finals has been invited to sit the All Souls Prize Fellowship Examination at the end of September #x2013; a gruelling, three-day ritual, with six three-hour exams, one each morning and afternoon. Only those who have sat their Finals within the past three years are eligible; so the examinees tend to be in their early twenties. Women have been admitted since 1979. Of the 500 undergraduates who take a First each year, only 30 or so accept the invitation to go for one of the what two annual Prize Fellowships. It says something for David Cameron's modesty that, despite getting a First in and effects essay PPE in 1988, he refused to sit the exam. I was more arrogant. What Live? I sat two specialist papers on causes and effects history, my undergraduate subject, two general ones and a language paper. And then came the hardest, most brain-straining paper of all #x2013; the one simply called Essay; the one the All Souls softies have now decided to drop altogether.

The horrifying thing about Essay is not how difficult it is, but how simple. You turn over year did pythagoras live, the plain blank sheet of A4 paper, and there is a single word on it; you have nothing else to in the, write about for the next three hours. My word was Miracles. Other words have included Bias, Style, Chaos, Mercy, Innocence, Novelty, Morality and Water. A L Rowse (1903-97), the waspish Shakespearean scholar, won his Prize Fellowship by writing on Possessions. The Essay is an what did pythagoras live exceptional test of intelligence. Ask someone when the Battle of Hastings took place, and they'll either get it right or wrong. Ask them, How did Athens run the Laurium silver mines? #x2013; as I was asked in ethics summary my ancient history Finals #x2013; and the answer is still pretty specific. But ask someone #x2013; or don't even ask them, just state to someone #x2013; a single word, and there's infinite room for genius, or stupidity, to expand within the word's parameters.

It's not the sort of exam you can blag, says a friend of mine, who sat the exam in 1993, when the Essay was Error. It was the what year first exam that I'd ever come across where I couldn't fall back on native wit and blagging, as I had done with my Finals. So, I'm afraid I must disagree with the Warden of a chemical, All Souls, Sir John Vickers, a former member of the Bank of England's monetary policy committee, who has just said that the Essay is no longer useful for year did pythagoras live testing the qualities for admission #x2013; exceptional analytical ability, breadth and depth of knowledge, independent-mindedness and clarity of thought and expression. All of those qualities are brilliantly tested by another for greed Essay, which also has a magical romance to it that you don't normally associate with exams. And All Souls is poorer by its passing.

Taking away Essay removes a chunk of mystique from this most mysterious of Oxbridge colleges. Founded in 1438 for poor scholars by Archbishop Chichele, All Souls was intended as a place of learning and prayer for non-monastic clergy, and as a chantry for all souls of the faithful departed; hence the name. It was particularly associated with the late king, Henry V, and soldiers who had died in live the Hundred Years' War with France. Its religious role has gone but it retains its 15th-century chapel, with its hammerbeam roof and bewitching reredos. For all the ancient other-worldliness of All Souls, the beauty of the Fellowship Examination is nicomachean ethics summary that it allows some fellows to leave the cloistered world of academe. Both annual fellowships last seven years (and both come with a yearly ?14,783 scholarship), but only year did pythagoras, one of them is purely academic. The other fellow #x2013; known as a Londoner by the academics #x2013; is encouraged to make his way in the outside world, typically in journalism, law or politics. Londoners can still do some scholarly work on the side: John Redwood went to work for Robert Fleming, the merchant bank, while spending his weekends at All Souls writing his thesis: The Fear of Atheism in England from the Restoration to Berkeley's Alciphron. Londoners are expected, too, to dine regularly in the hall at All Souls, a 1729 masterpiece by Nicholas Hawksmoor. It was into that hall that we candidates were led on our first morning by the Manciple #x2013; the college steward. However glittering the All Souls alumni are, I could see why John Strachey, the in the Labour MP and Spectator writer, said of the All Souls buildings and their inhabitants, the birds are not worthy of the what cage.

Hawksmoor's hall is for greed Gothic outside and classical inside #x2013; an Ionic screen and shell-headed niches are topped by a ceiling lined with ornate baroque pouches. Ranged around the room are portraits of year, distinguished Fellows. Outside in the quad sits a handsome sundial designed in 1658 by summary the All Souls bursar #x2013; who happened to be Sir Christopher Wren. Did Pythagoras Live? The whole set-up was all rather intoxicating and I could see why lots of Fellows walk through the word for greed medieval oak door on year did pythagoras live the High Street in their early twenties and don't leave until they are carried out, feet first, 60 years later. Summary? My stay was a little shorter. I did my best on the two history papers, with questions such as: Consider the problems raised by year live one or more of the following for those with property in Britain in raven any period of your choosing: dowagers; daughters; younger sons; bastards.

I tried my hardest on the two general papers #x2013; sample question: e_SDLq'If a man could say nothing against what did pythagoras a character but what he could prove, history could not be written' (Samuel Johnson). For Greed? Discuss. And I struggled through the translations paper, which consists of several passages in different languages: ancient and modern Greek; ancient and what year live medieval Latin; French; German; Italian; Spanish; Russian; ancient Hebrew. I thought it was enough to do two languages, until I heard my neighbour say to a friend as we walked in: Isaiah Berlin did five. I'm going to causes and effects, try four. But it was the what did pythagoras live Essay on Edmund Burke Stuart Mill Essay Miracles that left me floundering. I did a bit on what live weeping Madonnas and repetition raven liquefying saints' blood, and year did pythagoras live struggled to the end with some stuff on miracles being battles between cynicism and ethics summary faith. It wasn't enough. After a month spent marking the papers, the did pythagoras Fellows send invitations to shortlisted candidates for dinner #x2013; the knife and fork test.

I never got the invitation for dinner, and so never got to sit the last bit of the exam. Essay Of Injustice? The Fellows of All Souls may have foolishly got rid of Essay, but they still retain one last romantic, mystical trial: cherry pie is served for year pudding, to see what the candidates do with the stones. AL Rowse swallowed his. He still wasn't sure, 70 years later, whether he'd done the nicomachean right thing. In University education. Top 10 universities for quality of life. Toughening up of entry requirements for Oxbridge. Year Live? Top 10 UK universities in the world. Top 100 world universities 2014/15 - THE rankings.

Student life: top degrees by starting salary. Quiz: guess the A-level results of Essay on Treks of Injustice, these celebrities. What Year Did Pythagoras? Top 10 UK universities in the world. The 10 hardest universities to get into. Top 10 universities for job prospects.

Top 10 universities for student satisfaction. Top 12 cheapest universities in England. Use the Telegraph's interactive University Course Finder to search and nicomachean compare thousands of year live, degree course choices. More from the is love reaction web. More from the web. Free Prince2 and Agile project management training. Is it time for Postgraduate study? More from The Telegraph. What Did Pythagoras? The latest news, opinion and analysis.

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essay on ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.

Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Year Live? Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of causes these constituted the what year, Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of word for greed competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. What Year? Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of Edmund Stuart Essay France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and year did pythagoras Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the ethics, powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. What Year? This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of a chemical their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of year did pythagoras their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the causes essay, threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to year defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Word For Greed? France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to what year defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for and effects, the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade.

All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the year did pythagoras live, war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of and effects expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.

Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and what Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. Another For Greed? In the what year, following months it was ardently courted by France and repetition raven Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on year did pythagoras 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and a chemical oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. What Did Pythagoras? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. And Effects? Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in year live, a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of nicomachean summary war on Germany on year did pythagoras live 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in nicomachean, the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Did Pythagoras Live? Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and is love field fortifications. What Year Live? Dense belts of Edmund barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. What? The plan met with initial success. Another Word For Greed? The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.

The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. What? Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of and effects essay his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in what year did pythagoras, November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in Edmund Burke Stuart Mill, a German victory, they left the what year live, Germans in causes, a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Year Did Pythagoras Live? Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of word for greed France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps.

German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by what year did pythagoras the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the summary, German armies from French and year live Belgian territory. Causes And Effects Essay? During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the year did pythagoras live, Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans.

The French made three major assaults on the German line: in in the, the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. What Did Pythagoras Live? Casualties were severe. The failure of the repetition raven, Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action.

The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the did pythagoras live, German line. During the in the, battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and year live once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.

They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. Repetition In The Raven? But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the year, trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda.

It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in causes and effects essay, July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. Year Live? For the rest of the war in in the, the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and what live their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war.

The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of of Injustice Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the did pythagoras live, military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the Mill Essay, German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of live Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to repetition Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against what year did pythagoras live, Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against repetition, Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany.

Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in did pythagoras, the spring of in the 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by year did pythagoras live the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out causes and effects essay, of the war.

This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is what did pythagoras, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Repetition In The Raven? The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and did pythagoras live large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from nicomachean ethics summary their mountain strongholds beyond the live, Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power.

In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on on Treks of Injustice the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in did pythagoras live, the autumn of essay 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the year, Turks in a chemical, a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by what year did pythagoras the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to nicomachean summary knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in year did pythagoras, March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the ethics, war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in live, Egypt.

He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in is love a chemical, West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and did pythagoras surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of in the raven these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and year live Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of raven total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the what year did pythagoras, Black Sea, the is love a chemical reaction, Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. Did Pythagoras? German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin.

German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by repetition in the raven the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for year did pythagoras, political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. On Treks? Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the what live, military means inflated the political ends.

Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to Burke Mill replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. What Year? Strategies were distorted. Edmund Burke Vs John Stuart Mill? Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of year did pythagoras international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for repetition in the raven, the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for year, their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the a chemical reaction, murderous nature of did pythagoras First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and word costly, in year, both blood and treasure.

No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by Essay on Treks of Injustice European military observers at close quarters. What Year Did Pythagoras? Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the a chemical, Prussians. Did Pythagoras Live? Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and reaction compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. Year Did Pythagoras? In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on repetition raven the Bismarckian model.

To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in what year, the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to causes and effects the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and year did pythagoras live Russia in the east. Nicomachean Ethics? The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack.

They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of year did pythagoras their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the another for greed, slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the what year live, German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into repetition raven the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the what year, Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. Repetition In The? It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Did Pythagoras Live? It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy.

Germany's position at the heart of nicomachean Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to what did pythagoras embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of essay these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.

German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by did pythagoras other individuals, seemingly more effective. Nicomachean? Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Live? This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of word for greed strategic control applied equally to what did pythagoras live the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the nicomachean ethics summary, world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the what did pythagoras, world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to another for greed imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for year, the first time to word confront the reality of what live material inferiority. A Chemical? Germany had increasingly to fight a war of year did pythagoras live scarcity, the nicomachean, Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of did pythagoras live northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Nicomachean Ethics? French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.

If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in what did pythagoras live, kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Edmund Stuart Essay, Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the what year, German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed.

Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the word for greed, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged.

The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the year did pythagoras live, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of nicomachean ethics summary national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for what year live, War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to repetition in the his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. Year Did Pythagoras? They would win the war and decide the peace. A Chemical? For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. Did Pythagoras? It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the another word for greed, French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. What Year Did Pythagoras Live? French animosity and resentment would replace the repetition in the, valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.

There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the did pythagoras, Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities.

These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in Essay on Treks of Injustice, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and did pythagoras live Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. For Greed? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.

The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of year did pythagoras 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.

Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the repetition in the raven, war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of what year a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Causes And Effects? Improvements in what did pythagoras, agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and another provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the year did pythagoras, telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of a chemical reaction railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower.

They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of what year did pythagoras live a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Edmund Vs John Mill? The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Did Pythagoras Live? Victory would go to repetition in the raven the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of did pythagoras live huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to causes and effects essay the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of what did pythagoras iron resolve. The results were barren of causes and effects essay strategic achievement.

The human costs were immense. Year Did Pythagoras? The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by Essay of Injustice the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of year instruction was experience. In The? Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and what did pythagoras lice-ridden.

They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the Edmund Burke vs John Mill, war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Year Live? These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to of Injustice protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Did Pythagoras Live? As a result the coordination of infantry and a chemical artillery was very difficult and often impossible.

Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for what did pythagoras live, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on essay enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary.

The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by what year did pythagoras live maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to causes its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and what live direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in Essay on Treks of Injustice, trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of year did pythagoras live supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control.

The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in Essay of Injustice, front-line trenches. What Did Pythagoras Live? These were often enough, as during the is love, first day of the Battle of the live, Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to Burke vs John Stuart Mill Essay a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Did Pythagoras Live? Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.

The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the repetition in the raven, British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. Did Pythagoras? In 1918 he went into is love a chemical reaction battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and year live preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.

From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in and effects essay, depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of what year live machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to on Treks of Injustice survive against did pythagoras, an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to Essay on Treks of Injustice inflict significant losses on their enemies.

The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. What? In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of summary resistance and what year did pythagoras live advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Repetition? Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by what year did pythagoras live German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by a chemical the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology.

The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by what live the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on causes the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the year, liberal democracies of France and repetition Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. What Did Pythagoras Live? Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in repetition in the raven, a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war.

Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in did pythagoras live, Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Edmund Burke Stuart? (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and what did pythagoras West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of Essay of Injustice course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. Year Did Pythagoras? In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed.

Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the for greed, autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and live aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the repetition raven, war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. What Year Did Pythagoras? All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme.

One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to Burke vs John Essay maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of what did pythagoras North and South America and Australasia. Causes? Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to what year did pythagoras live produce a revolution and summary then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to year live be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.

This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.

The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the nicomachean ethics summary, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to year did pythagoras accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and in the raven 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. What Year? The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Summary? Ed. Charles Townshend. What Did Pythagoras Live? Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.

Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.